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LIBRARY 

OF THE 

ARNOLD ARBORETUM 




HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



The Gardens' Bulletin 

Singapore 




NATIONAL PARKS BOARD 

Singapore Botanic Gardens Cluny Road Singapore 259569 Tel: 4741165 Telefax: 4754295 



THE GARDENS' BULLETIN 



The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore publishes papers on plant taxonomy (including revisions), 
horticulture, phytogeography, floristics, morphology, anatomy and related fields with 
emphasis on plants in the West Malesian region. 



EDITORIAL BOARD 



Dr Ruth Kiew 
(Editor) 

Singapore Botanic Gardens 



Dr R.T. Corlett 
University of Hong Kong 
Hong Kong 



Dr T.W. Foong 
(Assist. Editor) 
Singapore Botanic Gardens 

Dr S.C. Chin 

Singapore Botanic Gardens 

Dr MJ.E. Coode 
Royal Botanic Gardens 
Kew, U.K. 



Dr M.C. Roos 
Rijksherbarium 
Leiden, Netherlands 

Dr E. Soepadmo 

Forest Research Institute Malaysia 
Kepong, Malaysia 

DrW.K.Tan 

Singapore Botanic Gardens 



The Gardens' Bulletin is published twice yearly by the National Parks Board, Singapore. 
Neither the National Parks Board nor the Editorial Board is responsible for the opinions or 
conclusions expressed by the contributing authors. 



The annual subscription for the Gardens' Bulletin is Singapore $100.00 including 
postage. Overseas subscribers are required to make payment in the form of bank drafts or 
international money orders in Singapore currency payable to National Parks Board, 
Singapore. 

Instructions for contributing authors are found on the inside backcover. 



The Gardens' Bulletin 

Singapore 

VOL. 49 (Part 1) June 1997 ISSN 0374-7859 

CONTENTS 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, E.E.L. Seah, A.H.B. Loo and AH Ibrahim 

Additions to the flora of Singapore, III 1 

Teo, S.P. 

Root hemi-parasitism in Malayan Olacaceae 7 

Tan, H.T.W., M.F Choong, K.S. Chua, A.H.B. Loo, Hj. Samsuri Hj. Ahmad, 
E.E.L. Seah, I.M. Turner and J.W.H. Yong 

A botanical survey of Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 15 

Kiew, R., S. Madhavan and Hamsah Selamat 

Baccaurea scortechinii distinct from B. parviflora (Euphorbiaceae) 37 

Ali Ibrahim, P.T. Chew, Hj. Sidek Kiah and Joseph T.K. Lai 

New records of plant species from Singapore 49 

Loo, A.H.B. and H.T.W. Tan 

The angiosperm flora of Singapore, Part 6. Caesalpiniaceae 55 

Choo, J.P.S. and H.T.W. Tan 

The angiosperm flora of Singapore, Part 7. Limnocharitaceae 107 

Lim S.P. and R. Kiew 

Gazetteer of limestone localities in Sabah, Borneo Ill 

Turner, I.M. and J.W.H. Yong 

The botany of the islands of Mersing District, Johore, Peninsular Malaysia. 

1. The plants and vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 119 

BOOK REVIEW 

Soepadmo, E. and K.M. Wong. The Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak 143 

Vol. 1 and 2. I.M. Turner 



Date of Publication: 10 May 1998 



Published by 

National Parks Board 
Singapore Botanic Gardens 
Cluny Road 
Singapore 259569 



Printed by Oxford Graphic Printers Pte Ltd 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 1-5. 



Additions to the Flora of Singapore, III 1 . 

I.M.Turner 1 , H.T.W.Tan 1 , E.E.L. Seah 1 , A.H.B. Loo 1 and Ali bin Ibrahim 2 

School of Biological Sciences 
National University of Singapore 
Singapore 119260 

Singapore Botanic Gardens 
Cluny Road 
Singapore 259569 

Abstract 

Eleven species are added to the flora of Singapore as presented by Turner (1993). 
Lecanopteris sinuosa (Polypodiaceae) was mistakenly omitted from that list. Records of 
Dischidia complex (Asclepiadaceae), Grenacheria fulva (Myrsinaceae) and Microcos 
globulifera (Tiliaceae) were also overlooked. Mangifera paludosa (Anacardiaceae) has 
recently been described from a pre-War Singapore collection. Combretum tetralophum 
(Combrebaceae), Korthalsia flagellars (Palmae), Pouteria linggensis (Sapotaceae) and 
Sindora coriacea (Leguminosae) are native species that have newly been collected for the 
first time in Singapore. The successful naturalization of Justicia procumbens (Acanthaceae) 
and Macroptilium atropurpureum (Leguminosae) is reported. 

Introduction 

In this series of articles on the flora of Singapore, we have taken the list 
published by Turner (1993) as the reference point for the composition of 
the flora. Subsequently species found growing wild in Singapore that are 
not included in the list have been reported. In the current paper eleven 
more species are added to the list. Nomenclature follows Turner (1995) 
wherever possible. 

1. Combretum tetralophum C.B. Clarke Combretaceae 

Large liana or scandent shrub with spikes of small sweet-smelling flowers. 
The fruits are ovoid to 4 cm long, with four distinct, longitudinal, sharp- 
edged wings or ridges. The species is characteristic of lowland river margins 
and back mangroves and is probably dispersed by water. It occurs from 
Indo-China to the Pacific, though it is absent from the Philippines (Exell, 
1954 p. 541). Its occurrence in Singapore is therefore not surprising, but it 



'Continued from Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 42 (1994) 131-135. 



2 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



has eluded detection for many years, until recently when it was collected in 
fruit on Pulau Semakau (H.T.W. Tan etal S1005, 27 September 96 SINU). 

2. Dischidia complex Griff. Asclepiadaceae 

A twining epiphyte with pitcher-like leaves (Rintz, 1980 p. 97) found in 
lowland forest. It is known from the south of the Malay Peninsula and 
Borneo. At least one Singapore collection is known {EJ.H. Comer s.n., 
January 1933, Jurong SING), but it is probably exinct today. 

3. Grenacheria fulva (Mez) Airy Shaw Myrsinaceae 

A climbing shrub (in Stone 1989 p. 279 as Embelia fulva Mez) it was once 
collected {EJ.H. Comer SFN 26195, 5 March 1933 SING) from the swamp 
forests that covered Jurong before development of the area took place. 
The species is endemic to the Malay Peninsula and Borneo, and is probably 
now extinct in Singapore. 

4. Justicia procumbens L. Acanthaceae 

Small prostrate herb, creeping, to 60 cm long, with small, terminal spikes 
of zygomorphic flowers which have pale pink-purple corollas with darker 
markings. It is included in Mohamad Soerjani et al. (1987 p. 28) under its 
synonym Rostellularia sundana Bremek. It was first collected in Singapore 
by Ahamed (16 October 1954) along Mandai Road. It still occurs in that 
area (I.M. Turner 93-6, 3 January 1993, Mandai Lake Road SINU), but 
recently appears to have become more common. It is a frequent weed of 
short mown grass around Holland Village, and has also been seen along 
Alexandra Road. It appears to be another example of a weedy species 
filling an empty niche in urban Singapore. 

5. Korthalsia flagellaris Miq. Palmae 

Large clustering rattan to 40 m in length readily distinguished by its almost 
unarmed stems, and bright green leaflets which are covered with a red- 
brown indumentum on the lower surface (Dransfield, 1979 p. 42). The 
leaflets are sessile, but the base of the lamina is tightly, longitudinally 
folded forming a flexible petiole-like connection to the rachis. Dransfield 
reports this species as being confined to peat swamp forest. In Singapore it 
has recently been found in the Nee Soon swamp forest (D.H. Murphy s.n., 
23 December 1994 SING; I.M. Turner & P.P. Kumar 18 SINU), which is 



Additions to the Flora of Singapore, HI 1 



3 



freshwater swamp with relatively little peat accumulation. Korthalsia 
flagellaris is found in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo, and has 
presumably been overlooked in Singapore until now. 

6. Lecanopteris sinuosa (Wall, ex Hook.) Copel. Polypodiaceae 

This species was mistakenly omitted from the Singapore species list (Turner 
1993). It is the commoner of the ant-inhabited epiphytic ferns to be found 
in Singapore (Johnson, 1977 p. 50 under the synonym Phymatodes sinuosa 
(Wall, ex Hook.) J.Sm.). 

7. Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC.) Urban Leguminosae 

A twining perennial herb with hairy trifoliate leaves that appear distinctly 
silvery and with very dark purple, almost black, flowers. It is native of 
tropical America, but has been used throughout the tropics as a forage and 
soil-binding plant (Jones & c t Mannetje, 1992 pp. 155-156). It has become 
quite common on reclaimed land on Pulau Tekong where it was collected 
recently (H.T.W. Tan et al T2033, 20 August 1996 SINU). It seems highly 
likely that this species will join its congener Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) 
Urban as a frequent colonist of dry open waste ground in Singapore. 

8. Mangifera paludosa Kosterm. Anacardiaceae 

This species was recently described by Kostermans (Kostermans & 
Bompard, 1993 p. 41) with Corner SFN 26193 collected from Jurong as the 
holotype. It is a tree to 30 m tall found in freshwater swamp forest, often 
behind mangroves and is known from the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 
There can be little doubt that the species is no longer to be found in 
Jurong. 

In the same work, Kostermans also described Mangifera subsessilifolia 
based on a Singapore type collected at Bukit Timah. However, this species 
is known only from sterile material. Kostermans also referred a sterile 
collection from the former swamp forest at Mandai Road (Kiah s.n. 24 
July 1940 SING) to Mangifera magnifica Kochummen, a species not 
previously recorded from Singapore. We leave final acceptance of these 
species to whomever prepares the account of the Anacardiaceae for the 
Angiosperm Flora of Singapore. 

9. Microcos globulifera (Mast.) Burret Tiliaceae 

This small tree of lowland forest (Kochummen, 1972 p. 397 under the 



4 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



synonym Grewia globulifera Mast.) has escaped the notice of compilers of 
the Singapore flora. It has been collected in the Botanic Gardens' Jungle 
(Hassan SFN 36267 25 April 1939 SING) and Bukit Timah (Ngadiman 
SFN 36416 4 May 1939 SING). The species is endemic to the Malay 
Peninsula. 

10. Pouteria linggensis (Burck) Baehni Sapotaceae 

A tree to 20 m tall found on rocky shores and occasionally inland (Ng, 
1972 p. 436 under the synonym Planchonella linggensis (Burck) Pierre). 
The species is found throughout Malesia and was recently discovered on 
Pulau Sakijang Pelepah (Lazarus Island) (H.T.W. Tan et al LI001 SING). 

11. Sindora coriacea (Baker) Prain Leguminosae 

A big forest tree reaching more than 30 m in height, distinguished from 
the other Malay Peninsula species of the genus by its shiny leaflets which 
are glabrous beneath and its unarmed pods. The pods shown in Fig. 1 were 
photographed in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve by Ali Ibrahim, but no 
herbarium specimen was made. Later he collected a fertile specimen from 
Mandai, Central Catchment Nature Reserve (Wong, Ali & Chew 16, 23 
Nov 1992 SING). A further sterile collection (A.H.B. Loo et at 83, 29 Oct 
1996 SING) was gathered at Bukit Kallang. The species is common 




Figure 1. Pods and seeds of Sindora coriacea found in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, 
Singapore. 



Additions to the Flora of Singapore, III 1 



5 



throughout Malaya and also occurs in Sumatra and Borneo. Presumably 
its apparent rarity and confusion with other species of Sindora have hitherto 
led to it being overlooked in Singapore. 

References 

Dransfield, J. (1979) A manual of the rattans of the Malay Peninsula. 
Malayan Forest Records 29: 1-270. 

Exell, A.W. (1954) Combretaceae. Flora Malesiana, series 1 4: 533-589. 

Johnson, A. (1977) A Student's Guide to the Ferns of Singapore. Second 
Edition. Singapore University Press, Singapore. 

Jones, R.M., & 't Mannetje, L. (1992) Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC.) 
Urban. Pp. 155-157 in PROSEA Plant Resources of South-East Asia 4 
Forages (eds: L. 't Mannetje & R.M. Jones), Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 
Wageningen. 

Kochummen, K.M. (1972) Tiliaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 2: 392-412. 

Kostermans, A.J.G.H., & Bompard, J.-M. (1993) The Mangoes. Academic 
Press, London. 

Mohamed Soerjani, Kostermans, A.J.G.H., & Tjitrosoepoma, G. (1987) 
Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka, Jakarta. 

Ng, F.S.P. (1972) Sapotaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 1: 388-439. 

Rintz, R.E. (1980) The Peninsular Malayan species of Dischidia 
(Asclepiadaceae). Blumea 26: 81-126. 

Stone, B.C. (1989) Myrsinaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 4: 264-284. 

Turner, I.M. (1993) The names used for Singapore plants since 1900. 
Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore 45: 1-287. 

Turner, I.M. (1995) A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya. Gardens' 
Bulletin, Singapore 47: 1-757. 



I 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 7-13. 



Root Hemi-parasitism In Malayan Olacaceae 

Stephen P. Teo 

Sarawak Herbarium 
Sarawak Forestry Department 
93600 Kuching 
Sarawak 

Abstract 

Six species of Olacaceae found in the Malay Peninsula were investigated for parasitism. Root 
parasitism was observed only in Olax psittacorum and Ximenia americana var. americana but 
not in Strombosia javanica, Scorodocarpus borneensis, Ochanostachys amentacea and 
Erythropalum scandens. Haustoria of the two parasitic species were found attached to a 
number of hosts indicating that they are non-host specific. Anatomy of the haustoria revealed 
that the suckers of the haustoria form a cup-like structure around the stelar region of the host 
roots. 

Introduction 

Hemi-parasitism is known to occur among families of the Santalales. 
Nevertheless, the extent to which parasitism occurs within the Olacaceae 
has not been comprehensively investigated (Fineran, 1991). Cronquist (1981) 
stated that most genera of Olacaceae are parasitic, while Whitmore (1973) 
in his revision of Malayan Olacaceae, remarked that none is parasitic. 
Corner (1988) mentioned that the roots of Ximenia americana are parasitic 
including on roots of its own kind, while Backer and Bakhuizen (1965) 
stated that the Olacaceae of Java are sometimes parasitic. However, there 
is insufficient evidence to substantiate these claims. A review of literature 
shows that the only published work on parasitism in Olacaceae reported 
from Malesia is that on Olax imbricata from the Philippines (Herbert, 
1922). Fineran (1991) cited geographical inaccessibility as the reason why 
the Olacaceae was poorly studied. Field work was therefore undertaken in 
Peninsular Malaysia to give a better understanding of the occurrence of 
hemi-parasitism in the Olacaceae. 

Materials and Methods 

Parasitism can only be demonstrated by the presence of haustoria and 
their penetration into the host roots. In the case of root parasites, the 
haustoria occur below the soil surface so are not easy to locate. Indeed, a 



8 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



cangkul and shovel were used to unearth the roots. The root systems were 
then examined carefully for the presence of haustoria and host plants to 
which the haustoria were attached were identified as far as possible. Plants 
in their natural habitat as well as those cultivated at Rimba Ilmu (Botanic 
Garden), University of Malaya were used in the study. The following is the 
list of plants studied. 
Erythropalum scandens Blume. 

Bukit Lagong Forest Reserve, Selangor; Telok Cempedak, Kuantan, Pahang 
(KLU 041342, KLU 041344, KLU 141349) 

Ochanostachys amentacea Masters 

Rimba Ilmu, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 

(KLU 041331, KLU 041333, KLU 041345) 

Olax psittacorum (Willd)Vahl. 
Kampung Sungai Baging, Trengganu 
(KLU 041337, KLU 041338) 

Strombosia javanica Blume. 

Bukit Lagong Forest Reserve, Selangor 

(KLU 041341, KLU 041340, KLU 041339) 

Scorodocarpus borneensis (Baill.) Becc. 
Bukit Lagong Forest Reserve, Selangor 
(KLU 041045, KLU 041382, KLU 041329) 

Ximenia americana L. var. americana Defilipps 
Blue Lagoon, Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan 
(KLU 041339, KLU 041340, KLU 041341) 

Haustoria found during the study were preserved in 50% FA A (50% 
ethanol:formalin:acetic acid 18:1:1) for further morphological and 
anatomical investigations. They are also deposited in the University of 
Malaya Herbarium (KLU). Seedlings of species not already represented in 
Rimba Ilmu were brought back and grown there. 

Results and Discussion 

Only two of the six species of Olacaceae studied were found to be hemi- 
parasitic, namely Olax psittacorum (Fig 1) and Ximenia americana var. 
americana (Fig 2). 



Root Hemi-parasitism In Malayan Olacaceae 



9 




Figure 2. Haustorium of Ximenia americana var. americana invading the root of Pongamia 
pinnata. 



10 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Haustoria and host 

Both primary and secondary haustoria occur in Olax psittacorum and 
Ximenia americana var. americana. The haustoria totally or partially encircle 
the host roots depending upon whether the roots are small or large, 
respectively. The haustoria of Olax psittacorum are more or less dome- 
shaped while those of Ximenia americana var. americana are more flattened 
and disc-like during the early stage but later become dome-shaped. 
Haustoria size ranged from about l-20mm while their colour depends on 
age. In general, the haustoria darken with age. This may be due to an 
accumulation of phenolic compounds. 

The haustoria of both Olax psittacorum and Ximenia americana var. 
americana invade the roots of other plants of their own species in the same 
way that Herbert (1922) reported in Olax imbricata. This further confirms 
the remark made by Corner (1988) for Ximenia americana var. americana. 
Self-parasitism probably arose out of the need to increase the efficency in 
the use of limited water resource, especially when the hemi-parasites are 
found in a hostile environment. In general, it appears that both species are 
non-host specific judging from the number of hosts they can attack (Table 
1). However, only the roots of dicotyledons are attacked by the haustoria. 



Table 1 : Plants invaded by the haustoria of Olax psittacorum and Ximenia 
americana. 



Olax psittacorum 


Ximenia americana 


Aglaia sp. (Meliaceae) 
Tetracera sp. (Dilleniaceae) 
Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) 
Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) 


Pongamia pinnata (Leguminosae) 
Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae) 



Anatomical sections of the haustoria of Olax psittacorum and Ximenia 
americana var. americana reveal that the sucker at the distal end of the 
vascular core forms a structure that is appressed to the stele of the host 
roots (Fig. 3 & 4). The suckers are only connected to the xylem but not the 
phloem. The location and arrangement of the conducting vascular cells in 
both Olax psittacorum and Ximenia americana var. americana are essentially 
similar. In Olax psittacorum, only one strand of the conducting tissue links 
the host to the parasite and occupies a central position in the sucker whereas 
for Ximenia americana var. americana, there exist two strands of conducting 
tissue and both strands are at the periphery. 



Root Hemi-parasitism In Malayan Olacaceae 



11 





Figure 4. Cross-section of the haustorium of Ximenia americana var. Americana. H-haustorium; 
Hr - host root; L-lateral root; V-vascular core; S-Sucker;T-vascular core 



12 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (J 997) 



Correlation between parasitism and habitat in Olacaceae 

The occurrence of parasitism among different families and orders 
demonstrates that this mode of nutrition has evolved independently many 
times during the evolution of angiosperms (Nickrent and Franchina, 1990; 
Fineran, 1991). Parasitism might have developed among different taxa due 
to similar habitat conditions. This might occur where certain nutrients and 
water were scarce, and especially under circumstances favourable for the 
development of organic connections between plants (Fineran, 1991). 

The two parasitic species, Olax psittacorum and Ximenia americana 
var. americana, thrive well in dry, sandy coastal areas while the non-parasitic 
members are found in humid evergreen forest. Most hemiparasitic taxa of 
the Santalales prefer somewhat open habitats with extreme conditions, e.g. 
dry or harsh (Fineran, 1991). Parasitism may have arisen out of the need to 
adapt in a water-deficient habitat. In fact, the dry, sandy habitat along the 
coast of the Malay Peninsula supports a high number of other parasitic 
plants from different famillies, namely, Champereia manillana (Opiliaceae), 
Dendrotrophe spp. (Santalaceae) and Cassytha filiformis (Lauraceae). 

The fact that there is only connection between the haustorium and 
the xylem in both Olax psittacorum and Ximenia americana var. americana 
coupled with their occurrence in only dry habitats demonstrates that hemi- 
parasitism is one of the adaptive features that may increase the efficiency 
in the use of water. This is also found to be true in other hemi-parasites 
(Pate et al, 1990a, 1900b; Fineran, 1991). However, there is no co- 
relationship between type of root system and life-form with hemi-parasitism 
as suggested by other workers such as Pate et al. (1990a, 1990b) and Fineran 
(1991). For example, Olax psittacorum has a shallow and extensive root 
system and is a scrambling shrub, while Ximenia americana var. americana 
has a root system quite deeply rooted and it is a tree up to 5 m high. 

Within the haustoria of root parasites, there are unusual xylem 
conducting cells known as graniferous (granule-containing) tracheary 
elements (Fineran, 1985). Fineran (1985) noted that the nature of the 
granules in Olacaceae is not consistent and varies from protein in one 
genus to starch in another. On the other hand, the nature of granules in 
other families of the Santalales is very consistent. Fineran suggested that 
this showed that the Olacaceae is an unnatural family and with different 
treachery elements, root parasitism has arisen at least twice in the family. 

Conclusion 

This study shows that only some species of the Olacaceae are hemi-parasitic, 
namely Olax psittacorum and Ximenia americana var. americana, and that 
they are non-host specific and that self-parasitism occurs. 



Root Hemi-parasitism In Malayan Olacaceae 



13 



Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to Dr. N. Prakash, University of New England, Australia, 
Dr. Noorma Wati Haron and Prof. Haji Mohamed Abdul Majid, Head of 
Botany Department, University of Malaya for their comments. Thanks are 
also due to Mr. Mohamed Akip and Mr. Joseph Pao for the illustrations 
provided. This paper reports part of an MSc thesis submitted to the 
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, which was supervised by Dr. Noorma 
Wati Haron. Financial grants from Vote F 150/94 (University of Malaya) 
and R&D 1-07-04-049-04 (Malaysian government) are gratefully 
acknowledged. 

References 

Backer, C. A. and R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java. 2: 
63-64. 

Corner, E J.H. 1988. Wayside Trees of Malaya. The Malayan Nature Society 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 3rd edition. 

Cronquist, A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering 
Plants. Columbia University Press, New York. 

Fineran, B. A. 1985. Graniferous treachery elements in haustoria of root 
parasitic angiosperms. Bot. Rev. 51: 389-441. 

Fineran, B. A. 1991. Root hemi-parasitism in the Santalales. Bot. Jahrb. 
Syst. 113: 277-308. 

Herbert, D. A. 1922. Parasitism of Olax imbricata. Philipp. Agric. 11(1): 
17-18. 

Nickrent, D. L. and C. R. Franchina. 1990. Phylogenetic relationships of 
the Santalales and relatives. J. Mol. Evol. 31: 294-301. 

Pate, J. S., J. Kuo and N. J. Davidson. 1990a. Morphology and anatomy of 
the haustorium of the root hemiparasite Olax phyllanthi (Olacaceae), 
with special reference to the haustorial interface. Ann. Bot. 65: 425-436. 

Pate, J. S., S. R. Pate, J. Kuo and N. J. Davidson. 1990b. Growth, resource 
allocation and the haustorial biology of the root hemiparasite Olax 
phyllanthi (Olacaceae). Ann. Bot. 65: 437-449. 

Whitmore, T. C. 1973. Olacaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya. 2: 299-307. 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 15-35. 



A Botanical Survey of Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 

H.T.W.TAN 1 , M.F. CHOONG 2 , K.S. CHUA 1 , A.H.B. LOO 1 , HAJI 
SAMSURI BIN HAJI AHMAD 3 , E.E.L. SEAH 4 , 1.M. TURNER 5 and 

J.W.H.YONG 6 

'School of Biological Sciences, The National University of Singapore, 
Singapore 119260, Republic of Singapore 
2 Blk lll,Teck Whye Lane, #12-616, Singapore 680111, Republic of Singapore 
3 Botanic Gardens, 1 Cluny Road, Singapore 259569, 
Republic of Singapore 
4 35 Namly Crescent, Singapore 267550, Republic of Singapore 
5 Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Avenue, 
Cambridge MA 02138, USA 
^Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, 
Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, GPO Box 
475, ACT 2601, Australia 

Abstract 

A total of 249 wild vascular plant species (15 ferns, 1 gymnosperm, 233 angiosperms) were 
collected on a succession of trips between 1991 and 1993 to the Sungei Buloh Nature Park. The 
current flora includes mangrove and beach or coastal forest species but the majority are early 
successionals, native and exotic weeds and species associated with cultivation. Earlier collections 
from the Herbarium, Singapore Botanic Gardens, dating from the late 1880s to the early 1900s 
were also included and these totalled 76 ( 1 club moss, 7 ferns and 68 angiosperms). The original 
flora was very different and consisted mainly of lowland, or beach or coastal forest, and 
mangrove species. The great change in species composition and the high number of weedy 
species in the current flora reflect major man-made changes to the environment. Combining 
both historical and recent collections, the wild vascular plant flora of Sungei Buloh Nature Park 
totals 318 species (1 club moss, 21 ferns, 1 gymnosperm and 295 angiosperms). 



Introduction 

Sungei Buloh Nature Park, including Pulau Buloh, consists of 87 ha of 
land (Fig. 1). A botanical survey was conducted to provide baseline 
information for future reintroduction or introduction programmes. 

Site 

Sungei Buloh Nature Park is situated in the north-western coast of 
Singapore island (Nl°42'53.5" E103 o 43'30.8 M ). The proposal to set up this 
park and its infrastructure was approved by the Master Plan Committee 



16 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 




Figure L Maps of Singapore and Sungei Bui oh Nature Park. Above left, position of Singapore 
in relation to Peninsular Malaysia; above right, map of Singapore showing the position of 
Sungei Buloh Nature Park; bottom, Sungei Buloh Nature Park. 



on the 29th March 1990 and the park was officially opened on the 6th 
December 1993. 

The park is a wetland area and consists of three main parts: the 
reserve proper, the Visitor Centre area and Pulau Buloh, an island north 
of the reserve area (Fig. 1). The river, Sungei Buloh Besar separates the 
reserve proper from the Visitor Centre. Both Pulau Buloh and the Visitor 
Centre area consist mainly of mangrove as well as man-made brackish and 
freshwater ponds in the reserve proper. The site was marked for 
preservation by the Singapore government as it is used by large numbers 
of coastal birds, including the black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



17 



nycticorax), common greenshank (Tringa nebularia), common redshank 
(Tringa totanus), curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea), grey heron (Ardea 
cinerea), marsh sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis), Pacific golden plover 
(Pluvialis fulva) and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus). 

History of Land Use 

According to the 1890 Straits Settlement Government Gazette Reports of 
the Botanic Gardens, the Sungei Buloh area was a forest reserve from 17th 
April 1890 and "Consists entirely of mangrove swamp". However, this 
"area of 1,128 acres, 3 roods (sic) and 18 poles, more or less" (approximately 
457 ha) ceased to be a forest reserve on 4th April 1938 (Straits Settlement 
Government Gazette, 1938). 

When first designated as forest reserve in 1890, the area appeared to 
be entirely mangrove. Records as to when prawn and fish ponds were 
constructed are not available but with the development of farms, the 
mangroves were cleared. Native species were replaced by cultivated species 
for consumption by the farmers or their livestock. The farms and ponds 
were abandoned in 1989, when the Government took over the site, after 
which time early successional and weedy species invaded the area. 

Methods 

The present survey consisted of collection trips made on 22nd May, 30th 
August and 7th October 1991 and 27th September and 13th October 1993. 
The park was divided into sectors where the collecting teams concentrated 
their efforts. Representative specimens of all wild species, whether sterile 
or not, were collected and made into herbarium specimens which were 
deposited in the Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, The National 
University of Singapore (SINU). Specimens were identified by comparison 
with descriptions in floras or recent revisions, as well as with named 
specimens in the Herbarium, Singapore Botanic Gardens (SING). 
Historical collections from Sg. Buloh at SING were examined. 
Nomenclature and habitat data mostly follow those of Turner (1995). 

Observations and Discussion 

A total of 249 wild vascular plant species were collected in the survey 
(Appendix 1) and included 15 ferns, 1 gymnosperm (Podocarpus 
polystachyus) and 239 angiosperms. 



18 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Most plants are characteristic of a highly disturbed environment. 
The Sg. Buloh area presumably became highly disturbed when the prawn 
and fish farms were established and the mangrove cleared and earth 
excavated to create the ponds. Not much regeneration could take place as 
the farmers would have to keep the mangroves out of the ponds and the 
bund areas. Together with human settlement, there would be planting of 
vegetable crops, fruit trees, spice, flavouring and ornamental plants. 

When the government took over the site in 1989, soil was brought in 
from other parts of Singapore. The latter is the most likely seed source for 
the large number of exotic and native weed species, such as Ageratum 
conyzoides, Kyllingia polyphylla, Panicum maximum and Pityrogramma 
calomelanos. Exotic pioneer tree species include Acacia auriculiformis, 
Manihot glaziovii, Muntingia calabura and Spathodea campanulata. If left 
unchecked, Acacia auriculiformis may dominate those areas which are not 
flooded at high tide. 

Weed species considered native also make up a significant part of 
the flora and include Centella asiatica, Eulophia graminea, Imperata 
cylindrica and Vernonia cinerea. 

Secondary forest would have developed after the clearance of the 
original primary forest. Its species include Alstonia angustiloba, Melastoma 
malabathricum, Trema spp. and Vitex pinnata. 

The beach or coastal forest and mangrove species are probably 
remnants of the original forest. Mangrove and its components include 
Acrostichum spp., Bruguiera spp., Hibiscus tiliaceus and Rhizophora spp. 

Species escaped or persisting from cultivation include vegetables such 
as Coccinia grandis, Ipomoea batatas and Manihot esculenta, fruit trees 
such as Annona muricata, Artocarpus heterophyllus , A. integer, Carica 
papaya, Durio zibethinus and Psidium guajava, spice or flavouring plants 
such as Murraya koenigii and Pandanus amaryllifolius, as well as ornamental 
plants such as Celosia argentea, Dieffenbachia seguine, Tabebuia rosea and 
Vernonia elliptica. 

Based mostly on the conservation status ascribed by Turner et al. 
(1995), 2 endangered species (Cassine viburnifolia and Podocarpus 
polystachyus), 6 vulnerable species, 58 rare species and 90 common species 
were collected. For the exotic species, 66 are naturalized and 28 associated 
with cultivation, making up about 37.8% of the total vascular plant flora. 
This indicates the great disturbance in the area. 

There are 12 fern families, each with only one species except for the 
Pteridaceae with three, and the Polypodiaceae with two. The single 
gymnosperm is Podocarpus polystachyus. Angiosperms dominate the park. 
The largest ten families, in descending order are: Gramineae (25 species), 
Papilionaceae (16), Compositae (15), Cyperaceae (12), Euphorbiaceae (11), 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



19 



Mimosaceae (9), Rubiaceae (9), Convolvulaceae (8), Moraceae (7) and 
Verbenaceae (7). Again, weed and secondary forest species are the main 
representatives of these families. Other families had six or fewer species 
and 37 families had only one species each. 

Appendix 2 lists the plants collected by H.N. Ridley, J.S. Goodenough, 
and L.C. Corporal between 1889 and 1911. This list is by no means 
representative of the whole area as they comprise opportunisitic collections 
in the area. A total of 76 vascular plant species were recorded with one 
club moss (Lycopodiella cernua), 7 ferns and 68 angiosperms. 

The species they collected are very different from those found in the 
recent survey. Of the 76, only 6 species were recollected, Excoecaria 
agallocha, Gynochthodes sublanceolata, Hoya verticillata var. verticillata, 
Ilex cymosa, Lygodium microphyllum and Oxyceros longiflora. Many 
species previously collected are native climbers, epiphytes, lowland beach 
or mangrove forest species. Beach or coastal forest species include 
Asplenium macrophyllum, Dischidia benghalensis, Garcinia hombroniana, 
Hoya verticillata var. verticillata and Oncosperma tigillarium. 

Most climbers were not recollected except for Cayratia mollissima, 
Gynochthodes sublanceolata, Lygodium microphyllum and Oxyceros 
longiflora. The change in the flora reflects the change in the environment. 
Tall trees would have had to be present to support the epiphytes and 
climbers. Probably these were logged during land clearance and 
Oncosperma tigillarium trunks were probably used for kelong poles. It is 
interesting to note that the largest family in the historical collections, the 
Orchidaceae with 27 species, has not a single species left today. Most 
orchids are epiphytes of lowland forest or mangrove trees. All except 
Bulbophyllum membranaceum and Claderia mayeriana are now extinct in 
Singapore and both the surviving species are considered vulnerable to 
extinction (Turner et al., 1995). At present, only the weedy, terrestrial 
orchid, Eulophia graminea is present. All the epiphytic members of the 
Melastomataceae are also now extinct at Sg. Buloh and Medinilla crassifolia 
and Plethiandra sessiliflora are also extinct in Singapore. 

Mangrove tree species are not among the earlier collections made by 
Ridley, Corporal or Goodenough, thus it is difficult to confirm if mangroves 
were present then. (Excoecaria agallocha is the closest to a mangrove tree 
species in their collections.) They were possibly discriminating collectors 
and ignored the mangrove trees, which were plentiful in other parts of the 
island. Indirect evidence of the existence of mangroves are the orchid 
species that were collected from the Sg. Buloh area and which are associated 
with mangroves. These include Bulbophyllum concinnum, Bulbophyllum 
restrepia, Dendrobium spegidoglossum, Dendrobium spurium, Eria neglecta 
and Flickingeria xantholeuca, all of which are now extinct in Singapore 



20 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



(Turner ex a/., 1995). 

The name 'Sungei Buloh* is also very probably indicative of the 
presence of bamboo (Malay, buloh). No native bamboos were collected 
by past collectors or in this survey. (Bambusa vulgaris, a relic of cultivation, 
was the only bamboo collected in the recent survey.) As mentioned earlier, 
the past collectors may have ignored species which were common elsewhere 
on the island. Bamboos also tend to be sterile most of the time because of 
their generally infrequent flowering and collectors often collect only 
flowering and/or fruiting material. 

Based on the recent survey of Singapore bamboos by Chua. Soong 
and Tan (1996) there are only four native bamboo species: Gigantochloa 
ligulata Gamble. Schizostachyum gracile (Munro) Holttum. Schizostachyum 
latifolium Gamble and Soejatmia ridleyi (Gamble) K.M. Wong. 
Gigantochloa ligulata is a recent new record for Singapore. It is unlikely 
to have grown at Sungei Buloh eighty years ago. Soejatmia ridleyi is an 
inland forest species, not associated with coastal areas and is currently 
found only at the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Singapore (Chua, Soong 
and Tan. 1996). Both Schizostachyum gracile and Schizostachyum latifolium 
may have grown at Sg. Buloh as both are common and grow at forest 
edges or riversides. Unfortunately, both are now extinct in Singapore. 

Based on the conservation status ascribed by Turner et al (1995) to 
species in Singapore, of the historical collections 30 species are now extinct. 
3 endangered. 9 vulnerable. 27 rare, one common and two unknown. Three 
are endemic species and are found only in Singapore and Peninsular 
Malaysia: Plethiandra sessiliflora. Rhopaloblaste singapurensis and 
St achy ph ryn ium griffith ii. 

In terms of diversity, the current flora appears larger. This can be 
explained in two ways. Firstly, the survey was comprehensive and all 
species were collected, whereas the early collectors presumably concentrated 
only on the fertile material or what was of interest to them. Secondly, 
many species are weeds and are the result of disturbance caused by the 
prawn and fish farming and the construction of the park. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to the staff of the Sungei Buloh Nature Park and National 
Parks Board for their help and cooperation. We would also like to express 
our appreciation to the Director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, for the 
use of the herbarium facilities and to the Director, National Archives of 
Singapore, for the use of maps and records. Last but not least, we would 
like to express our appreciation to Chew Ping Ting, Kong Hui Ai, M. 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



21 



Matthews and Y.C. Wee for their help in the survey and to K. S. Chua for 
drawing the figure. This research was partially supported by The National 
University of Singapore research grants RP 880301, RP 930325 and RP 
960362. 

Literature Cited 

Chua, K.S., Soong, B.C. and Tan, H.T.W. 1996. The Bamboos of Singapore. 
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute; Singapore, pp. 1-71. 

Turner, I.M. 1995. A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya. Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore. 47: 1-757. 

Turner, I.M., Tan, H.T.W., Ali bin Ibrahim and Corlett, R.T. 1995. Preliminary 
status of the vascular plants native to Singapore: seed plants. In: Tan, 
H.T.W., ed. A Guide to the Threatened Plants of Singapore. Singapore 
Science Centre; Singapore, pp. 118-151. 

Wee, Y.C. 1995. Preliminary status of the vascular plants native to Singapore: 
ferns and fern allies. In: Tan, H.T.W. ,ed. A Guide to the Threatened Plants 
of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre; Singapore; pp. 115-1 18. 

Appendix 1. Recent collections from Sungei Buloh Nature Park. Conservation 
status: C = common; N = endangered; R = rare; V = vulnerable; A = naturalized 
exotic species (aliens); S = species escaped or persisting from cultivation. 



Pteridophyta 

Adiantaceae 

A Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link; K.S. 
Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 506 

Aspleniaceae 

C Asplenium nidus L.; M.F. Choong VC 65; 
P.T.Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1053 

Azollaceae 

A Azolla pinnata R.Br. ssp. asiatica 
R.M.K.Saunders & K.Fowler; K.S. Chua, 
M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3114 



Blechniaceae 

C Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.f.) Bedd.; 
K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 
513; M.F. Choong VC 12 

Davalliaceae 

C Davallia denticulata (Burm.f.) Mett.; I.M. 
Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1045 

Dennstaedtiaceae 

V Pteridium esculentum (G.Forst.) 
Cockayne; K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS 
& WYC 505; K.S. Chua, M. Mathews, 
H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 3060 



22 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Gleicheniaceae 

C Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw.; 
K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 504 

Oleandraceae 

C Nephrolepis auriculata (L.) Trimen; Haji 
Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA.66; K.S. Chua 
& Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 477; M.F. 
Choong VC 60 

Parkeriaceae 

C Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn.; 
K.S. Chua, M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 
Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3113 

Polypodiaceae 

C Pyrossia lanceolata (L.) Farwell; 
P.T.Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1056 

C Pyrossia piloselloides (L.) M.G.Price; Haji 
Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA.56; I.M. 
Turner & M.F.Choong SB 1095; I.M. 
Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1037; I.M. 
Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1097 

Pteridaceae 

C Acrosdchum aureum L.; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1033; M.F. 

Choong VC 84; P.T. Chew, H.A. Kong & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 1033 
C Acrostichum speciosum Willd.; K.S. Chua, 

M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3000; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 13; P.T. Chew, 

H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 13 
C Pteris vittata L.; K.S. Chua, M. Mathews, 

H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong 

SB 3030 

Schizaeaceae 

C Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br; I.M. 
Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1090 



PlNOPHYTA 

Podocarpaceae 

N Podocarpus polystachyus R.Br, ex Endl.: 
P.T. Chew, H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1016; Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA.25 

Magnoliophyta 

Acanthaceae 

R Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl; Haji Samsuri 
bin Haji Ahmad SA.70; I.M. Turner & 
M.F. Choong SB 1086; P.T. Chew. H.A. 
Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1021; P.T. Chew, 
H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 16 

R Acanthus ilicifolius L.; Haji Samsuri bin 
Haji Ahmad SA.44; I.M. Turner & M.F. 
Choong SB 1085 

R Acanthus volubilis Wall.; K.S Chua & Y.C. 
Wee 487; M.F.CHoong VC 79 

A Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson ssp. 
gangetica; M.F. Choong VC 124; M.F. 
Choong VC 126 

C Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson ssp. 
micrantha (Nees) Ensermu; Haji Samsuri 
bin Haji Ahmad SA 43; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 
Wee CKS & WYC 516; M.F. Choong VC 
55; P.T. Chew, H.S. Kong & J.W.H Yong 
SB 1003 

Aizoaceae 

R Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L.; K.S. 
Chua, M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan. I.M. 
Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3058 

Amaranthaceae 

A Amaranthus caudatus L.; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1025 
A Amaranthus spinosus L.; M.F. Choong SB 

2 

A Celosia argentea L.; M.F. Choong VC 118 

Anacardiaceae 

S Mangifera indica L.; M.F. Choong VC 138 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



23 



Annonaceae 

S Annona muricata L.; K.S. Chua & Y.C 
Wee 483; Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad 
SA 54 

Apocynaceae 

C Alstonia angustiloba Miq.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3011 
A Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don; K.S. 

Chua, M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3079 
R Cerbera sp.; I.M. Turner & M.F. Choong 

SB 1035 

Aquifoliaceae 

R Ilex cymosa Blume; Haji Samsuri bin Haji 
Ahmad SA.71; K.S. Chua, M. Mathews, 

H. T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 3061 

Araceae 

S Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent.; P.T. 
Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1064 

C Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott; M.F. 

Choong VC 110; M.F. Choong VC 116; 

M.F. Choong VC 135 
S Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq.) Schott in 

Wiener Z. Kunst; K.S. Chua, M. 

Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3081 
A Pistia stratiotes L.; K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee 

CKS & WYC 572; K.S. Chua, M. 

Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3078 

Araliaceae 

S Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) Harms; 

I. M. Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1047 

Asclepiadaceae 

R Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr.; Haji 
Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA. 57; I.M. 
Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1096 



C Dischidia nummularia R.Br.; K.S. Chua, 
M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 
Si J.W.H. Yong SB 3050 

V Finlaysonia obovata Wall.; K.S. Chua, M. 
Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3004; M.F. Choong VC 
123; P.T. Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H 
Yong SB 1055 

R Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G.Don var. 
verticillata; K.S. Chua, M. Mathews, 
H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 3086 

V Tylophora flexuosa R.Br.; Haji Samsuri 
bin Haji Ahmad SA.30; P.T. Chew, H.A. 
Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1020; P.T. 
Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1068 

Avicenniaceae 

C Avicennia alba Blume; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 
Wee CKS & WYC 532; M.F. Choong 
VC 84; M.F. Choong PB 7; P.T. Chew, 
H.A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1013 

R Avicennia officinalis L.; M.F. Choong PB 
1; M.F. Choong VC 77; P.T. Chew, 
H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1031; P.T. 
Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1065 

R Avicennia rumphiana Hallier f.; M.F. 
Choong VC 115; P.T. Chew, H.A. Kong 
& J.W.H Yong SB 14 

Bignoniaceae 

A Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3006 
S Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC; M.F. 

Choong VC 43; P.T. Chew, H.A. Kong 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 1062 

Bombacaceae 

S Durio zibethinus Murray; M.F. Choong 
VC 2; Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA 
69 



24 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1, (1997) 



Boraginaceae 

A Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3013; I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1080 
A Cordia cylindristachya (Ruiz & Pav.) 

Roem. & Schult; I.M. Turner & M.F. 

Choong SB 1081; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3014; M.F. Choong VC 

25 

C Heliotropium indicum L.; P.T. Chew, 

H. A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1050 

Butomaceae 

A Limnocharis flava (L.) Buch.; K.S. Chua 
& Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 495 

Caesalpiniaceae 

R Caesalpinia crista L.; M.F. Choong PB 9; 

M.F. Choong VC 33 
A Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3037 
R Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3107 
A Senna alata (L.) Roxb.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3080; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 10 
A Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby; 

K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, 

I. M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3069 

Cannaceae 

A Canna indica L.; Haji Samsuri bin Haji 
Ahmad SA. 20 

Capparaceae 

A Cleome rutidosperma DC; K.S. Chua & 
Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 523; M.F. 
Choong VC 3; M.F. Choong VC 54 



Caricaceae 

S Carica papaya L.; M.F. Choong VC 18: 
M.F. Choong VC 95 

Celastraceae 

N Cassine viburnifolia (Juss.) Ding Hou: 
K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan. 
I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3054 

Combretaceae 

R Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt: M.F. 
Choong PB 4; P.T. Chew, H.A.Kong & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 1014; P.T. Chew, H.A. 
Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1114 

R Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.; M.F. 
Choong VC 81; K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, 
H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 3029 

C Terminalia catappa L.; K.S. Chua. M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3067 

Compositae 

A Ageratum conyzoides L.; I.M. Turner & 

M.F. Choong SB 1066 
R Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC; K.S. Chua. 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3084 
S Complaya trilobata (L.) Strother.: K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3025 
A Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3085; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan. I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3105 
A Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) 

S.Moore; K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, 

H. T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 3065 

C Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Kong & J.W.H Yong SB 1008 
A Erechthites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC; 

K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, 

I. M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3016 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



25 



R Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.; P.T. 
Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1058 

A Mikania micrantha Kunth; I.M. Turner 

& M.F. Choong SB 1092; M.F. Choong 

VC 7;M.F. Choong VC 10; M.F. Choong 

VC 15; M.F. Choong VC 58 
R Pluchea indica (L.) Less.; P.T. Chew, 

H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1019; I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1083 
A Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3044 
A Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn.; K.S. 

Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 490 
C Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.; I.M. Turner 

& M.F. Choong SB 1088 
S Vernonia elliptica DC; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3087 
C Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC; Haji 

Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA. 37; K.S. 

Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 578; 

M.F. Choong VC 22; M.F. Choong VC 

57 

Convolvulaceae 

C Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3031 
S Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.; K.S. Chua, 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3071; M.F. Choong 

VC 127; M.F. Choong VC 130 
S Ipomoea digitata L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3026 
C Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.Br, ssp 

brasiliensis (L.) Ooststr.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3042 
S Ipomoea quamoclit L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3036 
S Ipomoea triloba L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 



J.W.H. Yong SB 3028; P.T. Chew, 

H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1042 
R Merremia hederacea (Burm.f.) Hallier f. 

forma barbata Ooststr.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3027 
C Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D.F.Austin & 

Staples ssp. tridentata: I.M. Turner & 

M.F. Choong SB 1052 

Cucurbitaceae 

S Coccinia grandis (L.) Voight; K.S. Chua, 
M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 
& J.W.H. Yong SB 3072; K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3073;K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3074 

Cyperaceae 

R Cyperus compactas Retz.; M.F. Choong 
SB 0001 

C Cyperus distans L.f.; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1049 
C Cyperus javanicus Houtt.; P.T. Chew, 

H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1028; P.T. 

Chew, H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 

1070; K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & 

WYC 478 

R Cyperus rotundus L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3093; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3094; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 

Wee CKS & WYC 534 
R Eleocharis ochrostachys Steud.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3048 
C Fimbristylis acuminata Vahl; K.S. Chua 

& Y.C Wee CKS & WYC 494 
R Fimbristylis cymosa R.Br.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3095 
R Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl; I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1074 
C Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich.; I.M. 



26 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1039 
A Kyltinga polyphylla Willd. ex Kunth; K.S. 

Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 485 
R Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla; 

K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 

480 

C Scleria lexis Retz.; K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee 
CKS & WYC 514; K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews. H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3106 

Dilleniaceae 

C Dillenia suffructicosa (Griff.) Mart.; K.S. 
Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 526; 
Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA.7; M.F. 
Choong VC113 

Elaeocarpaceae 

A Muntingia calabura L.; K.S. Chua. M. 
Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3068 

Euphorbiaceae 

C Breynia reclinata (Roxb.) Hook.f.; Haji 
Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA. 21; I.M. 
Turner & M.F.Choong SB 1077; P.T. 
Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1032 

A Euphorbia hirta L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Mathews. H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3075 
R Excoecaria agallocha L.; Haji Samsuri bin 

Haji Ahmad SA.14; Haji Samsuri bin 

Haji Ahmad SA.53; I.M. Turner & M.F. 

Choong SB 1071; P.T. Chew, H.A. Hong 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 1061; P.T. Chew, 

H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1017 
C Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) M.A.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3001 
S Manihot esculenta Crantz; I.M. Turner & 

M.F. Choong SB 1044; M.F. Choong VC 

13 

A Manihot glaziovii M.A.; K.S. Chua & 
Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 492/A 



C Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd.; K.S. 
Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 497: 
K.S. Chua, M. Mathews. H.T.W. Tan. 
I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3111: 
M.F. Choong VC 98: P.T. Chew. H.A. 
Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1007: P.T. 
Chew, H.A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1023 

C Phyllanthus urinaria L.; K.S. Chua. M. 

Mathews, H.T.W. Tan. I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3052 
A Ricinus communis L.: K.S. Chua. M. 

Mathews. H.T.W. Tan. I.M. Turner &l 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3012 
C Sapium discolor (Champ, ex Benth.) 

M.A.; M.F. Choong VC 36 
C Sebastiania chamalaea (L.) M.A.: K.S. 

Chua, M. Mathews. H.T.W. Tan. I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3017 

Flagellariaceae 

R Flagellaria indica L.: Haji Samsuri bin 
Haji Ahmad SA.16: Haji Samsuri bin 
Haji Ahmad SA. 59: I.M Turner & M.F. 
Choong SB 1101: K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee 
CKS & WYC 484; M.F. Choong VC 121: 
M.F. Choong VC 133 

Gramineae 

A Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P.Beauv.: 
I.M. Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1078 

S Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl.: 
M.F. Choong VC 131: M.F. Choong VC 
21 

A Chloris barbata Swartz: I.M. Turner & 
M.F. Choong SB 1075: M.F. Choong VC 
101 

C Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; K.S. Chua. 

M. Matthews. H.T.W. Tan. I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3023 
C Dactyloctenium aegxptium (L.) Willd.: 

K.S. Chua, M. Matthews. H.T.W. Tan. 

I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3024 
C Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler: K.S. 

Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 482: 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



27 



R Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers.; I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1107 
C Echinochloa colona (L.) Link; K.S. Chua 

& Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 479; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3091 
C Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.; K.S. Chua 

& Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 527; M.F. 

Choong VC 132 
C Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C.E.Hubb.; 

K.S. Chua, M. Matthews. H.T.W. Tan, 

I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3022; 

P.T. Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong 

SB 1054; P.T. Chew. H.A. Kong & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 1054 
C Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv.; P.T. 

Chew, H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 

1070; K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. 

Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 

3041; M.F. Choong VC 96 
C Ischaemum magnum Rendle: K.S. Chua, 

M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3019 
C Ischaemum muticum L.; K.S. Chua & 

Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 475; K.S. Chua, 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3090 
C Leptocliloa chinensis (L.) Nees; K.S. 

Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 474 
A Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka; K.S. Chua, 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3018 
C Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin.) Koning & 

Sosaf; I.M. Turner & M.F. Choong SB 

1069 

C Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy; K.S. 

Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 481 
A Panicum maximum Jacq.; I.M. Turner & 

M.F. Choong SB 1099; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3056; M.F. Choong VC 

100;M.F. Choong VC 134 
A Paspalum conjugation Berg.; I.M. Turner 

& M.F. Choong SB 1076; K.S. Chua & 

Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 529; M.F. 

Choong VC 52 



C Paspalum vaginatum Sw.; I.M. Turner & 
M.F. Choong SB1036; M.F. Choong VC 
40 

A Pennisetum polystachyon (L.) Schult.; 

K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, 

I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3020 
S Saccharum officinarum L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3108 
C Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br. var. 

flaccidus (Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp; 

Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA. 11; 

K.S. Chua, M. Mathews, H.T.W. Tan, 

I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3092 
C Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br. var. major 

(Btise) Baaijens; K.S. Chua, M. Mathews, 

H. T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 3021 

A Urochloa mutica (Forsk.) T.-Q.Nguyen; 

I. M. Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1098 

Guttiferae 

R Caloplnllum inophyllwn L.; K.S. Chua 
& Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 507 

Labiatae 

A Hyptis brevipes Poit.; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1067 
A Hyptis capitata Jacq.; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 

Wee CKS & WYC 511; M.F. Choong 

VC 6; M.F. Choong VC 14 
R Ocimum tenuiflorum L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3055 

Lauraceae 

C Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume; 
M.F. Choong VC 1 

Lecythidaceae 

R Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz; K.S. 
Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 
Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3088 



28 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Lemnaceae 

C Lemna perpusilla Torrey; K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3115 

Liliaceae 

S Cordyline terminalis Kunth; I.M. Turner 
& M.F. Choong SB 1043 

Loganiaceae 

C Fagraea fragrans Roxb.; I.M. Turner & 
M.F. Choong SB 1091; K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3002 

Loranthaceae 

C Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3082 
C Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) 

Tiegh.; K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. 

Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 

3010 

Lythraceae 

S Cuphea hyssopifolia Humb., Bonpl. & 
Kunth; K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. 
Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 
3101 

C Sonneratia alba J.J. Smith; P.T. Chew, 
H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1048 

Malpighiaceae 

V Tristellateia australasiae A.Rich.; K.S. 
Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 
Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3083 

Malvaceae 

R Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet; P.T. Chew, 
H.A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1024 

C Hibiscus tiliaceus L.; M.F. Choong VC 
38; M.F. Choong VC 50; M.F. Choong 
VC 82 

C Sida acuta Burm.f. ; Haji Samsuri bin Haji 
Ahmad SA.31; M.F. Choong VC 20; M.F. 



Choong VC 39; P.T. Chew, H.A. Hong 
& J.W.H. Yong SB 15; P.T. Chew, H.A. 
Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1063 

C Sida rhombifolia L.; M.F. Choong VC 
31; P.T. Chew, H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 15; P.T. Chew, H.A.Kong & J.W.H. 
Yong SB 1015; P.T. Chew, H.A.Kong & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 1063 

R Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex 
Correa; I.M. Turner & M.F. Choong SB 
1079; M.F. Choong VC 46; P.T. Chew. 
H.A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1011 

C Urena lobata L.; Haji Samsuri bin Haji 
Ahmad SA.36; K.S Chua & Y.C. Wee 
476; K.S. Chua, M. Matthews. H.T.W. 
Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 
3045; P.T. Chew. H.A. Hong & J.W.H. 
Yong SB 1018 

Melastomataceae 

A Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don; I.M. Turner 
& M.F. Choong SB 1046; M.F. Choong 
VC 9 

C Melastoma malabathricum L.; K.S. Chua 
& Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 517; M.F. 
Choong VC 19 

Meliaceae 

S Melia azedarach L.; K.S. Chua. M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3099 
R Xylocarpus granatum J.Konig; K.S. Chua 

& Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 502: M.F. 

Choong PB. 8; M.F. Choong VC 75; M.F. 

Choong VC 87 

Mimosaceae 

A Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth.: 
Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA.50: 
K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 
489; M.F. Choong VC 68 

A Acacia mangium Willd.; P.T. Chew. H.A. 
Kong & J.W.H Yong SB 1057 

A Adenanthera pavonina L.; K.S. Chua. M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3100 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



29 



R Entada spiralis Ridl.; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 

Wee CKS & WYC 531 
A Mimosa diplotricha C.Wright ex Sauvalle; 

M.F. Choong VC 5; M.F. Choong VC 

111 

A Mimosa pigra L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3047 
A Mimosa pudica L.; I.M. Turner & M.F. 

Choong SB 1100; M.F. Choong VC 66 
A Neptunia plena (L.) Benth.; K.S. Chua, 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3035; M.F. Choong 

VC 26 

A Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) I.Nielsen; 
K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, 
I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3053 

Moraceae 

S Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.; K.S. 

Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 528 
S Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.; M.F. 

Choong VC 8 
R Ficus apiocarpa Miq.;K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3103 
C Ficus benjamina L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3005 
C Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Blume; I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1041 
C Ficus grossularioides Burm.f.; P.T. Chew, 

H.A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 11 
C Ficus microcarpa L.f.;M.F. Choong VC 

108 

Myricaceae 

C Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham.; I.M. 
Turner M.F. Choong SB 1034 

Myrtaceae 

S Eugenia aquea Burm.f.; Haji Samsuri bin 

Haji Ahmad SA 55 
R Eugenia polyantha Wight; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3098 



V Eugenia rugosa (Korth.) Merr.; K.S. 
Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 
Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3104 

C Eugenia spicata Lam.; Haji Samsuri bin 
Haji Ahmad SA 58; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 
Wee CKS & WYC 509; P.T. Chew, H.A. 
Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1010 

S Psidium guajava L.; M.F. Choong VC 16 

Nepenthaceae 

C Nepenthes gracilis Korth.; K.S. Chua & 
Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 496 

Onagraceae 

C Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G.Don) Exell; 
K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 
492; P.T. Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H 
Yong SB 1026a 

Opiliaceae 

C Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr.; 
M.F. Choong VC 73 

Orchidaceae 

C Eulophia graminea Lindl.; K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3057 

Palmae 

V Calamus erinaceus (Becc.) Dransf.; K.S. 
Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 
Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3089 

A Cocos nucifera L.; M.F. Choong VC 136 
R Nypa fruticans Wurmb; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3008 

Pandanaceae 

S Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3076 
C Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.; K.S. Chua 

& Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 500 



30 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Papilionaceae 

A Aeschynomene americana L.; K.S. Chua, 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3015 
R Aeschynomene indica L.; I.M. Turner & 

M.F. Choong SB 1038 
R Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC; M.F. 

Choong VC 28 
A Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.; M.F. 

Choong VC 17; M.F. Choong VC 102 
A Centrosema pubescens Benth.; K.S. Chua, 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3034; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3062 
A Clitoria ternatea L.; M.F. Choong VC 34 
A Crotalaria pallida Aiton; K.S. Chua & 

Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 524 
R Dalbergia candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain; 

K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 

508; M.F. Choong VC 122; P.T. Chew, 

H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong S.Buloh 17; 

P.T. Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong 

SB 17 

C Denis trifoliata Lour.; Haji Samsuri bin 
Haji Ahmad SA.15; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 
Wee CKS & WYC 486; M.F. Choong 
VC 62; M.F. Choong VC 119; P.T. Chew, 

H. A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 12; P.T. 
Chew, H.A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1004 

C Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd.) DC; 
K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, 

I. M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3110; 
M.F. Choong VC 140 

C Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC; M.F. 

Choong VC 53; M.F. Choong VC 89 
S Erythrina variegata L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3009 
A Indigofera hirsuta L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3033; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 18 
A Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3063 



A Sesbania cannabina (Retz.j Poir.: K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3032: I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1103 

A Tephrosia noctiflora Bojer ex Baker: K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan. I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3046 

Passifloraceae 

A Passiflora foetida L.; Haji Samsuri bin 
Haji Ahmad SA.39: K.S. Chua & Y.C 
Wee CKS & WYC 522; M.F. Choong 
VC 47 

Polygaceae 

A Polygala panicidata L.; M.F. Choong VC 
56 

Pontederiaceae 

A Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms: K.S. 
Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan. I.M. 
Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3096 

Rhizophoraceae 

R Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume: Haji 
Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA.23: Haji 
Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA.52: K.S. 
Chua & Y.C. Wee CKS & WYC 535; 
M.F. Choong VC 30; P.T. Chew. H.A. 
Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1012 

R Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Saw: 
M.F.Choong PB 2; M.F. Choong VC 125: 
P.T. Chew, H.A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 1059 

R Ceriops tagal (Pers.) C.B.Rob.: I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1072: M.F. 

Choong VC 74; M.F. Choong VC 114 
R Rhizophora apiculata Blume: K.S. Chua 

& Y.C Wee CKS & WYC 499; M.F. 

Choong PB 11; M.F. Choong VC 86; M.F. 

Choong VC 129 
R Rhizophora mucronata Lam.: K.S. Chua. 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3007; M.F. Choong 

PB 10 

Rhizophora sp.; M.F. Choong VC 80 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



31 



Rubiaceae 

C Gynochthodes sublanceolata Miq.; Haji 
Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA. 62: I.M. 
Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1082; P.T. 
Chew, H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1002 

R Hedyotis dichotoma Koen. ex Roth; I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1105 
A Morinda citri folia L.; Haji Samsuri bin 

Haji Ahmad SA.63; I.M. Turner & M.F. 

Choong SB 1094; K.S. Chua & Y.C. Wee 

CKS & WYC 537 
R Oxyceros longiflora (Lam.) Yamazaki; 

Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA.12 
C Paederia foetida L.; K.S. Chua. M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3112; M.F. Choong VC 

44; M.F. Choong VC 48; M.F. Choong 

VC 49; M.F. Choong VC 59; M.F. 

Choong VC 63; M.F. Choong VC 69; 

M.F. Choong VC 70; M.F. Choong VC 

72; M.F. Choong VC 83; M.F. Choong 

VC 92;M.F. Choong VC 128 
R Psydrax sp. 10 of Tree Flora of Malaya 

V.4; P.T. Chew. H.A. Kong & J.W. H. 

Yong SB 1009 
R Scvphiphora hydrophvllacea Gaertn.f.; 

M.F. Choong VC 78 
R Timonius flavescens (Jack) Baker; P.T. 

Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 

1009 

R Uncaria lanosa Wall. var. glabrata 
(Blume) Ridsdale; K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3059 

Rutaceae 

R Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) 

T.G.Hartley; K.S Chua & Y.C. Wee 525; 

K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, 

I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3049 
S Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.; I.M. 

Turner & M.F. Choong SB 1109 

Sapindaceae 

R Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch.; K.S 



Chua & Y.C. Wee 491; M.F. Choong VC 
24; P.T. Chew, H.A. Hong & J.W.H. 
Yong SB 1005 

Sapotaceae 

R Pouteria obovata (R.Br.) Baehni; P.T. 
Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 
1031 

Scrophulariaceae 

A Scoparia didcis L.; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 
Wee CKS & WYC 521; K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3077 

Solanaceae 

C Physalis minima L.: I.M. Turner & M.F. 

Choong SB 1027; K.S Chua & Y.C. Wee 

501: K.S. Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. 

Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 

3043; M.F. Choong PB. 12; P.T. Chew, 

H.A. Hong & J.W.H. Yong SB 1027; P.T. 

Chew, H.A. Kong & J.W.H. Yong SB 

1030; SB 1024 
A Solatium nigrum L.; Haji Samsuri bin 

Haji Ahmad SA.18; K.S. Chua & Y.C. 

Wee CKS & WYC 493; P.T. Chew, H.A. 

Kong & J.W.H Yong SB 1026 
A Solatium torvum Sw.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3064 

Sonneratiaceae 

C Sonneratia alba J.J.Smith; M.F. Choong 
PB 5; M.F. Choong PB 6; M.F. Choong 
VC 76 

Tiliaceae 

C Triumfetta tomentosa Bojer; I.M. Turner 
93-102 

Typhaceae 

A Typha angustifolia L.; K.S. Chua, M. 
Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & 
J.W.H. Yong SB 3070 



32 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Ulmaceae 

C Trema cannabina Lour.; K.S. Chua & 

Y.C Wee 579; P.T. Chew, H.A. Kong & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 1029 
C Trema tomentosa (Roxb.) Hara; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3051 

Umbelliferae 

C Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.; I.M Turner & 
M.F Choong SB 1089 

Verbenaceae 

R Clerodendron inerme (L.) Gaertn.; Haji 
Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad SA. 47; M.F. 
Choong VC 107; M.F. Choong VC 117; 
P.T. Chew, H.A.Kong & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 1001 

A Lantana camara L; I.M. Turner & M.F. 

Choong SB 1073; M.F. Choong VC 11; 

M.F. Choong VC 23 
R Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene; K.S. Chua, 

M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner 

& J.W.H. Yong SB 3040 



R Premna foetida Reinw. ex Blume; M.F. 
Choong VC 35; K.S. Chua, M. Matthews. 
H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner & J.W.H. Yong 
SB 3066 

C Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan. I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3039; M.F. 

Choong VC 51 
A Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl; K.S. 

Chua, M. Matthews, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. 

Turner & J.W.H. Yong SB 3038 
C Vitex pinnata L.; K.S. Chua, M. 

Matthews, H.T.W. Tan. I.M. Turner & 

J.W.H. Yong SB 3003 

Vitaceae 

R Cayratia mollissima (Wall.) Gagnep.; 
M.F. Choong VC 37; M.F. Choong VC 
42 

C Cissus hastata (Miq.) Planch.; I.M. Turner 
& M.F. Choong SB 1084 



Appendix 2. Historical collections from the Sungei Buloh area. Conservation 
status: C = common; N = endangered; R = rare; V = vulnerable; X = extinct: ? = 
information on herbarium sheet label could not be read. 



PTERIDOPHYTA 

Aspleniaceae 

X Asplenium macrophyllum Sw.; 
J.S.Goodenough s.n. [1890] 

Dennstaedtiaceae 

X Lindsaea borneensis Hook.f. ex Baker; 
J.S.Goodenough & H.N.Ridley s.n. [9 Jan 
1889] 

X Lindsaea parasitica (Roxb. ex Griff.) 
Hieron.; J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 
1889] 



Hymenophyllaceae 

N Cephalomanes obscurum (Blume) 
K.Iwatsuki; J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 
1889] 

Lycopodiaceae 

C Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.Serm.; 
J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 1889] 

Polypodiaceae 

V Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel.: 
J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 1889] 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



33 



Schizaeaceae 

C Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br.: 
J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 1889] 

C Schizaea digitata (L.) Sw.; 
J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 1889] 

Magnoliophyta 

Acanthaceae 

R Staurogyne griffithiana (Nees) Kuntze: 
H.N.Ridley s.n. [1894] 

Alangiaceae 

R Alangium griffithii (C.B.Clarke) Harms; 
H.N.Ridley s.n. [1894] 

Annonaceae 

R Desmos dasymachalus (Blume) Safford: 

H.N.Ridley 6228 [1894] 
R Goniothalamus ridleyi King: H.N.Ridlev 

6227 [1893] 

Aquifoliaceae 

R Ilex cymosa Blume; H.N.Ridley 5089 
[1893] 

Asclepiadaceae 

V Dischidia benghalensis Colebr.; 

H.N.Ridley s.n. 9 Jan [1890]; H.N.Ridley 

2729 [without date] 
R Hoy a verticillata (Vahl) G. Don var. 

verticillata; H.N.Ridley s.n. [18??] 

Commelinaceae 

R Amischotolype gracilis (Ridl.) I.M. 
Turner: H.N.Ridley s.n. [Oct 1899] 

Connaraceae 

R Rourea fnlgens Planch.; J.S. Goodenough 
2027a [30 Nov 1889] 

Euphorbiaceae 

R Excoecaria agallocha L.; H.N.Ridlev 4425 
[1892] 



Flacourtiaceae 

V Ryparosa hullettii King: Mat s.n. [April 
1894] 

Gesneriaceae 

V Cyrtandra pendula Blume: H.N.Ridley 
s.n. [1894] 

Guttiferae 

N Garcinia hombroniana Pierre; Unknown 

collector 6197 [without date] 
R Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) 

Blume; H.N.Ridley 6389 [189?] 

Leguminosae 

R Archidendron contortum (Mart.) 
I.C.Nielsen: H.N.Ridley 346? [1889] 

Marantaceae 

R Stachyphrynium griffithii (Baker) 
K.Schum.: H.N.Ridley s.n. [1894] 

Melastomataceae 

X Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. ex Blume) 

Blume: H.N.Ridley s.n. [9 Jan 1890]; 

H.N.Ridley s.n. [9 Jul 1890]; H.N.Ridley 

s.n. [without date] 
? Medinilla sp.: H.N.Ridley s.n. [without 

date] 

R Pachycentria maingayi (C.B.Clarke) 
J.F.Maxwell; H.N.Ridley 1652 [without 
date] 

X Plethiandra sessiliflora (Cogn.) Merr.; 
H.N.Ridley 2021 [9 Jan 1890] 

Menispermaceae 

R Fibraurea tinctoria Lour.; 
J.S.Goodenough s.n. [1893] 

Myristicaceae 

V Myristica cinnamomea King; H.N.Ridley 
6266 [1894] 

Myrsinaceae 

V Ardisia tuberculata Wall, ex A. DC: 



34 



Card. Bull. Sing, 49(1) (1997, 



Collector unknown s.n. [4 Aug ?] 

Ochnaceae 

X Euthemis leucocarpa Jack; L.C.Corporal 
772 [18 Apr 1890] 

Orchidaceae 

X Apostasia nuda R.Br.; H.N.Ridley s.n. 
[Jan 1890] 

X Appendicula cornuta Blume; 

J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 1889] 
X Bulbophyllum concinnum Hook.f.; 

H.N.Ridley s.n. [9 Jan 1890]; H.N.Ridley 

s.n. [1891] 

V Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. & 
Binn.; H.N.Ridley s.n. [1891] 

X Bulbophyllum restrepia Ridl.; 
J.S.Goodenough s.n. [1889] 

V Claderia viridiflora Hook.f.; H.N.Ridley 
s.n. [1890] 

X Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb.f.; 

J.S.Goodenough s.n. [4 Aug ?]; 

H.N.Ridley s.n. [1890] 
X Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. ssp. pubesccens 

(Lindl.) Du Puy & P.J. Cribb; H.N.Ridley 

[1891] 

X Dendrobium concinnum Miq.; 

L.C.Corporal s.n. [18 Apr 1890] 
X Dendrobium lobatum (Blume) Miq.; 

H.N.Ridley s.n. [1890] 
X Dendrobium microglaphys Rchb.f.; 

J.S.Goodenough s.n. [1890] 
X Dendrobium prostratum Ridl.; 

H.N.Ridley s.n. [1890] 
? Dendrobium sp.; H.N.Ridley s.n. [9 Jan 

1890] 

X Dendrobium spegidoglossum Rchb.f.; 

J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 1889] 
X Dendrobium spurium (Blume) J.J.Sm.; 

J.S.Goodenough s.n. [1892] 
X Dendrobium villosulum Lindl.; 

J.S.Goodenough 369? [29 Jan 1889] 
X Eria floribunda Lindl.; H.N.Ridley 1634 

[9 Jan 1890] 
X Eria neglecta Ridl.; H.N.Ridley s.n. 

[1890]; H.N.Ridley s.n. [1891] 



X Eria nutans Lindl.; H.N.Ridley s.n. [1 890] 
X Eria pannea Lindl.; J.S.Goodenough s.n. 

[30 Nov 1889] 
X Eria pulchella Lindl.; H.N.Ridley s.n. 

[1890] 

X Eria tenuiflora Ridl.; J.S.Goodenough s.n. 
[1892] 

X Flickingeria xantholeuca (Rchb.f.) 
A.D.Hawkes; H.N.Ridley s.n. [4 Aug 
1890] 

X Galeola nudifolia Lour.; H.N.Ridley s.n. 

[9 Jan 1890] 
X Schoenorchis micrantha Blume; 

H.N.Ridley 374 [30 Nov 1889] 
X Thelasis carinata Blume; H.N.Ridley s.n. 

[9 Jan 1890] 
X Trichotosia velutina (Lindl.) Lodd. ex 

Kraenzl.; H.N.Ridley [9 Jan 1890] 

Palmae 

R Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack) Ridl.; 

J.S.Goodenough 1663 [29 Nov 1889]; 

J.S.Goodenough 3145 [1890]; 

J.S.Goodenough 3509 [29 Nov 1889] 
R Rhopaloblaste singaporensis (Becc.) 

Hook.f.; H.N.Ridley 2135 [May 1890] 

Pandanaceae 

V Freycinetia angustifolia Blume; 
J.S.Goodenough s.n. [30 Nov 1889] 

Rubiaceae 

N Diplospora malaccensis Hook.f.; 

H.N.Ridley s.n. [1894] 
R Gardenia tubifera Wall. var. subcarinata 

Corner; H.N.Ridley s.n. [1891] 
C Gynochthodes sublanceolata Miq.; 

J.S.Goodenough s.n. [4 Aug 1890] 
R Hedyotis pinifolia Wall, ex G.Don; 

Unknown collector 8925 [1897] 
R Oxyceros longiflora (Lam.) T.Yamaz.; 

J.S.Goodenough 2415 [16 Sep 1891] 
R Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton; 

H.N.Ridley s.n. [1894] 
R Psychotria penangiana Hook.f.; Corporal 

2870 [18 Apr 1890] 



Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore 



35 



R Timonius flavescens (Jack) Baker: 
H.N.Ridley s.n. [without date] 

R Urophyllum glabrum Wall.; H.N.Ridley 
s.n. [12 Jan 1890] 

Sterculiaceae 

R Pterospermum javanicum Jungh.: 
H.N.Ridley 6181 [1894] 

Styraceae 

V Stvrax benzoin Dryand. var. benzoin; 
H.N.Ridley s.n. [1894] 



Vitaceae 

R Cayratia tnollissitna (Wall.) Gagnep.: 
Corporal s.n. [8 Apr 1890] 

Zingiberaceae 

R Hornstedtia leonunis (J.Kbnig) Retz.: 

H.N.Ridley s.n. [1911] 
R Hornstedtia scyphifera (J.Kbnig) Steud. 

var. scyphifera: H.N.Ridley s.n. [1894] 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 37^7. 



Baccaurea scortechinii distinct from B. parviflora 
(Euphorbiaceae) 

R. Kiew 1 , S. Madhavan and Hamsah Selamat 

Department of Biology 
Universiti Pertanian Malaysia 
43400 UPM Serdang. Selangor. Malaysia 

Abstract 

Baccaurea scortechinii Hook./, is a species distinct from B. parviflora (Mull. Arg.) Mull. Arg. 
recognised by a combination of the following characters: greater number of pairs of veins, 
proportionately wider leaf, shorter male and female inflorescences, position of the female 
inflorescence on the upper part of the trunk or on the branches, short pedicel of male flowers, 
longer sepals of the female flower, which are hoary outside, the rosy pink, obovoid ridged fruit 
(often with a wrinkled surface), which has a thick pericarp and up to six seeds. 

Introduction 

Over reliance on herbarium material as opposed to field observations can 
sometimes lead to erroneous results. A case in point is the synonomising 
of Baccaurea scortechinii with B. parviflora (Airy Shaw, 1972). 

In the field, these two species are totally distinct based on the position 
of the infructescences, the colour and shape of the fruits and whether the 
fruits are ridged or not. Corner (1952) described B. scortechinii as the 
'Chinese Lantern Tree' because k the fruiting trees look as if they were 
hung with little Chinese lanterns'. He described the fruits as being rose- 
pink and six-ridged and hanging from the branches on strings. The 
infructescences are also produced on the trunk but never from the base. In 
contrast, the fruits of B. parviflora are smooth, purple-brown and are 
produced on strings at the base of the trunk and trail in profusion on the 
ground. In the field, these two species are certainly distinct! 

The inability to distinguish between the two Baccaurea species with 
elongate fruits and terminalia branching may in part be due to the poor 
choice of characters in keys for identifying them. Thus, Pax and Hoffman 
(1922) used the degree of pubescence of the young twigs, a character that 
cannot be used for specimens with older twigs, which are uniformly glabrous 
in both species. Ridley (1924) used leaf shape, which, while it can be used 
for the extremes of variation, also shows considerable overlap. He 



'Present Address: Singapore Botanic Gardens. Singapore 259569 



38 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



contributed to the confusion by adding a note to his description of B. 
scortechinii stating that 'Hooker says racemes from the branches, though 
in the specimens I have seen at Kew they all appear to have been from the 
stem as in B. parviflora, but B. parviflora does sometimes have racemes 
from the branches' (though this fact is not mentioned in Ridley's description 
of B. parviflora). Whitmore (1973) was of the opinion that those species 
with terminalia branching 'are extremely difficult to distinguish without 
fruits because the leaves are similar, and variable, within each species'. 

Based on a study of herbarium specimens, Airy Shaw (1972) reduced 
B. scortechinii to synonomy with B. parviflora without giving a reason for 
his decision. Whitmore (1973) followed Shaw in regarding it as a synonym 
of B. parviflora but as Corner (1988) commented 'there seems to be some 
mistake'. 

Baccaurea scortechinii was first described by Hooker f. based on a 
single specimen (Scortechini s.n., Perak) and it has remained poorly known. 
The fruit and the position of the inflorescence were not known to Hooker 
but the character of number of vein pairs that he gave is useful in 
distinguishing these two species (Table 1). Now that more specimens are 
available, it is possible to reassess the characters that are used to separate 
the two species. 

Fruiting specimens of B. parviflora and B. scortechinii are readily 
identified based on whether the fruits are ridged or not, their colour and 
shape, and the position and length of the infructescence (Table 1). 
Specimens with female flowers can be identified by flower size, indumentum 
of the sepals and whether the ovary is ridged or not (but in fact have rarely 
been collected) and those with male flowers by the length of the pedicel. 

Sterile material can be identified by the number of pairs of veins and 
also by the gestalt of the terminalia branching. In B. parviflora the distal 
two or three tiers of caulomeres frequently have slender twigs of equal 
thickness suggesting that they were produced by the same growth flush. In 
contrast, it appears that usually only a single tier of caulomeres is produced 
at a time in B. scortechinii as the distal twig is much more slender than the 
adjacent proximal one. In the field, B. scortechinii has a conspicuously 
narrow crown, perhaps the result of this less profuse mode of growth. The 
phenology of these growth flushes is not known. 

Flowering is, however, seasonal occurring in the two main flowering 
seasons for trees (Kiew, 1986). Corner (1952) noted that B. parviflora 
flowers gregariously after a dry spell. Most male flowering specimens have 
been collected between January and April with a peak in February to 
March with a few in June-July and October (specimens with female flowers 
are scarce but have been collected in February to April and in September) 
and fruiting specimens from May to September. B. scortechinii fruits 



Baccaurea scortechinii distinct from B. parviflora 
( Euphorbiaceae) 



39 



between March and April and again in June-July and September, but 
there is insufficent flowering material to assess its flowering seasons. 

Baccaurea parviflora is widespread from Burma to Borneo (where it 
has rarely been collected). In Peninsular Malaysia, it has been collected 
from all states and is common in the lowlands up to 1300 m altitude. It is 
most frequently collected from hill slopes and ridge tops. In contrast, B. 
scortechinii has been more frequently collected from forest beside streams 
and rivers. B. scortechinii is endemic to Peninsular Malaysia and is more 
common in Kelantan, Trengganu and Pahang. 



Table 1. Baccaurea parviflora and B. scortechinii compared 



Character 


B. parviflora 


B. scortechinii 


bark 1 


finely ridged 


not ridged 


bark colour 1 


brownish grey 


pale fawn 


lamina length (cm) 


8.5-15.5 


13-18 


lamina width (cm) 


3-5 


5-9.5 


lamina l:w ratio 


2.8-3.1 


1.9-2.6 


no. vein pairs 


(4-) 5 (-6) 


(6-) 7 (-9) 


male raceme length (cm) 


10-15 


3.5-8 


male pedicel length (mm) 


3-4 


1-1.5 


female raceme length (cm) 


15-30 


5.5-12 


female raceme position 


base of truck 


trunk and branches 


male & female sepal shape 


ovate 


oblong 


female sepal length (mm) 


2.5-3.5 


8-9 


female sepal indumentum 






(outer surface) 


glabrous 


hoary 


ovary shape 


cylindrical 


ovoid 


ripe fruit colour 


purple brown 


rosy pink 


fruit shape 


fusiform 


obovoid 




not ridged 


6-ridged 


fruit apex 


narrowed 


rounded 


pericarp thickness (mm) 


1.5-2.0 


0.5-1.1 


no. seeds per fruit 


1-3 


1-6 



'from Corner (1988). No details are available on labels of herbarium specimens to 
verify this. 



40 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Baccaurea parviflora 

Baccaurea parviflora (Mull. Arg.) Mull. Arg. in DC Prodromus XV (2) 
(1866) 462. 
Figure 1. 

Type: Wallich 7759B Tavoy, India. (K holo) 

Hook. /. EL Brit. India. 5 (1887) 368; Pax & Hoff. Pflanzenreich. iv 147 XV 
(1922) 59; Ridley Fl. Mai. Pen. 3 (1924) 243, Fig. 152; Corner Wayside 
Trees. (1952) 241, Fig. 71. 

Pierardia parviflora Mull. Arg. in Linnaea 32 (1863) 82. 

Small tree to 15 m tall and 7.5-10 cm dbh., flowering at 2 m, with terminalia 
branching with leaves clustered at the tips of the twigs, twigs slender with 
long internodes and pilose, becoming glabrous with age. Bark 
brownish-grey, rather closely and finely ridged. Stipules lanceolate, 
pubescent outside. Young leaves pinkish. Petiole 0.75-3 cm long, grooved 
above. Lamina oblanceolate, (8.5-) 12 (-15) cm long and (3-) 4 (-5) cm 
wide; apex caudate, base strongly acute, margin entire, apex caudate, 
glabrous above and beneath; in dried state thinly coriaceous, smooth (not 
puckering); veins (4-) 5 (-6) pairs prominent beneath, tertiary veins 
inconspicuous. 

In male trees raceme cauliflorous in more or less upright tufts on 
burrs on trunk about 3 m above the ground, sometimes on branches, 10-15 
cm long, hairy. Bracts minute, broadly ovate, 0.2-0.3 mm long, densely 
tomentose. Flower fragrant with a sharp lemon scent. Pedicel 3-4 mm 
long. Sepals 4-5, ovate, 1.0-1.5 mm long and 0.5-1 mm wide, yellowish 
green (rarely reddish brown). Stamens (3-) 6, filaments 0.1-0.2 mm, anthers 
subglobose, 0.2 mm long, yellow. Pistillode large. 

In female trees, raceme cauliflorous, numerous and always at the 
base of the trunk, (15-) 23 (-30) cm long. Peduncle reddish. Bracts cordate, 
0.1-0.2 mm long, tomentose. Pedicel 3-4 mm long. Sepals 5, spathulate, 
2.5-3.5 mm long and 0.5-1 mm wide, deep red and almost glabrous outside, 
white and finely pilose inside. Ovary cylindric, 3-loculate, 1.5-2 mm long 
and 1-1.5 mm wide, dark red, finely pilose. Style 0.5-1 mm long. Stigma 3, 
each bifurcating and recurved, dark red. 

Berry fusiform, stigma persistent, 1.25-2.75 cm long and 11.5 cm 
wide, dark red turning purple brown, sour. Pericarp fleshy, smooth, 
indehiscent, 13-20 mm thick. Seeds 1-3, oval, thin, 9-12 mm long, 5-6 mm 
wide, aril fleshy, magenta, testa brown. 



Baccaurea scortechinii distinct from B. parviflora 
( Euphorbiaceae) 



41 




Figure 1. Baccaurea parviflora Figure 2. Baccaurea scortechinii 



Anatomy of Ovary and Fruit 

T.S. Ovary: (Fig. 3 A, C) 

Round with 3 locules, ovary wall (0.40-) 0.48 (0.55) mm thick, ovules 1 or 
2 per locule. Vascular bundles 3, positioned midway in the ovary wall 
opposite the locules with 2-4 minor bundles in between. 

Epidermis thin, cells isodiametric (10-) 15 (-20) urn wide. Trichomes 
sparse, unicellular (0.15-) 0.27 (-0.3) mm long. Cortex (350-) 430 (-500) 
jim thick, cells of inner layer (35-) 40 (-45) um thick. Xylem vessels small, 
(5-) 8 (-10) urn diameter. 



T.S. Fruit: (Fig. 4 A, C). 



Round with 3 locules, 1-3 seeds per fruit. Pericarp fleshy (1.5-) 1.8 (-2.0) 
mm thick. Arrangement of vascular bundle as for ovary. 

Exocarp thin, single layered, cells (50-) 53 (-55) um long and (20-) 
23 (-25) um wide, becoming almost glabrous. Mesocarp (1.0-) 1.3 (-1.5) 
mm thick; outer and central region with scattered large cells with thickened 



42 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 




I 1 

oo5mm 



Figure 3. T.S. ovary: A Baccaurea parviflora, B B. scortechinii. 
Outer layers of ovary: C B. parviflora, D B. scortechinii. 

i major vascular bundle, ii minor vascular bundle, o ovule, t trichomes, e epidermis, 1 locule. 



Baccaurea scortechinii distinct from B. parviflora 
( Euphorbiaceae) 



43 



cellulose walls, cells in the central region larger and more numerous. 
Endocarp with several layers of brachysclereids. 

Distribution: Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (all states), Philippines 
and Borneo. 

Habitat: Lowland forest, frequently on hill slopes and ridges up to 1300 m. 
Local Name: Setambun (Malay). 

Notes: Earlier descriptions cited the male flowers as having up to eight 
stamens but this is an error based on the inclusion of specimen King's Coll 
3321 (K) with 6-8 stamens in B. parviflora when it does not belong to this 
species as its inflorescneces are produced on the twigs. 

Ridley (1924) recorded that the flowers are 'scented like cowslips 1 
and Corner (1952) that when it flowers gregariously it scented the forest. 
The male flowers are usually yellow but Ridley observed trees with red 
flowers at Semangkok and, close by at Fraser's Hill, crimson-flowered 
trees are seen though they are less common than the yellow-flowered ones 
(Kiew, 1998). 

Burkill (1966) reports that the Semai in Perak use dibbling sticks of 
B. parviflora because 'they suppose, its habit of fruiting close to the ground 
may ensure the hill-rice having a short straw, inhibiting it from being lanky 
in growth'. 

There is another (as yet unnamed) taxon with terminalia branching 
and elongate fruits collected from Trengganu, which shares characters with 
both B. parviflora and B. scortechinii, i.e. its fruits are ridged like B. 
scortechinii but are produced on long inflorescences at the base of the tree 
as in B. parviflora. It is, however, distinct from these two species in its 
extremely long petioles (c. 5 cm long). The petioles of both B. parviflora 
and B. scortechinii are variable in length depending on the leafs position 
within the tuft, the shortest being about 0.75 cm and the longest 3 cm long. 

Baccaurea scortechinii 

Baccaurea scortechinii Hook. /. Fl. Brit. India. 5 (1887) 368. 
Figure 2. 

Type: Scortechini s.n. Perak (K, Kew no. H/0980/88 71 - lectotype, here 
chosen; L, SING iso) 

Pax & Hoff. Pflanzenreich. iv 147 XV (1922) 56; Ridley Fl. Mai. Pen. 3 
(1924) 244; Corner Wayside Trees. (1952) 242. 



44 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Small tree to 10 m with 5-10 cm dbh, flowering at 3 m; with terminalia 
branching with clusters of leaves at the tips of the twigs, twigs minutely 
hirsute becoming glabrous with age. Bark pale fawn, slightly flakey, not 
ridged. Stipules subulate. Petiole 0.75-3 cm long, grooved above. Lamina 
oblanceolate to subrhomboid, (13-) 14 (-18) cm long and (5-) 6 (-9.5) cm 
wide; apex caudate, base strongly acute, margin entire, glabrous above and 
beneath; in the dried state chartaceous and puckering along the tertiary 
veins; midrib usually minutely pilose beneath, veins (6-) 7 (-9) pairs, 
prominent beneath, tertiary veins conspicuous above and beneath. 

In male trees raceme cauliflorous about 3 m from the ground, 3.5-8 
cm long. Bracts minute, broadly ovate, c. 0.1 mm long, tomentose. Flowers 
white. Pedicel 1-1.5 mm long. Sepals 4-6, oblong, 1-1.5 mm long and 0.5-1 
mm wide. Stamens 4-5, filament c. 0.1 mm long, anthers subglobose, 0.1 
mm long. Pistillode large. 

In female trees, raceme slender, pendant, cauliflorous or less usually 
ramiflorous but never from the base of trunk, 6.5-12 cm long. Bracts minute, 
cordate, 0.1—0.2 mm long and 0.1-0.2 mm wide, tomentose. Pedicel 2-2.5 
mm long. Sepals 5, pale yellow, oblong, 8-9 mm long and 1-2 mm wide, 
margin inrolled, densely tomentose inside and out. Ovary ovoid, 6-ridged 
and 3-loculate, 2- mm long and 1-2 mm wide, red, densely pilose. Style 
0.5-1 mm long. Stigma 3, each bifurcating and recurved. 

Berry obovoid, stigma persistent, 6-ridged often finely wrinkled 
between the ridges, (1.5-) 2.2 (-2.5) cm long and 1.2-1.5 cm wide, rosy 
pink, sour. Pericarp fleshy, indehiscent, (5-) 8 (-11) mm thick. Seeds 1-6, 
oblong, thin, 3-4 mm long and 1-2 mm wide, aril fleshy, purple, testa 
brown. 

Anatomy of the Ovary and Fruit 

T.S. Ovary (Fig. 3B, D). 

Six-ridged with 3 locules, ovary wall (0.1-) 0.18 (-0.3) mm thick. Ovules 1- 
2 per locule. Vascular bundles 3, positioned midway in the ovary wall 
opposite the locules with 3 minor bundles in between. 

Epidermal cells narrow, isodiametric (10-) 15 (-20) um wide. 
Trichomes abundant, unicellular, (0.11—) 0.13 (-0.16) mm long originating 
from the epidermal layer. Cortex with cells (10-) 15 (-20) um wide, 
decreasing in size towards the exterior. Xylem vessels small, (5-) 8 (-10) 
um diameter. 



T.S. Fruit (Fig. 4B, D). 



Baccaurea scortechinii distinct from B. parviflora 
( Euphorbiaceae) 



45 




en — i 



o-imm 



Figure 4. T.S. fruit: A Baccaurea parviflora, B B. scortechinii. 
T.S. pericarp: C B. parviflora, D B. scortechinii. 

i major vascular bundle, ii minor vascular bundle, b brachysclereids, e epidermis, en endocarp, 
s seed. 



46 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Six-ridged with 3 locules, 1-6 seeds per fruit. Pericarp fleshy (0.5-) 
0.8 (-1.1) mm thick. Arrangement of vascular bundles as for ovary. 

Exocarp thin, single layered, cells narrow (10-) 11 (-12) urn long and 
(15-) 18 (-20) Jim wide, becoming almost glabrous. Mesocarp (0.3-) 0.4 
(0.5) mm thick; outer and central region as for B. parviflora. Endocarp 
with several layers of brachysclereids. 

Distribution: Endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, most common in central 
and northern regions and from Gunung Panti, Johore (not yet collected 
from Pedis, Kedah, Negri Sembilan and Malacca). 

Habitat: Lowland primary forest up to 200 m a.s.l., often by streams and 
rivers, once from a wang in limestone (RK3001) and the base of a limestone 
cliff (Henderson 25005). 

Local names: asam tamun, setambun antan (Malay). 

Specimens examined: KELANTAN: Batu Boh Kiew & Anthonysamy RK 
3001 (UPM), Kampung Park Hanif & Nur SFN 10241 (SING), Kuala 
Betis Ng FRI5532 (K, KEP, SING), Whitmore FRI 5532 (L), Sungai Lebir 
Henderson 29535 (SING), Stone & Mahmud 12427 (KEP), Whitmore FRI 
4311 (K, KEP, L, SING). TRENGGANU: Sekayu hoy FRI 13515 (K, 
KEP, L), Ulu Besut Cockburn FRI 8251 (KEP), Ulu Brang Moysey & 
Kiah SFN 33866 (SING), Ulu Sungai Trengan Cockburn FRI 10581 (K, 
KEP, L, SING), Wong & Khairuddin FRI 32616 (L, SING). PAHANG: 
Bukit Chintamani Henderson 25005 (SING), Jeruntut Holttum 24747 
(SING), Kuala Lompat Whitmore FRI 34477 (KEP, L, SING), Saw FRI 
36300 (KEP, L), Kuala Tembeling Ridley s.n. (SING), Panching Ogata 
10473 (KEP), Raub Kalong 20247 (KEP), Sungai Kenyam Whitmore FRI 
20160 (KEP), Taman Negara (Merapoh) Soepadmo & Suhaimi S260 (L), 
(Sungai Tahan) Mohd Shah & Ahmad Shukor MS2658 (L), Wyatt-Smith 
KEP 71960 (K, L), Ulu Tembeling Henderson 21785 (SING), 22004 (SING). 
PERAK: no locality Scortechinii s.n. (fruits, L, SING), (male flowers, 
SING). SELANGOR: Kuala Pansom Gadoh KL 1324 (SING). JOHOR: 
Gunung Panti Corner 29408 (SING), Kochummen KEP 99204 (KEP). 

Notes: There are three sheets of Scortechini's collections at K. The one 
selected as the lectotype is his unnumbered collection, which has mature 
fruits and female flowers. Of the other two sheets, Scortechini 1992 has 
male flowers and Scortechinii 2002 has female flowers but no fruits. None 
of Scortechini's labels gives any information about exact locality, habitat 
or position of the inflorescences. 



Baccaurea scortechinii distinct from B. parviflora 
(Euphorbiaceae) 



47 



Acknowledgements 

We are indebted to S. Anthonysamy for assistance in the field and to the 
curators of the herbaria of K, KEP, L and SING for permission to examine 
specimens in their care and to Raoule Hagen for stimulating discussions 
on the two species and for advice on extra-Malayan species. 

References 

Airy Shaw, H. K. 1972. The Euphorbiaceae of Siam. Kew Bulletin 26: 191- 
363. 

Burkill, I.H. 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay 
Peninsula. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, 
Malaysia. 

Corner, E. J. H. 1952. Wayside Trees of Malaya. Government Printing Office, 
Singapore. 2nd Edition. 

Corner, E. J. H. 1988. Wayside Trees of Malaya. Malayan Nature Society, 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 3rd Edition. 

Hooker, J. D. 1887. Euphorbiaceae. Flora of British India. 5: 368. 

Kiew, R. 1986. Phenological studies of some rain forest herbs in Peninsular 
Malaysia. Kew Bull. 41: 733-746. 

Kiew, R. 1998. The Flora ofFrasefs Hill, Peninsular Malaysia, (in press). 

Pax, F. 1922. Baccaurea Section Pierardia. Pflanzenreich iv 147 XV: 48-60. 

Ridley, H. N. 1924. Baccaurea. Fl. Mai. Pen. 3: 242-251 & Fig. 152. 

Whitmore, T. C. 1973. Euphorbiaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya. 2: 63-67. 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 49-54. 



49 



New Records of Plant Species from Singapore 

An Ibrahim, P.T. Chew, Hj Sidek Kiah and Joseph T.K. Lai 

Singapore Botanic Gardens, 
Cluny Road, 
Singapore 259569 

Abstract 

Most notable among the 28 new records of flowering plant species from Singapore are the 
first record of Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) for both Singapore and Peninsular 
Malaysia, the first record for several genera - Chonemorpha, Ichnocarpus and Kibatalia 
(Apocynaceae), Gymnanthera (Asclepiadaceae) and Scaphochlamys (Zingiberaceae) and 
the two dipterocarps, Dipterocarpus elongatus and Shorea ochrophloia. 



Introduction 

In 1994, Turner reported the flora of the vascular plants of Singapore to 
number 2277 species in 868 genera and 158 families. New records (those 
not listed by Turner, 1993) continue to be added and 18 of these are 
already published (Turner et al. 1994, 1997). 

Here we list a further 28 species. Of these, a few are previously 
overlooked species, such as Hedyotis verticillata, Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius, 
Piper macropiper and Xanthophyllum amoenum that were in fact collected 
many years ago. Many were recorded when plots were set up in the 
Central Catchment Nature Reserve (which includes the MacRitchie area 
and the Nee Soon Freshwater Swamp) as part of a survey commissioned 
by the National Parks Board, which was carried out in 1992 and 1993 
(Wong et al., 1994). However, even a forest as well known as the Bukit 
Timah Nature Reserve continues to turn up new records. Perhaps more 
surprising is that some of these are large canopy trees, such as Shorea 
ochrophloia, that are visible from commonly walked trails (Lum and Sharp, 
1996). 

All specimens cited here are lodged at SING. 

New Records 

Apocynaceae Alstonia macrophylla Wall, ex G. Don 

Singapore (without locality) N. Cantley s.n. — 1880s; Pulau Sentosa 

Heaslett s.n. — 29 Jan 1973, Mount Faber Sao Kyi Win 24/ Ami — 16 June 

1983. 



50 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Also observed in Pierce Reservoir area, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. 
Distribution: Indo-China and Thailand south to Sulawesi. 

Apocynaceae Alstonia pneumatophora Back, ex L.G. den Berger 
MacRitchie area, Central Catchment Nature Reserve Wong, Ali & Chew 
15 — Aug 1994. 

Also observed from Nee Soon Stream near Lorong Banir and a fine tree 
with a 3.4 m girth grows in the Zoological Garden, Mandai. 
Distribution: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Riouw, Borneo 
and Sulawesi. 

Apocynaceae Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston 

Nee Soon Firing Ranges, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Joseph Lai 

& Ali Ibrahim LJ 102 — 5 Nov 1996. 

Distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore 
and Java. 

Apocynaceae Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius (Blume) P.I. Forster 
This common, but overlooked, species was first identified by David 
Middleton and Ali Ibrahim. This enabled a specimen, unnumbered and 
undated (although the label indicated that it had been collected in the 
1920s) that had long lain in the herbarium unidentified even to its family 
(accession number 082726) to be identified. The collector is recorded as 
Barnay Batto and the notes on the label read: "The leaf is used for those 
who got smallpox is make into powder and with little safron is mixed with 
run over the body." 
Recent collections include: 

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve Ali Ibrahim AI 212 — 14 September 1994; 
Nura A. Karim et al NK 255 — 14 December 1995. 

Distribution: Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, 
Singapore, Borneo, the Philippines and Sulawesi. 

Apocynaceae Kibatalia maingayi (Hook. /.) Woodson 

Nee Soon, Central Catchment Nature Reserve Wong, Ali & Chew 1 — 29 

Oct 1992. 

Also observed from Upper Seletar Reservoir Park and Nee Soon Firing 
Ranges. 

Distribution: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Banka and Borneo. 
Apocynaceae Urceola elastica Roxb. 

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve E. Tang & Hj. Sidek Kiah 996 — 12 Oct 
1995. 

Distribution: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. 



New Records of Plant Species from Singapore 



51 



Asclepiadaceae Gymnanthera oblonga (Burm. /.) P.S. Green 

Jurong, Science Centre Jennifer Ng s.n. - 1 April 1983; Changi Point 

mangrove Ali Ibrahim AI 139 — Sept 1991; Changi (Loyang Avenue 

Swamp) Joseph Lai & Samsuri LJ 282 — 25 Nov 1997. 

Distribution: Thailand, Singapore, Java, the Philippines and south to 

northern Australia. The characteristic habitat of this species is the landward 

side of mangroves. The fact that it is not yet recorded from Peninsular 

Malaysia suggests that it has probably been overlooked rather than 

representing a gap in its geographic distribution. 

Burseraceae Dacryodes rugosa (Blume) H.J. Lam 

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve Mohd Shah & Samsuri MS 3893 — 5 July 
1976. 

Distribution: S. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, W. Java and 
Borneo. 

Cucurbitaceae Gymnopetalum integrifolium (Roxb.) Kurz 

Singapore Quarry, Bukit Timah. Ali Ibrahim & S.C. Chin AI 241 — 2 Sept 

1994. 

Distributiopn: W. India to Indo-China and south to Java. 

Cucurbitaceae Mukia maderaspatana (L.) M.J. Roem. 

Khatib Bongsu (secondary vegetation) E. Tang & Hj. Sidek Kiah 1306 — 

23 Feb 1998. 

There is a single specimen from Malaysia, J.G. Reed s.n. — 7 April 1941, 
from Bagan Datoh, Perak. Apparently it is an incidental introduction from 
southern India as Reed records its name in Tamil as Masu masukai. 
Distribution: India south to Australia. 

Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpus elongatus Korth. 

McRitchie Reservoir, Central Catchment Nature Reserve /. Sinclair SFN 
40673 - 14 July 1955, T.C. Whitmore 66 - 14 Feb 1957; Mandai, Central 
Catchment Nature Reserve. Wong, Ali & Chew 2 — 16 Nov 1992. 
Distribution: E. Sumatra, E. Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo. 

Dipterocarpaceae Shorea ochrophloia Strugnell ex Symington 

Mandai, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Ali Ibrahim et al. AI 24 — 7 

July 1994. 

Also observed from the MacRitchie area and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. 
Distribution: W. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. 

Euphorbiaceae Aporosa miqueliana Mull.Arg. 

Upper Pierce area, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Wong, Ali & Chew 
4—14 Oct 1992. 

Distribution: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. 



52 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea brevipes Hook. /. 

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. E. Tang & Hj. Sidek 1040 — 9 Nov 1995, 
7292 — 23 May 1996. 

Distribution: Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo. 
Euphorbiaceae Trigonostemon villosus Hook. /. 

Mandai, next to Mandai Columbarium. Joseph Lai & Ali Ibrahim LJ 22 — 
11 Dec 1995; Mandai, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Joseph Lai & 
Ali Ibrahim LJ 80 — 15 Oct 1996. 

Distribution: Peninsular Malaysia (south from Perak and Trengganu) and 
Singapore. 

Guttiferae Garcinia maingayi Hook. /. var. stylosa King 

Both the species and variety are new records for Singapore. 

Seletar, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Wong, Ali & Chew 6 — 21 

Dec 1992. 

Distribution: This variety is confined to Peninsular Malaysia (Perak and 
Johore) and Singapore. 

Leguminosae Intsia palembanica Miq. 

In Singapore, this species is represented by a majestic individual on the 
summit of Bukit Timah Hill, identified by Ali Ibrahim. 
Distribution: Thailand to W. New Guinea. 

Meliaceae Aglaia leucophylla King 

Mandai, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Wong, Ali & Chew 9 — 23 
Nov 1992. 

Distribution: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo and the 
Philippines. 

Meliaceae Aglaia malaccensis (Ridl.) Pannell 

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve Liew SFN 37278 — 4 July 1941; MacRitchie 
area, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Wong, Ali & Chew 17 — Oct 
1992; Bukit Kallang, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Joseph Lai & 
Ali Ibrahim LJ 94 — 29 Oct 1996. 

Distribution: Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo. 

Meliaceae Chisocheton sarawakanus (C. DC.) Harms 

Mandai, Cantral Catchment Nature Reserve. Wong, Ali & Chew 10 — 23 

Nov 1992. 

Distribution: Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Banka and Borneo. 
Pandaceae Galearia maingayi Hook. /. 

Botanic Gardens Jungle EJ.H. Corner SFN 32519 — 16 Nov 1936; Bukit 
Timah Nature Reserve EJ.H. Corner SFN 33588 — 6 July 1937, SFN 



New Records of Plant Species from Singapore 



53 



36410 - 25 April 1939. 

Distribution: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo. 
Piperaceae Piper macropiper Pennant 

Bukit Mandai Nangchi s.n. — 19 April 1887; Krangi Forest Reserve J.S. 
Goodenough s.n. — 8 April 1890; Tuas J.S. Goodenough 4684 — 29 May 
1890; Chan Chu Kang H.N. Ridley 6153 — 1894, s.n. — Feb 1896; Bukit 
Timah Nature Reserve Chew W.L. 1442 — 30 May 1967; Nee Soon Firing 
Ranges, Central Catchment Nature Reserve Joseph Lai LJ 99 — 5 Nov 
1996. 

Distribution: India and Sri Lanka, south to New Guinea and the Solomon 
Islands. 

Polygalaceae Xanthophyllum amoenum Chodat 

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve E.J.H. Corner s.n. — Nov 1943; McRitchie 
area, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Wong, Ali & Chew 12 — 17 
Sept 1992. 

Distribution: Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Riouw and Borneo. 

Rubiaceae Geophila repens (L.) I.M. Johnst. var. asiatica (Cham. & Schltdl.) 
Fosberg 

Fort Canning Park Ali Ibrahim & Saifuddin AI 279 — 17 March 1998. 
This species is quite widespread in Singapore and populations are known 
from Fort Canning Park, Makeway Avenue, Mount Emily Park and Pearl's 
Hill City Park. 

Distribution: Indo-Malaya and China, south to Peninsular Malaysia, 
Singapore and Java. 

Rubiaceae Hedyotis verticillata (L.) Lam 

Chua Chu Kang Ridley s.n. — Feb 1894; Sultan of Johore's Land, Tanglin 
Joseph Lai LJ 114 — 12 Dec 1996. 
Distribution: India to Java. 

Sapindaceae Lepisanthes senegalensis (Poir.) Leenh. 

Mandai Road, Track 7 Joseph Lai LJ 181 — 11 Feb 1997. 

Also observed from MacRitchie area, Central Catchment Nature Reserve. 

Distribution: Africa to New Guinea. 

Sterculiaceae Pterospermum lancifolium Roxb. 

Singapore (locality and collector unknown) Accession No. 075943, 075944 
— 1880s; Fort Canning Road Ridley s.n. — 1902, Joseph Lai LJ 180 — 10 
Jan 1997. 

Distribution: India (NW Himalayas), Myanmar, Thailand and Peninsular 
Malaysia. Singapore appears to be the southernmost locality for this species. 



54 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Zingiberaceae Scaphochlamys tenuis Holttum 

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve H. Kennedy & E.P. Tay 4462 A — 16 Aug 
1983. 

Distribution: Peninsular Malaysia (previously known only from the type 
collection from Trengganu) and Singapore. 

This is the first record of the genus Schaphochlamys from Singapore and 
was identified by Kai Larsen. Another plant with the same number (4462B) 
was tentatively identified by Kai Larsen as Schaphochlamys aff. breviscape 
Holttum but this has yet to be confirmed. 

Acknowledgement 

We are grateful to Ruth Kiew for help in writing this paper. 

References 

Lum, S. and I. Sharp (eds). 1996. A View from the Summit. The Story of 
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Nanyang Technical University Singapore, 
National University Singapore and National Parks Board Singapore. 

Turner, I.M. 1993. The names used for Singapore plants since 1900. Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore. 45: 1-287. 

Turner, I. M. 1994. The taxonomy and ecology of the vascular plant flora 
of Singapore: a statistical analysis. Botanical Journal Linnean Society. 
114: 215-227. 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan and K.S. Chua. 1994. Additions to the flora of 
Singapore, II. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 42: 131-135. 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, E.E.L. Seah, A.H.B. Loo and Ali Ibrahim. 
1997. Additions to the Flora of Singapore, III. Gardens' Bulletin 
Singapore. 49:1-5. 

Wong, Y.K., P.T. Chew and Ali Ibrahim. 1994. The tree communities of 
the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin 
Singapore. 46: 37-78. 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 55-106. 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 

A.H.B. Loo and H.T.W. Tan 

School of Biological Sciences, The National University of Singapore 
10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260. 

Major references: R.Br, in M. Flinders, Voy. Terra austral. 2 (1814) 550; 
R.S. Cowan in Polhill & Raven (eds.) 1(1981) 57-64; L. Watson & Dallwitz, 
Gen. Leg. — Caesalpinioideae (1983) 95 pp.; Ding Hou, K. Larsen & S.S. 
Larsen, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 409-730. 

Caesalpinioideae Kunth 

Trees, lianas or herbs to shrubs; evergreen or deciduous, armed 
(Caesalpinia) or not, rarely tendrilled (Bauhinia); sometimes buttressed 
(Koompassia, Intsia). Leaves simple, pinnate or bipinnate; alternate; 
petiolate; pinna and pinnules usually stalked, stipleless; extrafloral glands 
sometimes present on leaves (Intsia) or leaf-axes (Chamaecrista, Senna); 
stipules paired, usually caducous. Inflorescence a raceme or panicle, singly 
or in fascicles; axillary, terminal on branches, or cauliflorous. Flowers 
usually bisexual, rarely unisexual (Caesalpinia bonduc), zygomorphic, 
usually 5-merous except for the gynoecium, perigynous; sepals (4-)5, usually 
free, rarely connate to form a calyx tube, usually imbricate; petals 5, 
sometimes reduced to (1-) 4 or absent (Dialium), imbricate, the adaxial 
petal overlapped by lateral petals (when these are present), often clawed, 
often unequal; stamens 10, or through reduction 9, 7-2, or in female flowers 
absent, filaments free or basally connate, anthers basi- or dorsi-fixed, often 
versatile, longitudinally dehiscent or by apical (and basal) pores; ovary 1- 
loculate, with lor few to many anatropous ovules often superposed in 2 
rows on either side of the adaxial suture, usually flattened, stipitate to 
sessile; style often recurved, short or long; stigma capitate or peltate, large 
to indistinct; hypanthium usually cupular, ± oblique, short. Fruit & legume, 
drupe (Dialium) or samara (Koompassia); legume compressed, oblong to 
linear, indehiscent or not, valves chartaceous, coriaceous or woody; drupes 
and samaras, indehiscent, rarely with pulp (Dialium), glabrous, pubescent 
to spinescent. Seeds 1-many per legume, varying in shape, often flattened, 
exendospermous; testa membraneous, coriaceous or crustose, rarely areolate 
(Senna), rarely arillate (Sindora); cotyledons fleshy or foliaceous, radicle 
straight. 



56 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Distribution — Predominantly tropical group of c. 160 genera with c. 
2000 spp. (Hou et #/., 1996). In Singapore, there are 10 genera with 20 spp. 

Ecology — Wide range of habitats including primary and secondary 
forest, coastal beach forest, mangrove, wasteland, abandoned villages and 
farmland. 

Uses — See under species. 

Notes — This family has traditionally been treated as a subfamily 
(Caesalpinioideae) of the family Leguminosae (e.g., Bentham (1865), 
Taubert (1894), Whitmore (1973) and Corner (1988) but here treated as a 
family in agreement with Cronquist (1981) and Hou et al (1996). The 
primary reason is the distinction between three basic groups within the 
legumes sensu lato is clear. Moreover, in this treatment no emphasis is laid 
on the borderline Dimorphandra group sensu Polhill and Vidal (between 
Mimosaceae and Caesalpiniaceae) and tribe Swartzieae (between 
Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae) as they are not found in Singapore. 

Key to the Genera 

la. Leaves simple; lamina bilobed with an apical sinus a quarter to a third 



of the lamina length, venation palmate; tendrilled Bauhinia 

lb. Leaves pinnately compound; pinna or pinnule lamina margins entire, 
venation pinnate; not tendrilled 2 

2a. Leaves bipinnate 3 

2b. Leaves pinnate 4 

3a. Prickly climbers (rarely shrubs or trees). Lowermost sepal mostly 
cucullate. Stigma small, as wide as the style Caesalpinia 

3b. Unarmed trees. Lowermost sepal unmodified. Stigma large, peltate 
Peltophorum 

4a. Leaves imparipinnate 5 

4b. Leaves paripinnate 6 



5a. Midrib minutely puberulous above. Petals 5. Fruit a samara 

Koompassia 

5b. Midrib glabrous above. Petals absent. Fruit a drupe Dialium 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
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57 



6a. Trees. Legumes oblong, orbicular or subglobose, 1-6-seeded 7 

6b. Herbs to shrubs. Legumes long and narrow, >10-seeded 9 

7a. Pinnae unequal, lowermost pair if present usually very much smaller. 

Petals (4-)5. Legume subglobose, deeply rugose Cynometra 

7b. Pinnae ± equal, lowermost pair not markedly smaller than the others. 

Petal 1. Legume flattened, smooth or spinescent 8 

8a. Pinnae with a thickened marginal nerve. Fertile stamens usually 9, 
basally connate into a hirsute sheath. Legume elliptic to orbicular. 
Seeds arillate Sindora 

8b. Pinnae without a thickened marginal nerve. Fertile stamens 3(-4), 
free. Legume oblong. Seeds exarillate Intsia 

9a. Pinnae linear or falciform, sessile. Anther-thecae ciliate along the 

sutures. Legume elastically dehiscent, valves coiling 

Chamaecrista 

9b. Pinnae (oblong-)elliptic, ovate or obovate, stalked. Anther-thecae 
glabrous. Legume either indehiscent or dehiscent through 1 or both 
sutures, valves not coiling Senna 



Bauhinia L. 

Sp. pi. 1 (1753) 374; DC, Prodr. 2 (1825) 512; R.P.Wunderlin, K. Larsen & 
S.S. Larsen, Biol. Skr. danske Vidensk Selsk. 28 (1987) 18; Watson & 
Dallwitz, Gen. Leg. - Caesalpinioideae (1983) 12, 47. 

Bauhinia subg. Phanera sect. Phanera (Lour.) Wunderlin, Larsen & 
Larsen 

Phanera subg. Phanera sect. Meganthera de Wit 

Tendrilled lianas; stem dbh <15 cm, young branches brownish 
pubescent, later glabrous. Leaves simple; lamina bilobed, palmately nerved, 
glabrous above, mucronate; petiole brownish pubescent; stipules ovate, 
falcate, puberulous, caducous. Raceme terminal or axillary, axis rusty brown 
to silvery pubescent. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, alternate; bracts 
lanceolate, early caducous; bracteoles linear, early caducous; calyx 5-lobed, 
sepals longer than the hypanthium, rusty brown or silky white pubescent 
outside; petals 5, shortly clawed, subequal, standard smaller with a hairier 
claw; stamens 3, staminodes 2-3, anthers dorsifixed and versatile, dehiscence 



58 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



longitudinal; ovary densely pubescent, stipitate; style widened just before 
the peltate and capitate stigma; hypanthium long tubular with an orifice 
near the standard; flower buds oblong-apiculate. Legume tardily dehiscent, 
valves woody. Seeds ellipsoid to orbicular, flat with short funicular aril- 
lobes. 

Distribution — Bauhinia s. I. has about 300 spp. all over the tropics 
with 69 spp. in Malesia and the section Phanera sensu Wunderlin, Larsen 
& Larsen has about 60 spp. in South and South-east Asia (Larsen and 
Larsen, 1996). In Singapore there is only one indigenous species. 

Ecology — Lianas in primary and secondary forests, also in freshwater 
swamps; fringing the forests or along trails and streams. 

Uses — Various Bauhinia spp. are used as ornamental trees (B. 
purpurea L., B. variegata L.), shrubs (B. acuminata L.) or climbers (B. 
kockiana Korth.). 

Notes — In the past, some authors split Bauhinia s. I into several 
distinct genera (e.g., de Wit (1956) who recognized 7 genera) as this large 
genus included a wide range of habits like lianas, shrubs or trees. More 
recently, Larsen & Larsen (1996) studied the genus throughout its 
distribution and found it to be a natural group with a reticulate pattern of 
variation. Bauhinia ferruginea var. griffithiana (A.H.B. Loo & T.M. Leong 
ALoo 064) was found near the Visitors' Centre of Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve. Although it is not considered a native or naturalized species in 
Singapore, it regenerates within the vicinity of adult plants; so its distribution 
in Singapore should be monitored over time to see if this species becomes 
naturalized. 

1. B. semibifida Roxb. ex Roxb. van semibifida 

Fl. Ind., ed Carey, 2 (1832) 330; RidL, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 
75; RidL, FL Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 627; de Wit , Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 
465; H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 256; H. Keng, Concise Fl. 
Singapore (1990) 32; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore 
natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 
(1993) 118; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 294; Ding Hou, 
K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 492. 

Phanera semibifida (Roxb.) Benth. 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
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59 




Figure L Bauhinia semibifida Roxb. ex Roxb. van semibifida. a. Inflorescence; b. Split legumes 
with valves open and separate showing seeds; c. Flower bud; d. Top view of flower; e. Left, 
leaf from a flowering branch (abaxial); right, leaf from a vegetative branch (adaxial); f. Left, 
complete half-flower; right - mature standard petal having turned yellow from white. (Each 
interval on scale bar equivalent to 1 mm). (A.H.B. Loo, A. Ibrahim, E.E.L. Seah & J. Lai 
A.Loo 084) 



60 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Young branches brownish pubescent. Laminas orbicular, 4-9 cm 
across, chartaceous, 11-nerved, brownish pubescent below, apical sinus a 
quarter to a third the lamina length, tips obtuse to subacute, base cordate; 
petiole 1-5 cm long, pubescent; stipules c. 2 by 1 mm. Raceme to 45 cm 
long, rusty tomentose. Flowers fragrant; sepals 5, reflexed, lanceolate, c. 2 
cm long, caducous; petals 5, white turning yellow, oblanceolate with a 
short claw, 2CM0 by 8-13 mm, claw and the base of the midrib puberulous; 
stamens 3, filaments white, 1-2.5 cm long, anthers dorsifixed, versatile, c. 1 
cm long; staminodes to 1 cm long; ovary 2-4 cm long, silky tomentose, 
stipitate; stigma, white-green, c. 1 cm long; receptacle tubular; pedicel 2-5 
cm long. Legume flat, oblong, c. 10 by 4 cm. Seeds 4-6 per legume, flat, 
hilum seven eighths the seed circumference. 

Distribution — Singapore: fairly common; Botanic Gardens' Jungle, 
Bukit Kallang, Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Clementi Road; 
previously found in Bukit Mandai, Bukit Timah. Sumatra, Peninsular 
Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes (Larsen and Larsen, 1996). The 
most widespread species of the genus. 

Ecology — Forest edge and streams; flowering in June to July, 
October to December. Legumes reach maturity about one month after 
flowering. Ants are attracted to the secretions from the flowers and 
Lepidopteran larvae were observed on the peltate stigma which had a 
clear sticky secretion. Dispersal is by explosion and torsion of the legumes 
(Ridley, 1930). 

Uses — Pounded roots are used as a treatment for veneral disease 
(de Wit, 1956). 

Notes — There are five other varieties occurring in Malesia (four in 
Borneo and one in the Philippines). Throughout its distribution, var. 
semibifida is distinguished from the others in having a long tubular 
hypanthium dilated at the base (versus a short, uniformly wide hypanthium) 
, leaves on flowering shoots 4-11 cm across (versus leaves 11-18 cm across) 
and the apical sinus 1/4-1/2 the leaf length (versus a deep apical sinus 
more than 1/2 the leaf length). 

Caesalpinia L. 

Sp. pi. (1753) 380; Gen. pi. ed. 5 (1754) 178; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 
1-69; Polhill and Vidal in Polhill and Raven (eds.), Adv. Leg. Syst. 1 
(1981) 93. 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
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61 



Cinclido carpus Zoll. 
Guilandinia L. 
Mezoneuron Desf. 
Poinciana L. 

Lianas or half-climbers, armed with recurved or straight prickles. 
Leaves bipinnate; rachis armed with paired prickles below the insertion of 
pinnae and pinnules with scattered ones in between; pinnae opposite; 
pinnules opposite, alternate or rarely subopposite, sessile or subsessile. 
Inflorescence a raceme or panicle (raceme of racemes); axillary, terminal 
or rarely supra-axillary; bracts mostly caducous; bracteoles absent. Flowers 
usually bisexual, sometimes unisexual, zygomorphic; sepals 5, free or 
connate, subequal, lower one usually cucullate; petals 5, yellow, orange, 
pink or rarely green, usually spathulate, clawed, unequal, standard differing 
in shape and size; stamens 10, free, equal or alternately narrow and wide, 
anthers dorsifixed and longitudinally dehiscent; ovary flat, sessile or 
subsessile; style ± curved upwards, slender; stigma usually as wide as the 
style; hypanthium oblique, cupular; pedicels sometimes articulated. 
Legumes usually smooth or sometimes armed with spines, winged along 
the dorsal suture or not, dehiscent or not. Seeds 1-8 per legume, orbicular 
to oblong, flat or globose. 

Distribution — Pantropical genus with 18 indigenous species found 
all over Malesia (Hou, 1996a). Four indigenous species are found in 
Singapore. 

Ecology — The Singapore species are found in beach forest and 
back-mangrove or further inland, in primary or secondary forests along 
trails or near streams. 

Uses — See under individual species. 

Notes — Recurved prickles may be set on top of woody triangular 
knobs in old stems for C. crista (Fig. 2) and C. sumatrana. 

Key to Species 

la. Stipules pinnatifid, large, each lobe orbicular to 2.5 cm across; pinnae 
prolonged to a c. 5 mm long mucro. Branches pubescent, armed with 
straight and recurved prickles. Flowers unisexual (in male flowers, 
carpel rudimentary, 1-2 mm long; in female flowers anthers without 



62 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



pollen); ovary densely spiny; petals green-yellow; style pubescent. 
Legumes densely spiny, pubescent, dehiscent. Seeds with lines 

concentric about the hilum 1. C bonduc 

lb. Stipules simple and triangular, minute or absent, c. 1 by 1 mm; pinnae 
not prolonged into a mucro. Branches glabrous, armed only with 
recurved prickles. Flowers bisexual, ovary inermous; bracts 
inconspicuous or early caducous, 1-2 mm long, straight, not longer 
than bud; petals orange, pink or yellow; style glabrous or only sparsely 
puberulous basally. Legumes inermous, glabrous, indehiscent. Seeds 
without concentric lines 2 



2a. Pinnules sessile, 2-6 mm wide, linear, base oblique and truncate, 
tapering to a point or a minute mucro on the distal side, in 12-30 pairs 
per pinna, membranous; rachis pubescent, 30-45(-70) cm long. 
Branchlets lenticellate. Petals orange. Legumes often twisted, base 
rounded. Seeds subglobose, c. 10 mm across 4. C. tortuosa 

2b. Pinnules with a 2-4 mm long stalk, 10-50 mm wide, elliptic or ovate- 
elliptic or oblong, base cuneate, not tapering on any side, in 1-6 pairs 
per pinna, subcoriaceous to coriaceous; rachis glabrous, 10-30 cm long. 
Branchlets without lenticels. Petals yellow or pink. Legumes not 
twisted, base cuneate. Seeds flat, c. 1-5 mm thick 3 

3a. Pinnules alternate (but topmost pair often opposite), in 3-6 pairs per 
pinna, widely elliptic to oblong, dull above, sometimes puberulous 
below, apex retuse or rounded; pinnae in 4-8 pairs. Petals pink; 
sepals connate to a campaniform calyx tube. Legumes chartaceous, 
winged dorso-longitudinally (c. 1 cm wide), 10 cm long or more, apex 
rounded or hooked. Seeds 1-8 per legume, clearly outlined on the 
surface of the legume. Ovary glabrous, slightly falcate; filaments 
laterally compressed, alternately a narrow and wide one, glabrous or 
puberulous basally 3. C. sumatrana 

3b. Pinnules opposite, in 1-3 pairs pairs per pinna, elliptic to ovate elliptic, 
shiny above, glabrous on both surfaces, apex obtuse, acute or 
acuminate; pinnae in 2-4 pairs. Petals yellow; sepals free, not forming 
a calyx tube. Legumes woody, not winged, 7 cm long or less, apex 
beaked. Seeds l(-2) per legume, not outlined on the surface of the 
legume. Ovary puberulous, straight; filaments terete, pubescent to 
above the middle 2. C. crista 

1. C. bonduc (L.) Roxb. 

Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 362; L., Sp. pi., (1753) 381; Ridl., Fl. Malay 



The Angio sperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
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63 



Penins. 1 (1922) 649; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 17; H. Keng, Gdns' 
Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 256; K. Larsen, S.S. Larsen & J.E. Vidal, Fl. 
Thailand 4 (1984) 72; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 32; I.M. 
Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 
(1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 118; I.M. Turner, 
Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 295. 

Half-climbers to 15 m long. Leaves: rachis 15-80 cm long; pinnae in 

3- 9 pairs, 8-18 cm long; pinnules in 5-10 pairs per pinna, opposite or 
rarely subopposite, elliptic-oblong, 2-5.5 by 1-2 cm, pubescent to glabrous, 
apex mucronate, stalk 1-2 mm long. Panicle supra-axillary or terminal, 
12-60 cm long, pubescent. Flowers: sepals ovate, equal or rarely subequal, 
7-9 by mm, pubescent; standard petal: limb reflexed, with red patches, 

4- 5 by 3^4 mm, claw 3-4 by 1-2 mm, other 4 petals: spathulate, 8-10 by 3- 

4 mm (including c. 2 mm long, woolly claw); stamens 6-10 mm long (in 
female flowers 5-6 mm long staminodes), lower half woolly, anthers c. 1 
mm long; ovary c. 3 by 2 mm; style 3-4 mm long; stigma ciliate; pedicel 4- 

5 mm long, articulated. Legume oblong, 6.5-9 by 3.5-4.5 cm, stipitate to 6 
mm long, remnant style c. 10 mm long. Seeds 1-2 per legume, grey, globular, 
1.5-2 cm across. 

Distribution — Singapore: only two plants known; Pulau Sakijang 
Pelepah (extreme South), Pulau Semakau (North-west). Previously found 
in East Coast Park beach, Pulau Senang (South-east side). Pantropical; in 
Malesia all parts, but distinctly scarce in the rain forests of Sumatra, Borneo, 
the Philippines and western New Guinea (Hattink, 1974). 

Ecology — Coastal, beach forest and back-mangrove to inland, in 
secondary forests. Flowers and fruits can occur together without periodicity. 
Legumes dispersed by floating in the sea (Ridley, 1930). 

Uses — The seeds are used as an anthelminthic, vermifuge, chewed 
for coughs or eaten for stomach trouble as well as for curing gout (Burkill, 
1935). The attractive, hard seeds are used ornamentally as beads in 
necklaces, rosaries and also used as marbles (Rudd, 1991), hence the name 
"grey knicker" which refers to the game of marbles played by children. In 
Somoa and Tonga, the prickly stems, attached to a stick are used to snare 
fruit bats (Whistler, 1992). 

2. C. crista L. 

Sp. pi. (1753) 380; Ridl., J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 75; Ridl., Fl. 



64 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 




Figure 2. Caesalpinia crista L. Stem showing characteristic recurved prickles set on top of 
corky knobs. 



Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 650; Sinclair, Gdns'. Bull, Singapore 14 (1953) 32; 
Backer & Bakh. Fl. Java 1 (1964) 545; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 20; 
H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 256; K. Larsen, S.S. Larsen & 
J.E. Vidal, Fl. Thailand 4 (1984) 70; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 
32; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 
& 19 (1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 118; I.M. 
Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 295. 

Caesalpinia nuga (L) Ait.f. 

Lianas to 15 m long; branchlets glossy. Leaves: rachis 10-30 cm long; 
pinnae 3.5-9 cm long; pinnules opposite or rarely subopposite, 2-12.5 by 
1-5 cm, subcoriaceous, base cuneate or rounded; petiolules 2-4 mm long; 
stipules, triangular, c. 1 by 1 mm, caducous. Panicle axillary or terminal, 
15-40 cm long; bracts c. 1mm long, caducous. Flowers: sepals unequal, 7-8 
by 2-3 mm (lowest one cucullate); standard petal: limb reflexed, orbicular, 
c. 5 mm across, claw c. 5 by 2 mm, pubescent, other 4 petals: obovate, 8-10 
by 5-6 mm (including c. 2 mm long pubescent claw); stamens 10-14 mm 
long, anthers c. 1 mm long; ovary c. 5 by 2 mm; style c. 8 mm long, 
glabrous; stigma ciliate; pedicel 5-15 mm long, articulated c. 1 mm below 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



65 




Figure 3. Caesalpinia crista L. a. Fruiting branch; b. Legume with one side removed to show 
seed (Tanaka, Chen & Boo A.Loo 005); c. Isolated carpel on hypanthium; d. Isolated stamen 
(SING 078418); m. Side view of flower; n. Standard petal (After Verdcourt, 1979). Caesalpinia 
sumatrana Roxb. e. Winged legume; f. Seed; g. Alternate pinnules of a pinna (H. N. Ridley 
2105); h. Isolated falcate ovary (Mat 6028). Caesalpinia tortuosa Roxb. i. Legume; j. One pair 
of sessile pinnules; k. Isolated stamen; 1. Isolated carpel on hypanthium. (King's Collector 
L10014). 



66 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



the flower. Legume green turning brown, subelliptic or rhombic, flat, 4-7 
by 3-4 cm, smooth, veined. Seeds brown, orbicular to reniform, 2-2.5 by 
1.5-2 by 0.5-1 cm. 

Distribution — Singapore: fairly common; Pulau Sakijang Pelepah, 
Pulau Semakau (West), Pulau Tekong, Pulau Tekong Kechil, Pulau 
Terkukor, Sembawang Road end, Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Sungei 
Mandai Kechil (Kampong Fatimah), Western Catchment Area; previously 
collected in Jurong, Kranji. Coastal parts of South-east Asia from India to 
the Ryuku Islands, Australia (Queensland), Palau Island, New Caledonia; 
all over Malesia except East Sumatra and East Borneo (Hattink, 1974). 

Ecology — River banks, sandy beaches, in back-mangrove and its 
fringes. Mature plants may have stems to c. 10 cm thick that are covered 
by triangular woody knobs with recurved prickles set at the tip (Fig. 2). 
Periodicity for flowering and fruiting not found (Hattink, 1974). Legumes 
dispersed by floating (Ridley, 1930). 

Uses — As for C. bonduc. 
3. C. sumatrana Roxb. 

FL Ind., ed. Carey 2 (1832) 366; Baker in J.D. Hook., Fl. Brit. India 2 
(1879) 259; Ridl., J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 75; RidL, Fl. Malay 
Penins. 1 (1922) 647; Backer & Bakh. Fl. Java 1 (1964) 546; Hattink, 
Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 55; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. 
Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., 
Singapore 27 (1974) 262; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1991) 36; I.M. 
Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 118; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., 
Singapore 47 (1995) 295; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 553. 

Mezoneuron sumatranum (Roxb.) W. & A. ex Miq. 

Climbers to 20 m long; branchlets glossy. Leaves: rachis 16-20 cm 
long; pinnae 6-15 cm long; pinnules 2-7 by 1-5.5 cm, subcoriaceous, apex 
sometimes shortly mucronate, base cuneate to rounded; petiolules 2-4 mm 
long. Panicle supra-axillary or terminal, 30-80 cm long; bracts c. 1 by 0.5 
mm, caducous. Flowers: calyx tube red, c. 1.3 by 0.5 cm, circumscissle 
above the hypanthium and falling off with the corolla and stamens, calyx 
lobes half-orbicular, 3-10 mm long, lowest one cucullate; petals spathulate, 
subequal, 12-30 mm long, limb 8-12 mm wide, basal part 2-3 mm wide; 
filaments pale pink, 10-29 mm long, anthers 1.5-3 mm long; ovary falcate, 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



67 



4-15 by 1-2 mm; style 6-15 by 0.5 mm; stigma ciliate; pedicel 5-20 mm 
long. Legume wine-red, oblong, 10-17 by 3-6 cm (including the c. 1 cm 
wide wing). Seeds brown, broadly elliptic, 9-11 by 7 by 1 mm, smooth, 
margins nerved. 

Distribution — Singapore: rare, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (along 
the Rock Path and Cave Path); previously collected in Kranji, Sungei 
Jurong. Possibly collected in India. Malesia: Sumatra (West Coast 
Bengkulu), Peninsular Malaysia, West and East Java, Borneo (near 
Sandakan); New Guinea, Solomons (Guadalcanal) (Hattink, 1974). 

Ecology — Forest fringes, along forest trails and in late secondary 
forests. Like C. crista, mature climbers of C. sumatrana also have thick 
stems with recurved prickles set on top of woody knobs. The knobs of this 
species are more closely set than in C. crista. 

Uses — None known. 
4. C. tortuosa Roxb. 

Fl. Ind. ed. Carey 2 (1832) 365; Baker in J.D. Hook., Fl. Brit. India 2 
(1879) 256, 257; RidL, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 75; Ridl., Fl. 
Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 651; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 57; H. Keng, 
Gdns' Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 256; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. 
Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; H. Keng, Concise Fl. 
Singapore (1991) 32; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 118; 
I.M. Turner, Gdns 1 Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 295. 

Lianas, shrubs or small trees to 10 m tall. Leaves: pinnae in 7-20 
pairs, 6-10.5 cm long; pinnules 10-13(-22) by 2-6 mm, glabrous or sparsely 
puberulous below, apex rounded to obtuse; stipules absent. Panicle axillary, 
terminal or rarely supra-axillary, 20-60 cm long; bracts 2 by 1 mm, 
pubescent. Flowers: sepals ovate, unequal, 8-10 by 4-6 mm, ciliate (lowest 
deeply cucullate); petals unequal, standard: limb reflexed, orbicular, c. 5 
mm in diam., claw 5-8 by 2 mm, hirsute above, other 4 petals: limb orbicular 
to reniform, 7-10 by 6-12 mm, claw 1-3 by 1 mm, hirsute or glabrous; 
stamens slightly exserted, filaments 10-15 mm long, woolly halfway, anthers 
2.5-3 by 1 mm; ovary subsessile, 3-5 by 1-1.5 mm, hairy or glabrous; style 
8-12 mm, sparsely puberulous basally; stigma c. 1 mm across; pedicel 8-15 
mm long, pubescent. Legumes black when dry, oblong, 3.5-9 by 2-3.5 cm, 
sutures thickened, constricted between the seeds, apex obtuse, shortly 
beaked. Seeds l-5(-7) per legume. 



68 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Distribution — Singapore: now extinct; previously collected in Changi 
(Loyang). India (Assam), Hong Kong, Burma; Malesia: West and East 
Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (Johore, Penang), West and East Java, 
Kalimantan (Hattink, 1974). 

Ecology — Primary and secondary forests, forest fringes, along rivers. 

Uses — None known. 

Chamaecrista Moench 

Methodus (1794) 272; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1955) 278; Irwin and Barneby in 
Polhill and Raven (eds.) Adv. Leg. Syst. 1 (1981) 106, Mem. N. Y. bot. 
Gdn 35 (1982) 636. 

Cassia subg. Lasiorhegma Vogel ex Benth. 

Herbs with a woody base; stem erect or decumbent, pubescent. 
Leaves paripinnate; rachis with longitudinal ridges above, produced to a 
short mucro beyond the terminal pairs of pinnae; pinnae asymmetrical, 
sessile, apex ± mucronate, margins sparsely ciliate, base truncate; petiole 
with l(-2) subsessile glands adaxially; stipules linear, apex acute, margins 
ciliate, intrastipular trichomes present. Raceme supra-axillary, few-flowered, 
bracts and bracteoles similar to the stipules but smaller. Flowers: sepals 5, 
unequal, membranous and thicker in the median undersurface, puberulous; 
petals 5, yellow, unequal, membranous, with darker reticulate veins visible, 
claw short; stamens 10, filaments straight, short, anthers basifixed, straight 
or ± curved, of ± two length classes, opening by two apical pores, thecae 
ciliate along the sutures. Legume strap-shaped, flat, transversely grooved 
between seeds, elastically dehiscent, valves twisting spirally. Seeds many 
per legume, seedcoat ± pitted, glossy. 

Distribution — About 240 spp. are indigenous to the Americas with 
few indigenous to Tropical Asia (Larsen and Hou, 1996a). In Singapore, 
two exotic species, are naturalized (Corlett, 1988). 

Ecology — Mainly found in open places, wasteland and reclaimed 
land. Roots have nodules. 

Uses — Used mainly as green manure. See under species. 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
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69 



Notes — In the past, species in Chamaecrista and Senna were 
considered as subgenera under Cassia L. s. /. (e.g., de Wit, 1955). They are 
now recognized as separate genera following the work of Irwin and Barneby 
(1982) who raised the genus Cassia s.L to the level of subtribe and elevated 
the previous subgenera to generic rank alongside Cassia s.s.. The 
circumscription of the genera follows that of Irwin and Barneby (1982) but 
the delimitation of species follows that of Larsen and Hou (1996a) who 
have found that Asian species justify the maintenance of both C. 
leschenaultiana and C. mimosoides. 

Key to the Species 

la. Leaf rachis with 2 evenly high longitudinal ridges parallel to each 
other on the adaxial surface; pinnae falciform, 2-3 mm wide; subsessile 
discoid gland 1-1.5 mm below the lowest pair of pinnae. Ovary and 
legume with long, thin, non-appressed hairs; legume with a ± hooked 
mucro. Seeds 10-15 per legume L C. leschenaultiana 

lb. Leaf rachis with only one unevenly high longitudinal ridge in the form 
of an adaxial series of semicircular flaps between the nodes; pinnae 
linear, 0.5-1 mm wide; sessile discoid gland immediately below the 
lowest pair of pinnae. Ovary and legume with stiff, appressed hairs; 

legume with a ± straight mucro. Seeds 20-25 per legume 

2. C. mimosoides 

L C. leschenaultiana (DC.) O.Deg. 

Fl. Haw. Fam. 169b. (1934); DC, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 2 
(1824) 132; Ridl., J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 74; Ridl., Fl. Malay 
Penins. 1 (1922) 619; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1955) 280; Rudd, Rev. Handb. Fl. 
Ceylon (1991) 88; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore 
natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 
(1993) 119; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 297; K. Larsen & 
Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 566. 

Cassia leschenaultiana DC. 
Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench 

Subshrubs to 1.5 m tall; stem erect or decumbent, pubescent. Leaves: 
rachis 4-9 cm long, produced to a short mucro to 4 mm long; pinnae in 10- 
30 pairs, asymmetrical, 5-20 by 2-3 mm, apex truncate, mucro 0.5 mm long 
or more, margins sparsely ciliate, base truncate; petiole 5-7 mm long with 



70 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 




Figure 4. Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene, a. Left, flowering branch; right, fruiting 
branch; b. Paired stipules and petiolar gland, inset, intrastipular trichomes. c. From left, unripe, 
ripe and split legume showing spirally twisted valves; d. Hilar view and side view of seed; e. 
Exploded flower; f. Anterior view of flower. (Each interval on scale bar equivalent to 1mm). 
(A.H.B. Loo A.Loo 085). 



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71 



l(-2) glands (c. 1 mm in diam.); stipules 10-17 mm long. Raceme l-A- 
flowered. Flowers: sepals ovate to long-acute, 7-8 by 1-3 mm; petals 
orbicular to obovate, c. 7-8 by 3-6 mm; filaments short, c. 1 mm long, 
anthers slightly curved, unequal, 2-6 mm long; ovary c. 5 by 1 mm, sessile; 
style recurved, c. 2 mm long, glabrous; stigma flat, ciliate. Legume green 
turning brown, strap-shaped, 3-5 by 0.5 cm. Seeds dark brown, oblong, 
flat, c. 4 by 3 mm. 

Distribution — Singapore: fairly common but less common than C. 
mimosoides; Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin (Western tip). South-east Asia, 
widespread in Malesia (Larsen and Hou, 1996a). 

Ecology — Found in waste or reclaimed land; in Pulau Ubin growing 
in rock crevices near the sea. It has been observed to form nodules (Allen 
& Allen, 1981). 

Uses — As green manure (Burkill, 1935). 

2. C. mimosoides (L.) Greene 

Pittonia 4 (1899) 27; L., Sp. pi. (1753) 379; Baker in J. D. Hook., Fl. Brit. 
India 2 (1879) 266; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 619; de Wit, Webbia 
11 (1955) 283; M.R. Hend, Mai. Wild. Fl. Die. (1959) 97; H. Keng, Gdns' 
Bull, Singapore 27 (1974) 258; R.T. Corlett, J. Biogeog. 15 (1988) 657-663; 
J.B. Hacker, A guide to herbaceous and shrub legumes of Queensland 
(1990) 94; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 33; I.M. Turner, K.S. 
Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I.M. 
Turner, Gdns 1 Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 119; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., 
Singapore 47 (1995) 297; K. Larsen & Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 
567. 

Cassia mimosoides L. 

Subshrubs to 1.2 m tall; stem erect or decumbent, appressed 
pubescent. Leaves: rachis 3-5 cm long, produced to a short mucro to 3 mm 
long; pinnae in 40-60 pairs, asymmetrical, 3-6 by 0.5-1 mm, apex acute, 
mucro less than 0.5 mm long, margins sparsely ciliate, base truncate; petiole 
2-3 mm long with 1 adaxial gland (c. 0.5 mm in diam.); stipules 3-5 mm 
long. Raceme 1-3-flowered; bracts and bracteoles like stipules but smaller. 
Flowers: sepals ovate to long acute, 8-10 by 2-5 mm; petals orbicular to 
obovate, 9—13 by 8-10 mm; filaments 1-2 mm long, anthers straight to 
slightly curved, 4-8 mm long, 2 adaxial ones turning reddish; ovary 6-9 by 
1 mm, sessile; style 3-4 mm long, glabrous; stigma flat, ciliate. Legume 



72 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



green turning brown, strap-shaped, 4-6 by 0.5 cm. Seeds dark brown, 
oblong, flat, c. 2.5 by 1.5 mm. 

Distribution — Singapore: fairly common; Old Upper Thomson Road, 
Pulau Tekong, Yishun Ave 6. Regarded as introduced in the Malesian 
area and Africa; common all over tropical Asia (Larsen and Hou, 1996a). 

Ecology — A short-lived weed of 1-2 years found in waste- or 
reclaimed land and which flowers and fruits year-round. The leaves are 
more sensitive than those of C. leschenaultiana and are thigmonastic and 
photoblastic, folding up during the hottest hours of the day and at night. 
The Singapore specimens have been observed to have root nodules. In 
Malesia this is a polymorphic species with many ecotypes (Larsen and 
Hou, 1996a). 

Uses — As green manure; the roots are used for spasms in the 
stomach and tea is made from the leaves by the Japanese (Burkill, 1935). 

Notes — Like C. leschenaultiana, a line of hairs can be observed on 
the inner surface of the stipules near the point of insertion (Fig. 4b, inset). 

Cynometra L. 

Sp. pi. (1753) 382, Gen. pi. ed. 5 (1754) 179; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 
1-52; Cowan & Polhill in Polhill & Raven (eds.), Adv. Leg. Syst. 1 
(1981)124; Watson & Dallwitz, Gen. Leg. — Caesalpinioideae (1983) 22. 

Trees to 26 m tall; vegetative buds small, scaly. Leaves when new in 
bright pink tassles, when mature, paripinnate, 1-2 -jugate; pinnae opposite, 
asymmetrical, chartaceous with an acroscopic midrib, glabrous; stipules 
early caducous. Raceme sessile, l(-2) per axil or when cauliflorous, in 
groups of 3-5, densely-flowered, ± spherical in outline; rachis short, 
pubescent to glabrous. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic; bracts scale-like, 
apressed hairy, lower ones reniform, decreasing in width up the raceme 
and becoming acute; bracteoles obovate, ciliate, caducous; sepals 4(-5), 
reflexed at anthesis, imbricate; petals 5(-A), narrow, glabrous; stamens 10 
(-11), ± equal, filaments glabrous, anthers sagittate basally and apiculate at 
the apex, connective introrse, medi-dorsifixed, often cleft below the insertion 
of the filament, longitudinally dehiscent; ovary with l(-2) ovules, densely 
pilose, shortly stipitate; style sparsely puberulous to halfway; receptacle 
shortly campanulate, circumscissle under the ripening fruit. Fruit 
indehiscent, rugose, brown scurfy, patently hairy, woody on a thickened 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
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73 



pedicel. Seeds l(-2) per legume. 

Distribution — About 70 spp., pantropical, in the West Pacific found 
eastwards as far as Micronesia, the Solomons and Fiji, and 14 spp. (13 
indigenous and one cultivated) occurring in Malesia (Hou, 1996b). In 
Singapore there is only one indigenous sp. 

Ecology — Mainly confined to the back-mangrove but also found 
inland. 

Uses — As commercial timber (as the medium hardwood kekatong 
as classified by the Malaysian Timber Board). See under spp. Cynometra 
cauliflora L. (nam nam) is a cultivated sp. which was commonly planted 
for its fruits which can be eaten raw or cooked. 

1. C ramiflora L. var. ramiflora 

Sp. pi. (1753) 382; Backer & Bakh. /, Fl. Java 1 (1964) 526; Meeuwen, 
Blumea 18 (1970) 23; Whitmore, Tree fl. Malaya 1 (1972) 254; H. Keng, 
Gdns' Bull. Singapore 27 (1974) 259; Corner, Ways. Trees, 3rd ed. (1988) 
434; H. Keng, Concise. Fl. Singapore (1990) 34; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & 
H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I.M. Turner, 
Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 119; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 
47 (1995) 299. 

Cynometra ramiflora subsp. bijuga Prain 

Trees 4-26 m tall. Leaves 1-2-jugate; pinnae oblong, elliptic, obovate- 
lanceolate, base cuneate, lower pair much smaller, 1.1-5.5 by 0.5-2.6 cm 
with an acute apex, upper pair 4.5-14 by 1.6-5.6 cm with an acute to 
acuminate apex, petiolules indistinct; rachis 0.8-1.3 cm, canaliculate; petiole 
3-15 mm, canaliculate. Raceme: rachis 13-25 mm long. Flowers: bracteoles 
3-4 mm long; sepals lanceolate, 3-6 by 1-1.5 mm long, ciliate marginally 
and apically to glabrous; petals lanceolate to spathulate, 3-8 mm long, 
sometimes shortly mucronate; filaments 4-7 mm long, anthers orbicular, 
0.5-1 mm long; ovary slightly excentrically inserted, rhomboid, flattened, 
1-2 by 0.5-1 mm; style 3.5-5.5 mm long; gynophore 0.5-1 mm long; 
hypanthium 1-1.25 mm deep; pedicel 7-15 mm long. Fruit ovate or elliptic, 
the tip pointing up, 2.3-3.8 by 1.5-3 cm. Seeds c. 1.2 by 1 cm. 

Distribution — Singapore: now probably extinct; previously collected 
in Kranji and Sungei Jurong. From India throughout South-east Asia and 
Malesia to the Pacific but not in Sri Lanka and Australia (Hou, 1996b). 



74 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 




Figure 5. Cynometra ramiflora L. var. ramiflora a. Fruiting branch with one fruit 
longitudinally halved. (J. Sinclair SF 40957); b. Inflorescence; c. Scaly axillary bud; d. Isolated 
petal; e. Isolated carpel on hypanthium and pedicel; f. Back view of a stamen with cleft introrsed 
anther: g. Front view of an uncleft anther and top portion of filament. (Balara 3662). 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



75 



Ecology — A constituent of the back-mangrove. The corky pericarp 
contains many air pockets which give buoyancy to the fruit which is 
dispersed by water (Meeuwen, 1970). 

Uses — The hard, dark brown timber is only available in small 
quantities and is used for making doorposts; the roots purge and the leaves 
and oil from the seeds are used to treat skin diseases (Burkill, 1935). 

Notes — The other var., var. bifoliata (Merr.) Meeuwen, has distinct 
petiolules 5-8 mm long but is only found in the Philippines (Luzon, 
Mindanao) (Meeuwen, 1970). 

Dialium L. 

Mant. 1 (1767) 3; Irwin & Barneby in Polhill & Raven (eds.), Adv. Leg. 
Syst. 1 (1981) 101; K. Larsen, S. S. Larsen & J. E. Vidal, Fl. Thailand 4:1 
(1984) 85; J. P. Rojo, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 608. 

Trees; young stems lenticellate, pubescent. Leaves imparipinnate, 
rachis and petiole pubescent to glabrous, eglandular; pinnae alternate to 
subopposite, glabrous above, glabrous to pubsecent below, lamina margins 
entire, petiolules short, 2-6 mm long; stipules small, 1-1.5 mm wide, 
caducous. Panicle terminal, bractless, pubescent, lower branches usually 
subtended by leaves. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, small; sepals 5, 
reflexed at maturity, pubescent all over but minutely so inside; petals 0; 
stamens 2, filaments slender to stout, anthers basifixed, longitudinally 
dehiscent, connective puberulous; ovary sessile, centrally or excentrically 
inserted, subglobose, densely pubescent, ovules l(-2); style short, straight 
to sharply curved; stigma small, slightly swollen; hypanthium flat or concave; 
pedicels pubescent. Drupe subglobose to obovoid, ± compressed, hairy or 
velvety, l(-2)-seeded, exocarp crustaceous, endocarp pulpy, enveloping 
the seeds. Seeds l(-2) per drupe, squarish, roundish or reniform, flat, 
smooth, longitudinally striate. 

Distribution — Pantropical genus of 27 spp., not in Australia and the 
Pacific Islands (Rojo, 1996). In Malesia absent from the islands east of 
Borneo and Java. In Singapore there are two indigenous spp., one with 
two vars. 

Ecology — In primary and late secondary forests. 

Uses — The heartwood gives a good general-purpose timber, known 



76 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



as keranji (Rojo & Alonzo, 1993). The pulpy endocarp of the fruits are 
edible but of slight economic importance (Rojo, 1996). 

Notes — For the Singapore spp., D. patens has been reduced to D. 
indum var. indum and D. maingayi reduced to D. platysepalum, respectively 
following a revision by J. P. Rojo (unpubl. thesis, 1982). The spp. of 
Dialium are best separated with floral characters, in particular, the anthers 
(v-channeled or not), the depth of the hypanthium and the insertion of the 
ovary and stamens (centrally or excentrically). 

Key to the Species 

la. Flower buds triulate, dark rusty pubescent; anthers v-channeled, 
triangular; filaments stout and flattened; style sharply recurved at the 
top; receptacle concave and wide; ovary and stamens excentrically 
inserted. Lamina of pinna chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, veins 
indistinct and not clearly raised on both surfaces, sometimes obscured 

by a golden indumentum below. Drupe velvety 

2. D. platysepalum 

lb. Flower buds elliptic or rarely, ovate, white or whitish pubescent; anthers 
not v-channelled, oblong; filaments narrow and subulate; style straight 
to slightly recurved at the top; receptacle shallow and narrow, ovary 
and stamens ± centrally inserted. Lamina of pinna subcoriaceous to 
stiffly coriaceous, veins and reticulations distinct and slightly to 
prominently raised on both surfaces, not obscured by a golden 
indumentum on the lower surface at all times. Drupe hairy but not 
velvety 1. D. indum 

1. D. indum L. 

Mant. 1 (1767) 24; Baker in J.D. Hook., Fl. Brit. India 2 (1878) 269, 270; 
Ridl., J. Straits Brch R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1990) 74; Ridl, Fl. Malay Penins. 1 
(1922) 622; de Wit, Blumea 7 (1953) 320, 321; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 
1 (1972) 260; H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 260; K. Larsen, 
S.S. Larsen & J.E. Vidal, Fl. Thailand 4:1 (1984) 87; H. Keng, Concise Fl. 
Singapore (1990) 35; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore 
natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I. M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 
(1993) 121; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 302; J. P. Rojo, 
Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 609-612. 

Dialium laurinum Baker 
Dialium marginatum de Wit 
Dialium patens Baker 



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Caesalpiniaceae 



11 



Trees to 40 m tall; dbh to 1 m, twigs grey to dark brown pubescent. 
Leaves', petiole and rachis (4-)10-15(-20) cm long; pinnae 5, 7 or 9, lamina 
surfaces concolourous to darker above, ovate-oblong, ovate-lanceolate to 
broadly elliptic, (4-)6-10(-17) by (2.5-)3-5(-7.5) cm, veins in 8-10(-14) 
pairs, puberulous to glabrous below, apex rounded to long acute, base 
cuneate to obtuse, petiolules 3-6 mm. Panicle rachis 6-20 cm long. Flowers: 
sepals elliptic or ovate-elliptic, to 5 by 2.5 mm, white pubescent outside; 
filaments 0.5-2 mm long, anthers 2.5^4 by 1.5 mm; ovary to 2 mm long, 
white to golden-brown pubescent; style to 2 mm long; pedicels 2-6 mm 
long. Drupe brown, globose to ovoid, 1.5-2.5 by 1-1.5 cm, exocarp brittle. 
Seeds l(-2) per drupe, brown, squarish to reniform, 7-12 by 5 mm. 

Distribution — Singapore: rare; confined mainly to the Nature 
Reserves; previously collected in Kranji, MacRitchie Reservoir (South) 
and Mandai Road. Southernmost Thailand and in Malesia: Sumatra, 
Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java (Rojo, 1996). 

Ecology — Primary and late secondary forest. 

Notes — There are two vars. that can be distinguished fairly accurately 
based on their pinnae. There are, however, intermediates. The type 
specimen of Dialium laurinum (Lectotype: Maingay 1625 (residing in K), 
Peninsular Malaysia) is intermediate between the two vars. Ridley believed 
that the Singapore district, Kranji may have taken its name from this sp. 
which was previously abundant there (Keng, 1990). Dialium indum var. 
indum was not included in Singapore for its distribution area by Rojo 
(1996) in his revision of the Malesian spp. of Dialium. However D. patens 
which was sunk into this var., was already included in the flora of Singapore 
(Turner et aL, 1990; Turner, 1993) and collections made in Singapore were 
found in SING (specimen Corner 37721; J. Sinclair, SF 40957). 



Key to Varieties 

la. Pinnae broadly elliptic to broadly lanceolate, stiffly coriaceous, apex 
obtuse to abruptly acuminate; veins and reticulations prominently 
raised above and below var. bursa 

lb. Pinnae ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, apex long 
acuminate to shortly cuspidate; veins and reticulations distinct but 
only slightly raised below var. indum 



78 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



2. D. platysepalum Baker 

In J.D. Hook. Fl. Brit. India 2 (1878) 270; Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 66, ii 
(1897) 173, 174; Ridl., J. Straits Brch R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1990) 74; Ridl., Fl. 
Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 622, 623; Whitmore, Tree fl. Malaya 1 (1972) 259- 
261; H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., (1974) 260, 261; K. Larsen, S.S. Larsen & J.E. 
Vidal, Fl. Thailand 4:1 (1984) 88; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 
35; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 
& 19 (1990) 72; I. M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 121; I.M. 
Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 302; J. P. Rojo, Fl. Males. 1:12 
(1996) 612. 

Dialium kingii Prain 
Dialium maingayi Baker 
Dialium wallichii (Baker) Prain 

Trees to 45 m tall; dbh 90-120 cm; twigs greyish to rusty brown 
pubescent. Leaves: petiole and rachis (5-)10-18(-28) cm long; pinnae less 
the terminal one, in (5-)7-9(-13) pairs, lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, (4-) 
6-10(-15) by (1. 5-) 2-4 (-7) cm, veins in 10-12(-15) pairs, lamina upper 
surface grey to dark brown when dry, lower surface milky brown or golden 
pubescent, puberulous to glabrescent or with a golden indumentum below, 
apex abruptly or long acuminate to cuspidate, base rounded to cuneate, 
petiolule 2-6 mm long. Panicle rachis 7-18 cm long, dark brown pubescent. 
Flowers: sepals ovate-triangular, to 6 by 4 mm, rusty to golden brown 
pubescent outside; style to 3 mm long; pedicel 2-A mm long. Drupe dark 
brown, subglobose to obovoid, 1.5-3 long, sometimes with stipe to 2 mm 
long, pericarp firm. Seeds l(-2) per drupe, brown, subglobose, 0.3-1.7 by 
0.9-1 cm. 

Distribution — Singapore: rare; Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (Jungle 
Falls); previously collected in Botanic Gardens' Jungle; Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve (Rock Path and Ginger Walk), Jurong (Kim Teck Road), 
MacRitchie Nature Reserve (South). Malesia: Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, 
Borneo (Rojo, 1996). 

Ecology — In primary forests and late secondary forest. In Malesia, 
also occurring in freshwater swamp forest. Flowers year-round, with peaks 
in Dececember to March and May to September, and fruiting most in July 
to October (Rojo, 1996). 

Uses — As timber (keranji); pulpy endocarp of the fruits is edible 
(Burkill, 1935). 



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79 




Figure 6. Dialium platysepalum Baker, a. Flowering branch; b. Triulate flower bud; c. Position 
of a v-channelled stamen; d. Isolated carpel on hypanthium and tip of pedicel (Ngadiman 
3621); h. Drupe. (H. Keng S.N.) - Dialium indum L. e. (Ovate)-elliptic flower bud; f. Isolated 
carpel on hypanthium and tip of pedicel; g. Isolated stamen. (Kostermans 6562). 



80 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Notes — Based on the classification of Rojo (1996) there are 3 discrete 
'groups' that can be distinguished in Singapore based on the size of the 
pinnae and colour and quality of their indumentum on their undersurface. 
The 'wallichW group is the most distinct group and is characterised in 
having lanceolate pinnae not exceeding 7 by 2 cm; the lower surface is also 
covered with a golden indumentum that often obscures the veins below 
and the upper surface is often greyish. The "maingayV and 'platysepaluni 
group are more difficult to separate; the 'maingayV group having a whitish 
to slightly golden indumentum below with indistinct veins and the 
'platysepalum* group having pinnae that are often tinged golden beneath. 
These 'groups' along with the 'kingiV and "triste" groups are not given any 
nomenclatural or taxonomic status as the differences between them are 
slight and they form a gradient with intermediate specimens. 

Intsia Thouars 

Gen. Nov. Madg. (1806) 22; de Wit, Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenz.. 3:17 (1941) 
139; Cowan & Polhill in Polhill & Raven (eds.) Adv. Leg Syst. 1 (1981) 
128; Watson & Dallwitz, Gen. Leg. - Caesalpinioideae (1983) 35: K. Larsen. 
S.S. Larsen & J.E. Vidal, Flora of Thailand 4:1 (1984) 124; Ding Hou. 
Blumea 38 (1994) 322. 

Trees often buttressed; trunk sometimes crooked, bark in brown and 
grey patches. Leaves paripinnate, (l-)2(-3)-jugate, laminas ovate to 
suborbiculate, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, usually with 1-2 small (< 0.5 
mm across) crateriform glands at the base on the lower surface, petiolules 
twisted: stipules intrapetiolar, connate. Inflorescence a fascicle or a raceme 
of racemes, terminal or axillary, pubescent to glabrescent. Flowers bisexual, 
zygomorphic; bracts early caducous; calyx lobes 4, subequal, pubescent; 
petals: only one fully developed, limb flabellate, lower half narrowed into 
a claw, others rudimentary or absent; stamens 3(-4), staminodes 4-7, 
filaments and staminodes connate at the base, anthers dorsifixed. 
longitudinally dehiscent; ovary stipitate, stipe pubescent and adnate to the 
hypanthium except at the apical part; style coiled and slender: stigma 
capitulate, small. Legumes oblong, straight to slightly falcate, flattened, 
glabrous, valves leathery to slightly woody. Seeds 3-6 per legume, oblong, 
ovoid or discoid, flattened, scurfy. 

Distribution — Two or more spp. from Madagascar, islands of the 
Indian Ocean, Tropical Asia, through Malesia to Northern Australia. 
Melanesia and Micronesia (Hou, 1994). In Malesia two spp. occur. In 
Singapore only one sp. is indigenous. 



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81 



Ecology — Intsia spp. are long-lived spp. and are confined mainly to 
the coastal habitats, near mangroves and on sandy beaches (Hou, 1994). 

Uses — As timber under the trade name merbau: Intsia timber is 
hard, very strong and durable and also termite-resistant; it has a wide 
range of uses both in- and outdoors from heavy construction to flooring, 
doors, posts, poles, and sleepers (Hou. 1994). 

L /. bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze 

Rev. Gen. pi. 1 (1891) 192; Ridl., J. Straits Brch R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 
75; RidL, Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 639; Whitmore, Tree fl. Malaya 1 
(1972) 262; H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 262; K. Larsen. S. 
S. Larsen & J. E. Vidal, Flora of Thailand 4:1 (1984) 125: Corner, Ways. 
Trees, 3rd ed. (1988) 438; H. Keng. Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 36; I.M. 
Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan. J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 
(1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns* Bull.. Singapore 45 (1993) 122; Ding Hou, 
Blumea 38 (1994) 324, ; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull.. Singapore 47 (1995) 304. 

Afzelia bijuga A. Gray 
Afzelia retusa Kurz 

Trees to 40 m tall; dbh to 1 m but usually smaller. Leaves: rachis 
1.5-3.5 cm long; pinnae laminas ovate to broadly elliptic or suborbiculate. 
(2-)4-15 by 1.5-8.5 cm, abaxial midrib pubescent in the lower half, apex 
broadly acuminate, retuse or rounded, base cuneate to obtuse, petiolules 
2-7 mm long; petiole 2.5-5.5 cm long; stipules c. 1 by 1 mm. Raceme 5-10 
cm long. Flowers', calyx lobes ovate to obovate, 1-1.2 by 0.6-0.8 cm; petal 
white turning pink, red or purple, limb 1.2-1.5 by 1.5 cm. claw c. 0.5 by 0.1 
cm, puberulous adaxially: filaments red or purple, 3-3.5 cm long, puberulous 
basally. anthers 2-2.5 by 0.5-1 mm, staminodes to 10 mm long; ovary 4- 
7.5 by 1.5 mm; style red or purple, 3-4 cm long: stigma c. 1 mm long; 
hypanthium 5-12 by 2-3 mm; pedicel 5-15 mm. Legume green turning 
purple to black, 7.5-20 by 5-6 cm. Seeds black, c. 2 by 2.5 cm. 

Distribution — Singapore: rare; Pulau Tekong Kechil. Sungei Buloh 
Nature Park, Western Catchment Area; previously found in Bukit Timah 
Nature Reserve, Changi, Kranji Nature Reserve. Lim Chu Kang 
(Sarimbun), Pulau Jong, Pulau Ubin, Seletar, Tuas. Madagascar, islands 
of the Indian ocean, Tropical Asia, through Malesia to Northern Australia. 
Melanesia and Micronesia (Hou, 1994). 



82 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 




Figure 7. Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze. a. Fruiting branch: b. Inflorescence: c. Seed: d. 
Lower surface of pinna showing crateriform glands (g); e. Adaxial view of twisted petiolule 
(A.H.B. Loo, A. Ibrahim, E.E.L. Seah & H.T.W.Tan A.Loo 037; f. Side view of a flower. (Rao 
& Jumali K6662). 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



83 



Ecology — Along sea coasts, in beach forest or the back-mangrove, 
edges of rivers, in tidal or temporarily inundated places with (salty) water; 
also found in primary forests. A treelet c. 2 m tall growing from a rock 
crevice was observed to be in fruit in Pulau Tekong Kechil. The roots are 
reported to nodulate with a typical cowpea-type strain in Tully, Queensland, 
Australia (Allen and Allen 1981). 

Uses — /. bijuga is a major tropical logwood and sawn wood sp. 
imported and exported under the trade name merbau (ITTO, 1996). 

Koompassia Maingay ex Benth. 

In Hooker's Icon. PI. 12 (1873) 58, t. 1164; de Wit, Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenz. 
3:17 (1947) 309; Irwin & Barneby in Polhill & Raven (eds.) Adv. Leg. Syst. 
1 (1981) 101; Watson and Dallwitz, Gen. Leg. - Caesalpinioideae (1983) 
37. 

Trees, deciduous, gigantic; buttresses steep, thick and plank-like. 
Leaves imparipinnate; rachis and petiole ferruginous pubescent to 
glabrescent; pinnae alternate to subopposite, 5-14, laminas elliptic to ovate, 
subcoriaceous to coriaceous, pubescent below, midrib sunken and 
puberulous above, prominent below, lateral veins many, obscure on the 
upper surface, petiolules pubescent; stipules broadly ovate, small, early 
caducous. Panicle densely flowered, terminal or axillary, ferruginous 
pubescent. Flowers small; bracts and bracteoles lanceolate, small, caducous; 
calyx 5-lobed, lobes subequal, imbricate, pubescent outside; petals 5, 
subequal, with a prominent midvein, glabrous; stamens 5, alternating with 
the petals, filaments very short, glabrous, anthers basifixed, opening by 
apical and basal pores, both pores connected by a subdehiscent longitudinal 
rim; ovary sessile or sometimes, subsessile, 1-ovuled, pubescent; style very 
short; stigma indistinct; pedicels pubescent. Samara strongly compressed 
laterally, twisted 180°C at the base, pubescent, centre thickened and 
prominently veined, wing broad, circumferential, broadened apically, 
chartaceous. Seed 1 per legume, irregularly oblong, strongly compressed 
laterally. 

Distribution — A small genus comprising three spp. in Malesia: 
Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines and New Guinea (Hou, 
1996c). In Singapore only one sp. is indigenous. 

Ecology — In primary and late secondary forest; also in freshwater 
swamp forest. 



84 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Uses — All three spp. in Malesia have timber that are suitable for 
structural usage. 

1. K. malaccensis Benth. 

In Hooker's Icon. PI. 3:2 (1876) 58, t. 1164; RidL, J. Straits Brch R. Asiat. 
Soc. 33 (1900) 74; Merr. Phillip. J. Sc. Bot 10 (1915) 12; RidL. FL Malay 
Penins. 1 (1922) 620; de Wit, Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenz. 3:17 (1947) 317; 
Whitmore, Tree fl Malaya 1 (1972) 265; H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 
27 (1974) 262; K. Larsen, S. S. Larsen & J. E. Vidal, Flora of Thailand 4:1 
(1984) 84: Corner, Ways. Trees, 3rd ed. (1988) 439; H. Keng, Concise Fl. 
Singapore (1990) 36; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore 
natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 
(1993) 122; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 304; Ding Hou, 
Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 634. 

Trees to 45(-60) m tall; dbh 64(-120) cm; buttresses to 3(-6) m high. 
Leaves', rachis 6.2-19 cm long; pinnae 5-9(-14), laminas elliptic, ovate, 
oblong-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 3.5-10.4(-12.5) by 1.6-3.7 cm, finely 
areolate above, apex acuminate, slightly notched, base usually rounded, 
petiolules 4-9 mm long; petiole 1.4-3.9 cm long; stipules 2-2.5 mm wide. 
Panicle to 12 cm long. Flowers: bracts fleshy, c. 1 mm long, bracteoles 
subalternate, 0.5-1 mm long; calyx lobes ovate-lanceolate. 2-3 by 1 mm; 
petals orbicular to obovate, c. 2-3 by 1-1.5 mm, base fleshy; filaments 
abruptly broadened basally, 0.5-1 mm long; anthers heart-shaped, c. 1 by 
0.5 mm; ovary c. 1 mm long; style < 0.5 mm long; pedicel 0.5-5 mm long. 
Samara green turning brown, oblong, 8.7-15 by 2.7-^1.5 cm (including wing). 
Seed beige, to 3.5 by 1.5 cm, shallowly rugose. 

Distribution — Singapore: vulnerable; Botanic Gardens' Jungle, the 
Nature Reserves; previously common all over Singapore (Keng. 1990). 
Malesia: Sumatra, Riau Archipelago, Bangka, Biliton, throughout 
Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Hou, 1996c). 

Ecology — In primary and late secondary forest and freshwater 
swamp forest; sometimes occurring in groups near rivulets. Flowering and 
fruiting occurs year round. Seedlings can be found abundantly near the 
parent tree. Dispersal is by rapid spinning of the samaras sometimes to a 
distance of 50 m or more (Ridley, 1930). J. F. Maxwell (specimen J. F. 
Maxwell 81-225, in 1981), reported that the seeds were eaten by the long- 
tailed macaque, Macaca fascicular is, which bent the wings over the seed to 
expose it. 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



85 




Figure 8. Koompassia malaccensis Benth. a. Fruiting branch (Kostermans 6682); b. Isolated 
sepal; c. Isolated petal; d. Isolated stamen; e. Isolated carpel on pedicel; f. Side view of a flower; 
g. Seed; h. Cross-section of pinnae showing pubescence on adaxial midrib and and abaxial 
surface of pinna. (J.E Maxwell 81-225). 



86 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Uses — This sp. yields a coarse and hard, reddish heartwood which 
is known as kempas. The timber is strong but not popular as it is readily 
attacked by termites and has limited durability when exposed; it gives 
excellent charcoal and the buttresses are used as table tops (de Wit, 1947). 
K. malaccensis is a major tropical logwood and sawnwood sp. imported 
and exported under the trade name kempas (ITTO, 1996). 

Peltophorum (Vogel) Benth. 

J. Bot. 2 (1840) 75, nom. ccws.;Vogel, Linnaea 11 (1837) 406; Taubert, 
PflFam. 3:3 (1892) 176; Polhill & J. E. Vidal in Polhill & Raven (eds.) Adv. 
Leg. Syst. 1 (1981) 90; Watson & Dallwitz, Gen. Leg. - Caesalpinioideae 
(1983) 47. 

Deciduous trees, young shoots ferrugineous pubescent or glabrescent. 
Leaves twice-paripinnate; rachis and petiole ferruginous pubescent, grooved 
adaxially; pinnules numerous, opposite, small, venation finely reticulate, 
puberulous all over, sessile; stipules small, caducous. Inflorescence a raceme 
of racemes, terminal and axillary, ferrugineous pubescent. Flowers bisexual, 
zygomorphic; bracts minute, caducous; sepals 5, imbricate, reflexed, yellow- 
green, triangular, subequal, pubescent outside; petals 5, yellow, subequal, 
ferruginous woolly towards the short claw, venation finely reticulate; 
stamens 10, free, subequal, filaments slender, basally flattened and pilose, 
anthers brown, oblong, equal, dorsifixed and versatile, longitudinally 
dehiscent; ovary stipitate; style filiform, incurled; stigma broadly peltate; 
receptacle short, obscure. Legume indehiscent with a firm wing-like margin, 
oblong-lanceolate, strongly compressed laterally, woody, smooth, 
longitudinally striate, apex acute, base cuneate, slightly constricted between 
the seeds. Seeds lenticular to narrowly oblong, irregularly compressed. 

Distribution — A pantropical genus of about 15 spp., three occurring 
in Malesia (Hou, 1996d). In Singapore, one sp. is indigenous. 

Ecology — Coastal, along beaches and in the back-mangrove. 

Uses — See under sp. 

1. P. pterocarpum (DC.) K. Heyne 

Nutt. PI. Ned.-Ind., ed. 2 (1927) 755; DC, Prodr. 2 (1825) 441; Backer & 
Bakh. /, Fl. Java 1 (1964) 547; Whitmore, Tree fl. Malaya 1 (1972) 268; H. 
Keng, Gdns' Bull. Singapore 27 (1974) 263; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



87 




Figure 9. Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K. Heyne. a. Flowering branch; b. Anterior view 
of flower; c. Side views of legume; d. Hilar view and side view of seed; e. Petiole cross-sectioned 
to show paired stipules (s); f. Exploded flower; g. Left - flowers and buds in a raceme, right - 
young legumes in a raceme. (Each interval on scale bar equivalent to 1mm). (A.H.B.Loo 
A.Loo 086). 



88 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



59; Verde, Manual New Guinea Legumes., Lae Bot. Bull. 11 (1979) 16; H. 
Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 37; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. 
Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 73; I.M. Turner, Gdns' 
Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 123; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 
(1995) 308; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 651. 

Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne.) Benth. 

Trees to 35 m tall; trunk beige, dbh 0.7-1.0 m. Leaves: rachis 9-14 
cm long; pinnae in 4-13 pairs; pinnules in 15-18 pairs per pinna, oblong, 
10-18 by 5-7 mm, puberulous all over, sessile, apex rounded to emarginate, 
base unequal, acute or rounded; petiole 2.5-4 cm long; stipules deltoid, 3- 
5 mm long. Inflorescence to 40 cm long. Flowers fragrant; bracts deltoid, 
c. 5 mm long; sepals 7-10 by 5 mm; topmost two sometimes puberulous in 
the upper median portion; petals obovate, 2-2.5 by 1.2-1.8 cm, wrinkled; 
filaments pale yellow, 10-13 mm long, anthers c. 2 by 1 mm; ovary densely 
pubescent, 5-7 by 1-2 mm; style c. 1 cm long, stigma white green, c. 2 by 2 
mm, sticky; pedicel 5-7 mm. Legume reddish brown, 6-14 by 2-3.5 cm 
(including 4-5 mm wide wing-like margin). Seeds per legume, 

longitudinally arranged, beige, c. 12 by 5 mm. 

Distribution — Singapore: almost extinct; possibly wild in Pulau 
Semakau and Pulau Tekong Kechil; previously collected in Changi (coast), 
Tuas. Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam; throughout Malesia 
to Northern Australia (Hou, 1996d). 

Ecology — Coastal beach forest and the back-mangrove. Flowering 
and fruiting year round. Nodules are absent from this species (Allen & 
Allen, 1981). The flowers have a slightly sweet, musky scent. 

Uses — Cultivated widely as a wayside and park tree in Singapore. 
The wood is strong and good for building, making boats and planks; in 
Java a dye from the bark is used to colour batik yellow-brown; the bark is 
used internally to cure dysentery and externally as a lotion for sprains, 
muscular aches, ulcers, as an eye-lotion, gargle and tooth-powder (Burkill, 
1935). 

Senna Mill. 

Gdnr's. Diet., abr. ed. 4 (1754); Irwin and Barneby in Polhill and Raven 
(eds.), Adv. Leg. Syst. 1 (1981) 105; Mem. N. Y. bot. Gdn 35 (1982) 64; 



The Angio sperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



89 



Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 27 (1871) 513; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 
228; K. Larsen & Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 673. 

Cassia subg. Senna (Miller) Benth. 

Herbs to shrubs, foetid or weakly so; stem glabrous to pubescent. 
Leaves: rachis and petiole eglandular or with l(-2) glands adaxially, both 
grooved or widely and shallowly so, puberulous to pubescent, rachis 
abaxially produced to a short mucro beyond the uppermost petiolules; 
pinnae opposite, elliptic, oblong-elliptic, ovate or obovate, increasing in 
size distally, apex obtuse to acuminate, pubescent to glabrescent, base 
subequal, petiolules to 5 mm long; stipules paired. Raceme axillary and/or 
terminal. Flowers ebracteolate; sepals 5, ovate to orbicular, subequal; 
petals 5, obovate to orbicular, subequal, shortly clawed; stamens (6-)7, in 2 
sizes, staminodes 0-3(-4), filaments straight, anthers basifixed, mostly 
beaked or produced, larger ones usually curved, opening by two apical 
pores, thecae not ciliate along the sutures. Legume indehiscent or inertly 
dehiscent through one or both sutures, in the latter case not coiling, 
transversly septate between seeds, many-seeded. Seeds and funicles 
variable. 

Distribution — Pantropical genus of c. 260 spp., originating mainly 
from the Americas. There are 17 relatively common spp. in Malesia and 
of these probably only three spp. are indigenous (including Senna tora) 
(Larsen and Hou, 1996b). In Singapore, five exotic spp. are naturalized 
(Corlett, 1988). 

Ecology — Mostly found in abandoned kampongs or farmland, 
occasionally in open places and along railway lines. Root nodules are 
absent. 

Uses — See under spp. 

Notes — See notes under Chamaecrista for reasons to recognize 
Chamaecrista and Senna as genera separate from Cassia 

Key to the Species 

la. Shrubs; stem to 3-7 cm thick, marked with persistent stipules and 
conspicuous leaf scars. Petiole and rachis eglandular; rachis 30-56 cm 
long; pinnae in 8-20 pairs, margins orange, apex and base obtuse, 



90 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



lowermost pair much smaller than the rest, recurved and set further 
apart from the rest (i.e., 1st internode the longest); stipules deltoid, 
stiff, persistent. Raceme densely 30-50-flowered. Bracts orange, 
petaloid, enveloping bud; sepals orange-yellow, incurled. Legume 

tetragonal, winged. Seeds olive-green, quadrangular L S. alata 

lb. Herbs or undershrubs; stem to 1.5 cm thick, not marked with persistent 
stipules or conspicuous leaf scars. Petiole or rachis with glands present; 
rachis 1.5-17 cm long; pinnae in 3-5(-7) pairs, margins green, apex 
rounded, acute or acuminate, base cuneate to rounded, lowermost 
pair not much smaller than the rest or recurved and not set further 
apart from the rest (i.e., all internodes subequal); stipules linear, 
membranous, caducous. Raceme loosely 2-5(-8)-flowered. Bracts 
green, linear, not enveloping bud; sepals green, flat or slightly incurved. 
Legume flattened or terete, wingless. Seeds brown, ovoid to orbicular 
2 

2a. Petiole base with glands; rachis eglandular, 5-17 cm long; pinnae in 3- 
5 (-7) pairs, ovate or elliptic, apex acute or acuminate. Stigma subapical 
or lateral. Legume ± straight. Seeds dull 3 

2b. Petiole eglandular; rachis with glands between the lowest pair or lowest 
two pairs of pinnae, 1.5-3 cm long; pinnae in 3 pairs, obovate, apex 
rounded or obtuse. Stigma apical. Legume falcate. Seeds glossy ...4 

3a. Plant foetid, pubescent all over. Pinnae pubescent on both surfaces; 
petiolar gland subulate, c. 1.5 mm long. Inflorescence a leafy raceme. 
Lowest part of the androecium a stamen with a narrow anther; ovary 
woolly. Legume hirsute, angular. Seeds obovoid, without an areole 
2. 5. hirsuta 

3b. Plant not foetid to slightly so, ± glabrous. Pinnae glabrous above, 
glabrescent below; petiolar gland globose, c. 3 mm across. 
Inflorescence in ± leafless raceme. Lowest part of the androecium a 
filamentous staminode with a petaloid anther; ovary shortly pubescent. 
Legume glabrous to glabrescent, sub-terete. Seeds orbicular, brown 
with a paler areole 4. S. occidentalis 

4a. A gland between the lowest pair of pinnae only. Pedicel of flower 
usually 1-3.5 cm long, of legume 2-4.5 cm long. 3 largest anthers 
bottle-necked below the apex. Areole of seed 0.3-0.5 mm wide, 

covering little of the seed surface. Plant weakly foetid 

3. S. obtusifolia 

4b. A gland between the lowest 2 pairs of pinnae. Pedicel of flower 
usually 0.5-1 cm long, of legume 1-1.5 cm long. 3 largest anthers 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



91 



abruptly rounded at the apex. Areole of seed 1.5-2 mm wide, covering 
much of the seed surface. Plant strongly foetid 5. S. tora 

1. 5. alata (L.) Roxb 

Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 349; Sp. pi. (1753) 378; Ridl., J. Straits Brch R. 
Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 74; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 619; de Wit, 
Webbia 11 (1956) 231; H. Keng, Gdns 1 Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 257; 
Irwin & Barneby, Mem. N. Y. bot. Gdn 35 (1982) 460; R.T. Corlett, J. 
Biogeog. 15 (1988) 657-663; Corner, Ways. Trees, 3rd ed. (1988) 429; J.B. 
Hacker, A guide to herbaceous and shrub legumes of Queensland (1990) 
86; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 33; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & 
H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I.M. Turner, 
Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 124; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 
47 (1995) 309; K. Larsen & Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 675. 

Cassia alata L. 

Shrubs, 1— 2(— 5) m tall. Leaves: rachis orange and widely grooved 
above; pinnae in 8-20 pairs, oblong-elliptic but distal pairs obovate, 5-15 
by 3-8 cm , veins pubescent below, petiolules c. 5 mm long; petiole 2-3 cm 
long; stipules brownish-red. Raceme 25-80 by 4-6 cm. Flowers: bracts 2.5- 
3 by 1.5-2 cm; sepals obovate, 1.5-1.8 by 0.7-1 cm; petals clawed, limb 
ovate to oblong, rarely obovate, 1.8-2.5 by 1-1.6 cm (including 2-4 mm 
long claw); stamens 7, unequal, largest 2: filaments laterally compressed, 
5-6 by 2 x 1 mm, anthers swollen, curved, 12-13 mm long, central 4: 
filaments and anthers 3-4 mm long, lowest one: filament 0.5-1 mm long, 
anther 4-5 mm long, staminodes 3; ovary green, falcate with grooved sides, 
15-20 by 2 mm, minute pubescent, style c. 7 mm long, stigma small, pedicel 
4-5 mm long. Legume green turning black, tetragonal, 10-15 by 1.5-2 cm 
(including 4-8 mm wide wings). Seeds c. 50, quadrangular, flat, 7-8 by 5-8 
mm. 

Distribution — Singapore: common in abandoned kampongs; Island 
Club Road, Rochester Park, Old Upper Thomson Road (end of Kallang 
River), Pulau Tekong (South), Sungei Mandai Kechil (Kampong Fatimah), 
Yishun Ave 6; previously collected in Ang Mo Kio and Choa Chu Kang. 
It is probably native in the rivers of the Guianas and periphery of the 
Orinoco and Amazon basins in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. It became 
fully established in Java by the middle of the 17th century (Irwin and 
Barneby, 1982). 



02 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Ecology — Found near riverbanks or margins of ponds and ditches 
in abandoned kampongs, often in groups or scattered. It may be branched 
or not, commonly procumbent, establishing itself over a small area by 
leaning and producing erect shoots. The leaves are thigmonastic and 
photonastic, turning up during the hottest and sunniest hours of the day, in 
rainy weather and in the evenings. The legumes rattle when shaken. 

Uses — This species has been used as an effective remedy for 
ringworm and other cutaneous diseases (Burkill, 1935). The leaves are 
also taken internally as a laxative, astringent, expectorant, purgative 
taenifuge, tonic and mixed with lime juice as an anthelmintic, the flowers 
are taken internally as a tonic for skin diseases, the seeds are taken internally 
for skin diseases, the bark contains tanning material, the roots used in 
West Africa for tattooing or tribal markings and the leaves contain 
chrysophanic acid (2.2%) and are used as an antiparasitic (Duke, Reed & 
Weder, 1981a). Burkill (1935) also mentioned that the roots are used 
internally for constipation and externally for ringworm and that the toasted 
leaves along with beans of Glycine max, are sometimes made into a drink 
similar to coffee. The plant may poison stock, and is sometimes a weed in 
pastures as it may rapidly reduce the area available for grazing as livestock 
will not eat the plant (Verdcourt, 1979). 

2. S. hirsuta (L.) Irwin & Barneby var. hirsuta 

Phytologia 44 (1979) 499; Sp. pi. (1753) 378; Ridl., J. Straits Branch Asiat. 
Soc. 33 (1900) 74; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 618; de Wit, Webbia 11 
(1955) 250, 251; M.R. Hend., Mai. Wild. Fl. Die. (1959) 96; H. Keng, Gdns' 
Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 258; Irwin & Barneby, Mem. N. Y. bot. Gdn 35 
(1982) 434; R.T. Corlett, J. Biogeog. 15 (1988) 657-663; Randell, J. Adelaide 
Bot. Gard. 11 (1988) 42; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 33; I.M. 
Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 
(1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 124; I.M. Turner, 
Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 309; K. Larsen & Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 
1:12 (1996) 679. 

Cassia hirsuta L. 

Herbs to 2 m tall; hirsute all over. Leaves: rachis 5-17 cm long; 
pinnae in 3-5(-7) pairs, laminas ovate-elliptic, 2-12 by 1-3.5 cm, apex 
acute to acuminate, petiolules c. 2 mm long; petiole 3-6 cm long; stipules 
7-15 x 1 mm. Raceme 2-5(-8)-flowered. Flowers', bracts 3-5 mm long; 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



93 



sepals unequal, outer 2: ovate, 3-7 by 3-4 mm, villose outside; inner 3: 
obovate, 7-10 by 4-6 mm; petals 9-17 by 7-11 mm (including 1-2 mm long 
claw), limb obovate to orbicular; stamens 7, largest 2: filaments winged, 4- 
6 mm long, anthers curved, 6 mm long, beaked; central 4: similar but half 
as long, lowest 1: as long as the largest; ovary ± falcate, 5-8 mm long; style 
1.5-2.5 mm long; stigma subapical, ciliate; pedicel 1-2 cm long. Legume 
grey brown, ± straight, flattened, sides grooved, 10-14 by 0.3-0.5 cm, hirsute. 
Seeds 50-100 per legume, 2-3 by 1 mm. 

Distribution — Singapore: rare; previously collected in Geylang, Pasir 
Panjang, Yio Chu Kang. Origin in tropical South America; long naturalized 
in the Old World wet tropics (Irwin and Barneby, 1982). 

Ecology — Along roadsides, railways, in old kampongs or abandoned 
plantations and farmland. 

Uses — This species is used as green manure and to treat herpes 
(Heyne, 1927). The leaves are eaten steamed (Ochse, 1931). 

Notes — Two varieties, var. puberula and var. hirsuta, are recognized 
in the Malesian area (Larsen and Hou, 1996b); the former found only in 
the Phillipines, has arched legumes and in the revision of de Wit (1955) is 
synonymous with Cassia leptocarpa Benth. In the use of the keys given by 
Larsen and Hou (1996b) to distinguish the varieties, it is important to 
examine mature legumes as immature ones are ± arched as in var. puberula. 

3. S. obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby 

Mem. N. Y. bot. Gdn 35 (1982) 252; Sp. pi. (1753) 377; Ridl, J. Straits 
Branch Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 74; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 618; de 
Wit, Webbia 11 (1955) 254; Brenan, Kew Bull (1958) 248; H. Keng, Gdns' 
Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 258; R.T. Corlett, J. Biogeog. 15 (1988) 657-663; 
Randell, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 11 (1988) 45; J.B. Hacker, A guide to 
herbaceous and shrub legumes of Queensland (1990) 96; H. Keng, Concise 
Fl. Singapore (1990) 33; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore 
natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 
(1993) 124; Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 309; K. Larsen & 
Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 681. 

Cassia obtusifolia L. 

Herbs or subshrubs to 2 m tall. Leaves: rachis 1.5-3 cm long, adaxial 



94 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



gland c. 2 mm long; pinnae in 3 pairs, laminas obovate, 1.5-5 by 0.7-3 cm, 
increasing in size distally, membranous, pubescent below, base cuneate, 
petiolule 1-2 mm; petiole 1.5-3 cm; stipules linear, 5-20 by 0.5-1 mm, 
setaceous. Raceme l-2(-3)-flowered on a c. 2 mm long peduncle. Flowers: 
bracts linear, c. 5 mm long; sepals ovate, subequal, 0.6-0.9 byx 0.3-0.5, 
puberulous; petals subequal, 0.7-2 by 0.4-1.2 cm (including 0.5-1.5 mm 
long claw), limb obovate; stamens 7, filaments 1-2 mm long, anthers 
unequal, largest 3; 4-5 mm long, central 4: 2.5-3.5 mm long, staminodes 0- 
3; ovary falcate, 7-13 by 0.5-1 mm, pubescent; style 2-3 mm long; stigma 
truncate, ciliate; pedicel pubescent. Legume brown, falcate, flattened, 11- 
23 by 0.5 cm, puberulous. Seeds 20-30(-50) per legume, brown, rhombic 
to ovoid, 3-5 by 2 by 2 mm, smooth. 

Distribution — Singapore: uncommon; previously collected in Bukit 
Kallang and Tanglin. Probably native to the Americas and rare in Malesia 
(Larsen and Hou, 1996b). 

Ecology — In old kampungs or abandoned plantations and farmland. 

Uses — The leaves used as a vegetable, treatment for skin problems 
and as a cure for vomitting and stomach-ache while the roots are used for 
constipation (Burkill, 1935). 

Notes — This species is closely related to Senna tora such that some 
authors regarded them as conspecific (e.g., Bentham, 1871). However, de 
Wit (1955) separated them into distinct taxa based mainly on foliar glands, 
pedicel length and scent. Brenan (1958) further distinguished the two 
species on differences in the width of the areoles of their seeds and 
emphasized the difference in the stamens. 

4. S. occidentalis (L.) Link 

Handb. 2 (1831) 140; Sp. pi. (1753) 377; Ridl., J. Straits Branch Asiat. Soc. 
33 (1900) 74; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 618; de Wit, Webbia 11 
(1955) 256; M.R. Hend., Mai. Wild. Fl. Die. (1959) 99; H. Keng, Gdns' 
Bull. Singapore 27 (1974) 258; Irwin & Barneby, Mem. N. Y. bot. Gdn 35 
(1982) 436; R.T. Corlett, J. Biogeog. 15 (1988) 657-663; Randell, J. Adelaide 
Bot. Gard. 11 (1988) 41; Hacker, A guide to herbaceous and shrub legumes 
of Queensland (1990) 97; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore. (1990) 33; I.M. 
Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 
(1990) 72; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull. Singapore 45 (1993) 124; Turner, 
Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 309; K. Larsen & Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



95 




Figure 10. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. a. Flowering and fruiting branch; b. Side view of 
flower; c. Isolated staminode; d. One of four middle stamens; e. One of three upper stamens; f. 
Isolated carpel on hypanthium with lowermost staminode attached on hypanthium and tip of 
pedicel; g. Isolated sepal; h. Isolated standard petal A.H.B. Loo, A. Loo 070); i. Seed. (Abu 
Kassim s.n.). Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby. j. One of three largest stamens showing 
bottle-neck below apex. (R. W. Hullett S. N.). Senna tora (L.) Roxb. k. One of three largest 
stamens showing abruptly rounded apex; 1. Leaf; m. Falcate legume. (P. W. Wong 2717). - 
Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin & Barneby var. hirsuta. n. Leaf; o. Young legume; p. Isolated carpel 
with lowermost anther attached on hypanthium and pedicel. (Abu Kassim s.n.) 



96 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



1:12 (1996) 681. 

Cassia occidentalis L. 

Herbs to subshrubs, 0.5-2 m tall. Leaves: rachis 7-10 cm long, with a 
puberulous groove; pinnae in 3-5 (-6) pairs, laminas ovate-elliptic, 3-10.5 
by 2-3.5 cm, petiolules 3-4 mm; petiole 3-6 cm long, gland glossy purple; 
stipules 3-20 by 2-3 mm. Raceme 2-4-flowered on a 2-5 mm long peduncle. 
Flowers', bracts 8 by 3-4 mm; sepals unequal, 2 ovate, 6-8 by 4-6 mm, 3 
obovate to orbicular, 6-11 by 6-7 mm; petals unequal, 3 orbicular to widely 
obovate, 12-15 by 10-15 mm, 2 obovate, c. 12-17 by 7-9 mm, all excluding 
1-2 mm long claw; stamens 6, largest 2: filaments 6-9 mm long, anthers 5- 
6 mm long, central 4: filaments 3-4 mm long, anthers 3-5 mm long, 
staminodes 4; ovary green, 1-2 cm long, pubescent; style 4-5 mm long; 
stigma lateral, ciliate; pedicel c. 1 cm long. Legume brown with pale 
margins, ± straight, 10-12 by 0.5-1 cm, glabrous to glabrescent. Seeds 30- 
50 per legume, flat, 3-4 mm in diam., smooth. 

Distribution — Singapore: uncommon; East Coast Road, School of 
Biological Sciences Garden, the National University of Singapore; 
previously collected in Changi, Geylang and Jalan Bahar. This sp. is of 
South American origin and probably naturalized in the Malesian area 
(Larsen and Hou, 1996b). 

Ecology — In old kampongs and abandoned farmland and plantations 
and along roads or near houses. 

Uses — The seeds may be used as a substitute for coffee, the young 
leaves and legumes are eaten with rice usually as medicine, the leaves are 
used to cure headache and toothache and alcoholic infusions are slightly 
insecticidal (Burkill, 1935). The plant is used as green manure, as a 
purgative, febrifuge with diuretic and sudorific properties, the roots and 
leaves used as a substitute for quinine and the seeds and leaves used 
externally to treat skin diseases and as an antiperiodic, and the roots are 
used for snakebite and as an antidote for poisons (Duke, Reed & Weder, 
1981b). In Senegal, the leaves are used to protect cowpea seeds (Vigna 
unguiculata ) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) 
(Liennard et al, 1993). 



5. S. tor a (L.) Roxb. 

Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 340; Sp. pi. (1753) 376; Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 66, ii 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
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97 



(1897) 158, 475; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 618; de Wit, Webbia 11 
(1955) 276; Brenan, Kew Bull (1958) 248; M.R. Hend., Mai. Wild. Fl. Die. 
(1959) 99; H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 27 (1974) 258; R.T. Corlett, J. 
Biogeog. 15 (1988) 657-663; Randell, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 11 (1988) 45; 
J.B. Hacker, A guide to herbaceous and shrub legumes of Queensland 
(1990) 102; H. Keng, Concise Fl. Singapore (1990) 33; I.M. Turner, K.S. 
Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 72; I.M. 
Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 124; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., 
Singapore 47 (1995) 309; K. Larsen & Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 
689. 

Cassia tor a L. 

Erect herbs to subshrubs up to 1.5 m tall; puberulous to pubescent 
all over. Leaves: rachis 1.5-2.5 cm long, glands c. 2 mm long; pinnae in 3 
pairs, laminas obovate, 2-4.5 by 1-2.5 cm, membranous, pubescent below, 
apex rounded or obtuse, base cuneate to rounded, subequal, petiolule 2 
mm long; petiole 1.5-4 cm long; stipules 5-11 by 1 mm. Raceme axillary, 2- 
flowered on a 2-5 mm long peduncle. Flowers: bracts 2-5 mm long; sepals 
ovate, subequal, 4-7 by 2-A mm, puberulous below; petals obovate, unequal, 
8-10 by 5-6 mm; stamens 7, filaments 2-3 mm long, anthers unequal: 
largest 3, c. 3 mm long, central 4: c. 1.5-2 mm long, staminodes 0-3; ovary 
green, falcate, c. 7 mm long, densely pubescent; style c. 2 mm long; stigma 
ciliate; pedicel pubescent. Legume light brown, falcate, flattened, 10-15.5 
by 0.2-0.5 cm, puberulous. Seeds 20-30 per legume, glossy light brown, 
rhomboidal, 4-5 by 2.5 by 2 mm. 

Distribution — Singapore: uncommon; previously found in Pulau 
Ubin, Tanglin. Its origin is uncertain but is strictly palaeotropic in 
occurrence. It is common throughout Malesia at lower altitudes (Larsen 
and Hou, 1996b). 

Ecology — In old kampongs or abandoned plantations and farmland. 

Uses — Its leaves are used as a purgative, cure for coughs and against 
ringworm, the young leaves are eaten as a vegetable, the seeds contain 
emodin and are applied for itching, used for boils and as an internal and 
external medicine for eye diseases and the seeds are also used as a substitute 
for coffee (Burkill, 1935). 



98 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Sindora Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 287; de Wit, Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenz.. 3:18 
(1949) 5; Watson & Dallwitz, Gen. Leg. — Caesalpinioideae (1983) 53; 
Cowan & Polhill in Polhill & Raven (eds.) Adv. Leg. Syst. 1 (1981) 132. 

Trees. Leaves paripinnate, 2-4-jugate; pinna laminas elliptic to 
obovate, coriaceous, rarely subcoriaceous, midrib slightly grooved above, 
secondary veins many, emerging at 60° or more from the midrib measured 
from the apex, anastomosing to a thickened marginal vein, tertiary veins 
finely reticulate, petiolules short; stipules foliaceous, caducous. Panicle 
axillary or terminal. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic; bracts and bracteoles 
small, caducous; sepals narrowly overlapping, 4, spinescent or not, strigose 
inside, pubescent outside; petal 1, fleshy; androecium of 9 connate stamens 
and staminodes and 1 uppermost free staminode, the lower 9 filaments 
shortly, obliquely and basally connate into a hirsute sheath, the 2 uppermost 
ones of the 9 with elongated filaments and dorsifixed and longitudinally 
dehiscent anthers, the other 7 lower filaments shorter with or without 
small, imperfect anthers; ovary subsessile, 2-5-ovuled, pubescent; style 
filiform, recurved; stigma small; pedicel short, pubescent. Legume elliptic 
to orbicular, flat, woody, armed or not, dehiscent, beak curved. Seeds 1-3 
per legume, black, shiny, each set on a large fleshy aril; cotyledons split, 
funicle curving. 

Distribution — A genus of 18-20 spp. in West Africa and South-east 
Asia and 15 spp. occur in Malesia (Hou, 1996e). In Singapore there are 
two indigenous species. 

Ecology — Coastal beach forest to further inland in primary forest. 

Uses — Mainly as timber. See under species. 



Key to the Species 

la. Lower surface of pinna glossy, glabrous except at the midrib; rachis 
and petiole both glabrous. Sepals inermous outside; ovary inermous. 
Legume unarmed 1. S. coriacea 

lb. Lower surface of pinna dull, puberulous to pubescent all over; rachis 
and petiole pubescent to puberulous. Sepals with spiny outgrowths 
on the upper half outside; ovary shortly spinescent. Legume densely 
armed with spines to 4 mm long 2. 5. wallichii 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



99 



1. S. coriacea (Baker) Prain 

J. Asiat.. Soc. Beng. 66 ii (1897) 206, 482; Baker in J. D. Hook., Fl. Brit. 
India 2 (1878) 275; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 639; Whitmore, Tree 
11. Malaya 1 (1972) 271; de Wit, Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenz.. 3:18 (1949) 30; K. 
Larsen, S.S. Larsen & J.E. Vidal in Fl. Thailand 4 (1984) 98; I.M. Turner, 
Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 310; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. 1:12 (1996) 
697. 

Trees 18-33 m tall; trunk cylindric, dbh 31-95 cm, buttresses to 60 
cm high. Leaves: rachis 5.5-12(-14) cm long; pinna laminas elliptic or 
ovate, rarely obovate, (3.5— )5— 10(— 15) by (2.5-)3-5(-7.5) cm, glossy above, 
apex acute to acuminate, rarely shortly-acuminate, base acute to obtuse; 
petiolules c. 5 mm long; petiole 2.5^ cm long. Panicle 20-30 cm long, 
lateral branches to 7 cm long, ± zig-zagging. Flowers: bracts and bracteoles 
ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-3 mm long; sepals yellow, elliptic or lanceolate, 6.5- 
7.5 by 2.5-3 mm; petal yellow to red, obovate to oblong, 5-7.5 by 2-4 mm, 
pubescent outside, margins villous; stamens basally connate to c. 3 mm 
high, free filaments and staminode to 12 mm long, 2 largest anthers ellipsoid, 
2.5-3.5 by 1.5 mm long, the rest to 1.5 mm long; ovary ± ellipsoid, 3-4 by 2 
mm, woolly along the suture, 4-5-ovuled; style to 11 mm long, glabrous; 
pedicel 1-2.5 mm long. Legume ellipsoid or rarely broadly ellipsoid, 7-10 
by 4-6 cm, beak to c. 1 cm long. Seeds 2-3 per legume, black, compressed, 
suborbicular, c. 2 by 2 cm, aril c. 2 by 2 cm. 

Distribution — Singapore: rare; Bukit Kallang, Bukit Timah, Nee 
Soon Swamp Forest. Peninsular Thailand; Malesia: Sumatra (East coast), 
Peninsular Malaysia (widespread), Borneo (Sabah, Kalimantan) (Hou, 
1996e). 

Ecology — Primary rain forest or in fresh water swamp forest. 

Uses — This species considered the best timber in the genus along 
with Sindora velutina (Whitmore, 1973). The wood oil collected from the 
tree is used for medicinal purposes (Burkill, 1935). 

Notes — This species is a new record for the flora of Singapore. It 
was first discovered in 1994 by Ali bin Ibrahim in Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 

2. S. wallichii Benth. 

In Hook., Icon. PI. 11 (1867) sub t. 1018 excl. t. 1017; Baker in J.D. Hook., 
Fl. Brit. India 2 (1879) 268; Prain., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 66, ii (1897) 203, 
204, 481, 482; Ridl., J. Straits Brch R. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1900) 75; Ridl., Fl. 



100 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 637, 638; Symington, Kew Bull. (1938) 75, 77; de 
Wit, Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenz.. 3:18 (1949) 76; Whitmore, Tree fl. Malaya 1 
(1972) 273; Corner, Ways. Trees, 3rd ed. (1988) 445; H. Keng, Concise Fl. 
Singapore (1990) 39; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore 
natn. Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 73; I.M. Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 45 
(1993) 124; Turner, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 47 (1995) 310; Ding Hou, Fl. 
Males. 1:12 (1996) 708. 

Sindora intermedia (Baker) Prain 

Trees to 30 m tall; trunk cylindric, dbh (0.7-)l-2 m. Leaves: rachis 
(2-)4-6.5 cm long, pinna laminas elliptic to ovate or obovate, 3.3-9 by 2- 
5.2 cm, upper surface sometimes puberulous, glossy, apex rounded to 
broadly acuminate, base rounded; petiolules c. 4 mm long; petiole 1.5-2.5 
cm long; stipules falcate, 10-17 by 4-8 mm. Panicle 6-25 cm long, lateral 
branches to 5 cm long, zig-zagging. Flowers: bracts and bracteoles 
lanceolate, to 4 mm long; sepals yellow-green, lanceolate, c. 10 by 3-4 mm; 
petal elliptic, c. 8 by 3 mm, outside hirsute; stamens unequal, 2 largest: 
filaments c. 1.5 cm long, anthers 3.5 by 2 mm, 7 others: 0.5-0.7 cm long, 
anthers c. 3 by 2 mm, staminode 1; ovary rhomboid, c. 5 by 4 mm; style c. 
1.5 cm long; stigma capitate; pedicel to 5 mm long. Legume green turning 
black, orbicular to irregularly elliptic, 4-9.5 cm across, beak to 9 mm long. 
Seeds 1-3 per legume, surface with concentric lines, compressed, 
suborbicular, 1-1.5 by 0.7 cm, aril yellow turning dark brown, c. 2 by 2 cm. 

Distribution — Singapore: rare; Botanic Gardens' Jungle, Bukit 
Timah Nature Reserve (Jungle Falls), Changi Point, Fort Canning Hill, 
Pulau Sakijang Pelepah, Upper Pierce Reservoir; previously found in Bukit 
Timah Road. Sumatra (East Coast, Jambi, Palembang, Riau Archipelago), 
Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sabah, Kalimantan) (Hou, 1996e). 

Ecology — Coastal beach forest to further inland in primary forest, 
sometimes near streams, in groups or solitary. Seedlings can be found 
near the parent tree. The exudate from the spines of the legume has a 
strong citrus scent. The seeds are said to be dispersed by rodents which 
eat the fleshy aril (Ridley, 1930). The aril is fleshy in unripe legumes that 
have fallen to the ground but in ripe legumes the aril is dark brown and 
very hard. 

Uses — The commercial timber is known as sepetir as classified by 
the Malaysian Timber Board; the pods are medicinal and the wood oil 
used as an illuminant (Burkill, 1935). 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 6 
Caesalpiniaceae 



101 




Figure 11. Sindora wallichii Benth. a. Flowering branch with some newly formed legumes; 
b. Left, inner surface of sepal, right - outer surface of sepal; c. 9 stamens basally connate into 
a hirsute sheath; d. Ovary on stipe with one free uppermost staminode; e. Isolated petal 
(adaxial);f. Abaxial view of pinna showing thickened marginal nerve and tertiary venation; g. 
Legume; left, one valve removed to show arillate seed; right; outer surface of valve. (J.F. 
Maxwell 78-51) 



102 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Notes — Corner (1988) believed that the famous tall tree that stood 
at Changi and served as a navigational landmark to pilots until 1942, 
belonged to this species. 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank the Director, Singapore Botanic Gardens for the 
loan of specimens as well as the use of herbarium and library facilities. 
For loans of other specimens we are grateful to the Director, Forest 
Research Institute Malaysia and the Director, Rijksherbarium, Leiden. 
We should also like to express our appreciation to D. Hou, L. Watson, J.F. 
Veldkamp, I.M. Turner and K. Larsen for advice and Ali bin Ibrahim and 
Joseph Lai for field and herbarium assistance. This project was supported 
by the National University of Singapore Research Grants RP930325 and 
RP 960362. 

References 

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characteristics, uses and nodulation, The University of Wisconsin 
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Bentham, G. (1865). Leguminosae — Caesalpinieae. In: Bentham, G. and 
Hooker, J. D. Genera Plantarum, L. Reeve; London; 562-588. 

. (1871). Revision of the genus Cassia. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 27, 

503-593. 

Brenan, J. P. M. (1958). New and noteworthy cassias from Tropical Asia. 
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Burkill, I. H. (1935). A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay 
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Corlett, R.T. (1988). The naturalized flora of Singapore. /. Biogeog. 15, 
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Corner, E. J. H. (1988). Wayside trees of Malaya, 3rd ed., Malayan Nature 
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Cronquist, A. (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering 
plants, Columbia University Press; New York; 1262 pp. 

De Wit, H. C. D. (1947). Revision of the genus Koompassia Maingay ex 



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103 



Bentham (Legum.). Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenz., Ser. 3, 17, 309-322. 

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. (1956). A revision of Malaysian Bauhinieae. Reinwardtia 3, 381- 

539. 

Duke, J. A., Reed, C. F. and Weder, J. K. P. (1981a). Cassia alata L. In: J. 
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. (1981b). Cassia occidentalis L. In: J. A. Duke ed. Handbook of 

legumes of world economic importance, Plenum; New York; 47-48. 

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(1996a). Caesalpinia. Fl. Males., 1:12, 535-555. 

(1996b). Cynometra. Fl. Males., 1:12, 597-608. 

(1996c). Koompassia. Fl. Males., 1:12, 631-635. 

(1996d). Peltophorum. Fl. Males., 1:12, 650-654. 

(1996e). Sindora. Fl. Males., 1:12, 691-709. 

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Keng, H. (1990). The concise Flora of Singapore, Singapore University 
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Larsen, K. and Hou, D. (1996a). Chamaecrista. Fl. Males., 1:12, 565-570. 
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Larsen, K. and Larsen, S.S. (1996). Bauhinia. Fl. Males., 1:12, 442-535. 

Lienhard, V., Seek, D., Lognay, G., Gaspar, C. and Severin, M. (1993). 
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List of Caesalpiniaceae collected in the Republic of Singapore 

(includes collector's/s' name, number, date of collection, location, state of specimen.) 



Bauhinia semibifida Roxb. var. 
semibifida 

A.H.B. Loo, I.M. Turner, Eel Seah, A Loo 
001, 6 July 1996;A.HB. Loo, Eel Seah, 
ALoo 007,12 Jul 1996, Nee Soon Swamp 
Forest, flowering; A.H.B. Loo, C. Boo, J. 
Yong, L. Chen, I.M. Turner, Eel Seah, A Loo 
017(flower buds), 018 (fruiting), 019 
(stem), Nee Soon Firing Range; T. M. 
Leong, ALoo 039, 15 Aug 1996, Rifle 
Range Road, seedling; B.Y.H. Lee, ALoo 
Oil, Sep 1996, Macritchie Reservoir, 
flowering; A.H.B. Loo, B.Y.H. Lee, ALoo 
078, 11 Oct 1996, Upper Pierce Reservoir 
(Resam Path), flower buds; A.H.B. Loo,Ali 
Ibrahim, Eel Seah, Joseph Lai, ALoo 084, 
29 Oct 1996, Rifle Range Road (Near Bukit 
Kallang), flowering. 

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. 

A. H. B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, H. T 
W. Tan, ALoo 044, 26 Aug 1996, Pulau 
Sakijang Pelepah, male flowers; A.H.B. 
Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, 
ALoo 057, 3 Sep 1996, Pulau Sakijang 
Pelepah, male flowers; A.H.B. Loo, B.C. 
Soong, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, 
S1019, 27 Sep 1996, Pulau Semakau (West), 
fruiting. 

Caesalpinia crista L. 

A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, H.T.W. 
Tan, ALoo 049, 29 Aug 1996, Pulau Tekong 
(Kg. Salabin), fruiting; A.H.B. Loo, Eel 
Seah, H.T.W. Tan, ALoo 055, 3 Sep 1996, 
Pulau Sakijang Pelepah vegetative; N. 
Tanaka, L. Chen, C. Boo, ALoo 005, 009, 
Sungei Mandai Kechil, Kg. Fatimah; A.H.B. 
Loo, ALoo 010, 18 July 1996, Sembawang 
end, fruiting; A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel 
Seah, H.T.W. Tan, ALoo 025 (stem), ALoo 
026 (fruiting), ALoo 027 (seedling), 9 Aug 



1996, Western Catchment Area; A.H.B. 
Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, 
ALoo 028, 15 Aug 1996, Pulau Tekong (Kg. 
Unum), vegetative; A.H.B. Loo, Ali 
Ibrahim, Eel Seah, ALoo 048, 22 Aug 1996, 
Pulau Tekong Kechil, vegetative; A.H.B. 
Loo, Ali Ibrahim, B.C. Soong, Eel Seah, 
H.T.W. Tan, A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, B. C. 
Soong, Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, ALoo 080, 
22 Oct 1996, Pulau Terkukor, vegetative; 
ALoo 081, 22 Oct 1996, Pulau Terkukor, 
seedling. 

Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb. 

A.H.B. Loo, J.A.CP.L. Looi,ALoo 058, 9 
Sep 1996, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve 
(Cave Path), sapling. 

Chamaecrista leschenaultiana (DC.) 
Degener 

N. Tanaka, C. Boo, L. Chen, ALoo 043, Jul 
1996, Pulau JJbin, vegetative. 

Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) 
Greene 

A.H.B. Loo, ALoo Oil, 22 July 1996, Old 
Upper Thomson Road, flowering and 
fruiting; A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, 
H.T.W. Tan, ALoo 034, 20 Aug 1996, Pulau 
Tekong, flowering and fruiting; A.H.B. 
Loo, ALoo 072, 11 Oct 1996, Yishun Ave 
6, whole plant, nodules; A.H.B. Loo, ALoo 
073, 11 Oct 1996, whole plant, nodules; 
A.H.B. Loo, ALoo 074, 07911 Oct 1996, 
Yishun Ave 6; A.H.B Loo, ALoo 085, Nov 
1996, Old Upper Thomson Road, 
flowering and fruiting. 

Dialium platysepalum Baker 

A.H.B. Loo, T.M. Leong, ALoo 060, 19 Sep 
1996, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (Jungle 
Falls), 'wallichu, vegetative. 



106 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze 

A.H.B. Loo, Eel Seah, D. Wee, Karen, 
ALoo 020, 1 Aug 1996, Simgei Buloh 
Nature Reserve, vegetative;A.H.B. Loo,AU 
Ibrahim Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, ALoo 024, 
9 Aug 1996, Western Catchment Area, 
fruiting; A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, 
ALoo 037, 22 Aug 1996, Pulau Tekong 
Kechil, fruiting, ALoo 038, vegetative. 

Koompassia malaccensis Benth. 

A.H.B. Loo, ALoo 059, Jul 1996, Botanic 
Gardens' Jungle, fruits picked up from the 
ground; A.H.B. Loo, T.M. Leong, ALoo 
063, Bukit Timah Nature reserve (Jungle 
Falls), samaras and seedlings. 

Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K. 
Heyne 

A.H.B. Loo, ALoo 003, 12 July, Mandai 
Road, fruiting; A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, 
Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, ALoo 015, 3 Aug 
1996, Pulau Hantu, fruiting; Ali Ibrahim, 
Eel Seah, ALoo 016, 3 Aug 1996, West 
Coast Road, flowering; A.H.B. Loo, Eel 
Seah, ALoo 021, 6 Aug 1996, Pulau 
Sakijang Bender a, fruiting; A.H.B. Loo, 
ALoo 023, 7 Aug 1996, NUS Campus, 
flowering and fruiting; Ali Ibrahim, Eel 
Seah, ALoo 036, 22 Aug 1996, Pulau 
Tekong Kechil, vegetative, wild?; Ali 
Ibrahim, Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, A Loo 051, 
29 Aug 1996, Pulau Tekong, flowering; 
A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, B.C Soong, Eel 
Seah, H.T.W. Tan, S1010, 27 Sep 1996, 
Pulau Semakau (West), fruiting, wild?; 

A. H.B. Loo, B.C Soong, Eel Seah, H.T.W. 
Tan, SI 023, 27 Sep 1996, Pulau Semakau 
(West), sapling; A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, 

B. C Soong, Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, ALoo 
067, 1 Oct 1996, Pulau Subar Darat, 
fruiting; ALoo 082, 22 Oct 1996, Pulau 
Terkukor, vegetative; A.H.B. Loo, ALoo 
086, Nov 1996, NUS Campus, flowering 
and fruiting. 



Senna alata (L.) Roxb. 

N. Tanaka, L. Chen, C. Boo, ALoo 002, 13 
July 1996, Sungei Mandai Kechil, fruiting; 
B. YH Lee, ALoo 032, 19 Aug 1996, North 
Bouna Vista Road, flowering, A.H.B. Loo, 
ALoo 033, 19 Aug 1996, North Bouna Vista 
Road, flowering;A.H. B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, 
B.C Soong, Eel Seah, H.T.W. Tan, ALoo 
03 5, 20 Aug 1996, Pulau Tekong, vegetative; 
A.H.B. Loo, ALoo 075, 076, 11 Oct 1996, 
Island Club Road, flowers and fruits; 
A.H.B. Loo, ALoo 077, 11 Oct 1996, 
Yishun Ave 6, fruiting. 

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link 

AHB. Loo, ALoo 029, 030, 031, 16 Aug 
1996, East Coast Road, flowering and 
fruiting; A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, 
ALoo 041, 22 Aug 1996, East Coast Road, 
flowering and fruiting; A.H.B. Loo, ALoo 
070, 8 Oct 1996, School of Biologial 
Sciences Garden (NUS), flowering and 
fruiting. 

Sindora coriacea (Baker) Prain 

A.H.B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seahjoeseph 
Lai, ALoo 083, 29 Oct 1996, Bukit Kallang 
(Summit), vegetative. 

Sindora wallichii Benth. 

A. H. B. Loo, Ali Ibrahim, Eel Seah, ALoo 
054, 29 Aug 1996, Netheravon Road, 
fruiting; ALoo 063, 19 Sep 1996, Bukit 
Timah Nature Reserve (Jungle Falls), 
seedlings and fallen fruits. 

The following species were not found 
in the field: 

Caesalpinia tortuosa Roxb. 

Cynometra ramiflora L. var. ramiflora; 

Dialium indum L.var. bursa (de Wit) Rojo 

Dialium indum L. var. indum 

Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin and Barneby var. 

hirsuta; 

Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin and Barneby 
Senna tora (L.) Roxb. 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 107-110. 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 7 
LIMNOCHARITACEAE 

J. P. S. Choo 1 and H.T.W. Tan 2 

l B\o<± 108, Lorong 1 Toa Payoh, #05-298, 
Singapore 310108, Republic of Singapore 

2 School of Biological Sciences, The National University of Singapore 
Singapore 119260, Republic of Singapore 

Limnocharis Humb. and Bonpl. 

PL aequinoct. 1 (1808) 116; M.R. Hend., Malayan Wild Flowers, 
Monocotyledons (1954) 202-203; Steenis, Fl. Males. 1:5 (1954) 118-120; 
Backer & Bakh./., Fl. Java 3 (1968) 1-2; H. Keng, Orders and Families of 
Malayan Seed Plants (1969) 287; R.R. Haynes & Holm-Niels., Fl. Neotropica 
56 (1992) 8-12. 

Emergent, substrate-rooted, fleshy, aerenchyma-rich, laticiferous, 
aquatic herbs; stem very short. Leaves simple, basal, glabrous, long- 
petiolate, exstipulate. Inflorescence an umbel-like cincinnus, bracteate. 
Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, pedicellate, bracteate; sepals 3, persistent; 
petals 3; staminodes numerous, tricyclic; stamens numerous, dicyclic; carpels 
up to 20, fused marginally and basally to form a verticil, placentation 
laminar; stigma sessile. Follicetum enclosed by the persistent sepals; follicles 
up to 20. Seeds many per follicle. 

Distribution, Ecology and Uses — See under species. 

Notes — Limnocharis is often regarded as monotypic, although 
Duchassaing in Grisebach (Bonplandia 6 (1858) 11) recognised L. laforestii 
as a second species (Haynes and Holm-Nielsen, 1992). 

Limnocharis has traditionally been placed in the Butomaceae but 
more recent treatments follow Cronquist (1981) and his narrow concept of 
the family. The Limnocharitaceae differ from the Butomaceae s.s. by the 
presence of laticifers, "petiolated leaves that have a terminal pore, a non- 
petaloid calyx, thin and evanescent petals, and curved seeds and embryos" 
(Haynes and Holm-Nielsen, 1992). 

1. Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau 

Abh. naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 2 (1869) 2; Steenis, Fl. Males. 1:5 (1954) 120; 



108 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (J 997) 



Backer & Bakh./., Fl. Java 3 (1968) 1-2; H. Keng, Gdns' Bull., Singapore 
40 (1987) 113; I.M. Turner, K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan, J. Singapore Nat. 
Acad. Sci. 18 & 19 (1990) 63; R.R. Haynes & Holm-Niels., Flora Neotropica 
56 (1992) 8-10; I.M. Turner, Gdns 1 Bull., Singapore 45 (1993) 48. 

Alisma flava L. 

Herb to 1 m tall. Leaves: lamina ovate to suborbicular, to 30 by 23 
cm, with 1 midrib and 7-17 secondary veins, apex round or apiculate, with 
a purple-margined hydathode at the abaxial tip; petiole trigonous, to 85 cm 
long and c. 8 mm in diam.; sheath to 27 cm long. Inflorescence 3-9- 
flowered, after fruiting becoming stolon-like and forming vegetative shoots; 
peduncle to 71 cm long and c. 1.5 cm in diam., apically trigonous, basally 
flattened, sheathless; bracts ovate, fugacious, outermost bracts 2, to c. 3.0 
by 2.5 cm, subpedicellate supernumerary buds occasionally develop in their 
axils in mature inflorescences. Flowers cockroach-scented; sepals to 22 by 
17 mm; petals with a cream margin and yellow base, suborbicular, to 23 by 
25 mm, membranous, fugacious; staminodes yellow, stamens with cream 
anthers and yellow filaments; carpels cream, laterally compressed; pedicels 
to c. 5.5 by 1 cm. Follicetum subglobose, to 15 mm diam.; follicles yellowish 
when ripe, semi-circular, laterally compressed with thickened peripheral 
wall, dehiscent. Seeds brown, U-shaped, with thin transverse ridges and 
broad transverse spines, to c. 1 mm long. (Figure 1.) 

Distribution — This species from tropical South America, is locally 
naturalized and was first recorded in Singapore in 1930 (Corlett, 1988). It 
was recently collected in Choa Chu Kang Muslim Cemetry, Jalan Ulu 
Seletar, Mandai Road, Marina East and Neo Tiew Road. 

Ecology — Aquatic or marsh plants usually found growing in or 
along water margins, e.g., drains, ditches, freshwater pools or ponds in 
farm- or wasteland and along roadsides. Usually a perennial, it can be 
annual through drying of its habitat (Backer & Bakhuizen/, 1965). Its 
presence indicates fertile soils (Ochse, 1931). Flowers open in the morning 
and fade by afternoon (van Steenis, 1954). 

The peduncle of an old inflorescence grows downwards where, on 
contact with water or mud, it develops leaves and roots so serving as an 
effective means of vegetative propagation (Backer & Bakhuizen/, 1965). 

Uses — In West Java, young leaves and inflorescences are eaten 
and sold in markets (Burkill, 1935), and are eaten raw or cooked with rice 
by the Javanese (Tanaka, 1976), and also eaten by the Malays (Burkill, 



The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore Part 7 



109 




Figure 1. Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau. a. Habit with two newly developed inflorescences 
and one old inflorescence which has become stoloniferous with a rooting vegetative shoot at 
its tip. b.Tip of the lamina showing the hydathode. c. A flower and buds of the inflorescence 
and the peduncle tip. d. Half-flower, e. Follicetum enclosed by two of the three persistent 
sepals, with one removed, at the tip of the pedicel, f. One follicle and seeds, g. Seed. Del. 
J.P.S.Choo. P 



110 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



1935). The raw lamina has a slightly bitter aftertaste. This plant was also 
used as cattle fodder and green manure in Peninsular Malaysia (Burkill, 
1935). 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to the Director, Singapore Botanic Gardens, for the use of 
the herbarium and library facilities and for the financial support through 
the National University of Singapore grant, RP 930325. We would also 
like to thank Robert R. Haynes (University of Alabama) for determining 
some of our specimens and K.P. Fong for field assistance. 

References 

Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. Jr. (1965). Flora of Java, 
Vol III, Wolters-Noordhoff N.V.; Groningen, the Netherlands; 1-2. 

Burkill, I.H. (1935). A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay 
Peninsula, Vol. 2, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Kuala 
Lumpur, Malaysia; 1347. 

Corlett, R.T. (1988). The naturalized flora of Singapore. /. Biogeog. 15, 
657-663. 

Cronquist, A. (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering 
plants, Columbia Univ. Press; New York; 1048-1049. 

Haynes, R.R. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B. (1992). Flora Neotropica Monograph 
56, the Limnocharitaceae, New York Botanical Garden; New York; 1- 
34. 

Keng, H. (1987). Annotated list of seed plants in Singapore (XI). Gdns' 
Bull., Singapore 40, 113. 

Ochse, J.J. (1931). Indische groenten (met inbegrip van aardvruchten en 
kruiderijen) (met meder werking van R.C. Bakhuizen van den Brink)', 
Department Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel; Buitenzorg, Batavia 
Centrum; 87-89, 612. 

Steenis, C.G.G.J. van (1954). Butomaceae. Fl Males., Ser. 1, 5, 118-120. 

Tanaka, T. (1976). Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World; 
Keigaku Publishing Co.; Tokyo; 431. 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 111-118. 



Gazetteer of Limestone Localities in Sabah, Borneo 

Lim Sheh Ping 

Forest Research Centre, Forest Department, 
Locked Bag 68, 90009 Sandakan 
Sabah, Malaysia 

and 

Ruth Kiew 

Singapore Botanic Gardens 
Cluny Road, Singapore 259569 

Abstract 

A map of the 59 limestone localities in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo, is presented 
together with a table with their co-ordinates, accepted name and the forest area in which 
they occur. 

Introduction 

In investigating the limestone flora in Sabah, it became obvious that there 
was no complete and convenient gazetteer to limestone localities. Limestone 
hills had been surveyed for their caves with archaeological remains (T. and 
B. Harrisson, 1971), for caves from which edible bird's nests are collected 
(Francis, 1987) or for their mollusc fauna (Vermeulen, 1996). None of 
these sources covers even half the limestone localities. The section on hill 
and mountain peaks in the Sabah Gazetteer (Tangah and Wong, 1995) 
lists two limestone hills and gives their altitudes (Dulong Lambu attains 
229 m a.s.l. and Madai reaches 359 m) but without mention that they are 
limestone. 

In addition, there are discrepancies in names or the spelling of names. 
Standardising names has therefore been an important part of this work. 
For example, the name 'Lobok Buaya' cited by the Harrissons is not to be 
found on any maps and it was necessary to retrace their route to the site 
and confirm the accepted name with local villagers. The hill should be 
called Baladut. Similarly, Batu Punan has been given as an alternative 
name to Pun Batu, but the local villagers are adamant that it should be 
called Pun Batu. 

Tourist localities are also not accurate in their use of names. Thus 
the hill in which the Gomantong Cave is located is Bukit Dulong Lambu 



112 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



(not Bukit Gomantong) and the hill commonly called Batu Putih should 
correctly be known as Batu Tulug (Batu Putih being the name of the 
nearby village, not the hill itself). 

Two limestone localities are not included in the gazetteer. One is a 
mollusc site, 'Kirk's Cave, 8 km N of Lahad Datu', for which no co-ordinates 
are available (Vermeulen, 1996). It is not to be found on any map probably 
because it is a 'small hill hidden among oil palm estates' and so would not 
have shown up on aerial photographs if it did not emerge above the tree 
canopy. Similarly, George Argent (pers. comm.) reports that there are a 
few large limestone boulders in the river at Danum Valley (Sungai Palum 
Tambun 4° 58'N 117°49'E), but the source of these has not been found. 

Francis (1987) drew attention to the confusion about the number 
and names of limestone hills in the Sapulut and Sinobang areas, which 
until recently were very remote and inaccessible. Now the area is riddled 
with a maze of logging roads and it was possible to visit the Sinobang area 
on the Sungai Pinangah and obtain information from the local Muruts. 
This revealed that the hills do not have proper names and that Batu Urun 
(not a hill but a unique bowl-shaped sunken gorge) is a descriptive name, 
which merely indicates that it is upriver ('oron' in the Murut language, 
equivalent to 'ulu' in Malay) and Kelabangan meaning 'a trail' ('labangan' 
in Murut), is a long cliff face that intermittently outcrops along a stretch 
about 3-km long (R. Kiew, unpublished data). 

The gazetteer was compiled from the following three maps as no 
single map included all the limestone hills. The mineral map is the most 
complete. 

1. The Soils of Sabah. 1974. Scale 1: 125,000. Published for the Sabah 
Government by the British Overseas Development Administration (Land 
Resources Division), U.K. 

2. Mineral Distribution Map of Sabah. 1st edition, 1976. Scale 1: 500,000. 
Compiled by K.M. Leong, published by The Geological Survey of Malaysia. 

3. Geological Map of Sabah. 3rd edition, 1985. Scale 1: 500,000. Compiled 
by P.S. Lim, published by Directorate of Mapping Malaysia. No. 36/87. 

Some hills have no names on the maps and these are recorded as 
unnamed in Table 1 and, where there is a village or river close by, this is 
given in parenthesis. The position of all hills is shown in Figure 1, the 
numbers corresponding to the numbered localities in Table 1. The Forest 
Reserve in which the hill is found is also given, as this is important in 
considering the conservation status of the limestone flora. The limestone 
flora is extremely susceptible to burning, which destroys not only the 



114 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



vegetation but also the soil layer, which when no longer protected by 
vegetation is washed away by subsequent rains leaving the rock bare (Kiew, 
1991). The original vegetation on hills that suffered burning in the 1982-83 
drought has still not recovered. Protection against fire by a buffer zone of 
forest is therefore essential for the conservation of the limestone flora. 
Hills that are not located within Wildlife Reserves or Virgin Jungle Reserves 
are extremely vulnerable to fire. 

Fifty nine limestone localities are listed here. They include the raised 
coral limestone found on islands, for example in the extreme north and the 
south east of Sabah, and the inland tower karst hills. It is in these latter 
that the caves are found. 

While we can be confident that all the major hills are listed, there 
remains the possibility that smaller outcrops (such as 'Kirk's cave' 
mentioned above), which do not emerge above the forest canopy and so 
cannot be identified from aerial photographs remain to be mapped. 
However, based on our field survey their number is likely to be very small. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors are extremely grateful to World Wide Fund for Nature 
Malaysia for funding under Project No. MYS 328/ 95; to Dr Wong Khoon 
Meng, Mr Robert C. Ong and staff at the Forest Research Centre for 
providing facilities; to G. Argent, A. Lamb and J.J. Vermeulen for answering 
queries. 

References 

Francis, CM. 1987. The Management of Edible Bird's Nest Caves in Sabah. 
Wildlife Section, Sabah Forest Department, Sandakan, Sabah. 

Harrisson, T. and B. Harrisson. 1971. The Prehistory of Sabah. Sabah 
Society Journal. 4:1-272. 

Kiew, R. 1991. The limestone flora. In: R. Kiew (ed.), The State of Nature 
Conservation in Malaysia. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, 
Malaysia, pp. 42-50. 

Tangah, J. and K.M. Wong. 1995. A Sabah Gazetteer. Sabah Forest 
Department and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Malaysia. 

Vermeulen, J.J. 1996. Notes on the non-marine molluscs of the island of 
Borneo, 8. Basteria 60: 87-138. 



Gazetteer of Limestone Localities in Sabah Borneo 

Table L Gazetteer of limestone localities in Sabah 



115 



Name of Locality 



Coordinate 



Forest Reserve 



1. Tanjung Batu 



5°36'30"N 
118°20'0(TE 



2. Ulu Sungai 
Resang 



118 o 23'0(rE 



3. Panggi 

(Bt. Temanggong 
Besar) 



5°32'15"N 
118°18'3(rE 



Panggi FR 



4. Batu Temanggong 
Kecil 



5°32'00"N 
118°18'0(rE 



5. Keruak (Cave) 



5 o 31'30"N 

ii8°i7WE 



Keruak VJR 



6. Bod Tai Cave 



5°31'45"N 
118°13'0(rE 



Bod Tai VJR 



7. Unnamed 



5°32'45 M N 
118°9'30"E 



8. Baladut 



5 o 26'30"N 
l^WE 



9. Kuntos 



5 o 33'00"N 
118°4 , 30"E 



Gomantong Protected FR 



10. BukitDulong 
Lambu 

(Gomantong Cave) 



5°31'30"N 
118°4'15"E 



Gomantong VJR 



11. Batu Batangan 



5°28'00"N 
118°6'00"E 



12. Batu Materis 



118°2'15"E 



13. BatuBunod 



5°31'45"N 
118°2'45"E 



14. BatuSupu 



5°29'00"N 
117°55'15"E 



Pin-Supu VJR 



1 1 6 Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1 ) (1997) 



15. 


Batu Tulug 


5°25'45"N 
117°56'30"E 


Pin-Supu VJR 


16. 


Tabin 

(Batu Quoin) 


5°18'00"N 
118°44'30"E 


Tabin Wildlife Sanctuary 


17. 


Unnamed 
(Tabin) 


5°20'30"N 
118°43'30"E 


Tabin Wildlife Sanctuary 


18. 


Unnamed 
(Tabin) 


5°21'00"N 
118°40'30"E 


Tabin Wildlife Sanctuary 


19. 


Unnamed 
(Tabin) 


5°16'15"N 
118°46'15"E 


Tabin Wildlife Sanctuary 


20. 


Batu Belas 


5°7'45"N 
118°8'45"E 


- 


21. 


Tempadong 


5°8'30"N 
118°8'15"E 


Mensuli VJR 


22. 


Upak 


5 o 7'00"N 
118°3'45"E 


- 


23. 


Unnamed 


4°50'30"N 
118°4'45"E 


- 


24. 


Gunung Madai 


4°43 , 00 ,, N 
118°9'15"E 


Madai-Baturong VJR 


25. 


Batu Supad 


4°42'15 ,, N 
118 o 10'15"E 


Madai-Baturong VJR 


26. 


Bukit Baturong 


4°42 , 00"N 
118°00'30"E 


Madai-Baturong VJR 


27. 


Batu Tengar Cave 
(Segarong) 


4°34'15"N 
118°24'30"E 


Segarong Protected FR 




& Pababola Cave 
(Sipit) 


4°33'30 ,, N 
118°24'15"E 


Segarong Protected FR 


28. 


Semorang Cave 
(Sipit) 


4°35'45 ,, N 
118°25'00"E 


Segarong Protected FR 


29. 


Selangan Island 
(Sakong) 


4 34'45"N 
118°30'00"E 


Selangan Protected FR 



Gazetteer of Limestone Localities in Sabah Borneo 



117 



30. Unnamed 
(Kampung Ballong) 

31. Pulau Pababag 
(Sakong) 

32. Bait Island 
(Sakong) 

33. Larapan Island 



34. Tanjung Kapur 

35. Bum Bum Island 

36. BatuPang 

37. Sarupi 

38. Batu Timbang 

39. Melikop 

40. Kelabangan 

41. BatuUrun 

42. Bandakan 

43. Batu Punggul 



44. Unnamed 
(Labang) 

45. Sambulyan 



4°34'00"N 
118°28'30"E 

4°32'30"N 
118°29'30"E 

4°32'30"N 
118°3r30"E 

4 33 , 45 ,, 
118°36'15"E 

4°31'30"N 
118°32'15"E 

4°28'00"N 
118°40'00"E 

4°27'00"N 
118°11'00"E 

5°14'00"N 
117°28'30"E 

4°59'00"N 
117°6'00"E 

5°5'00"N 
116°48'00"E 

4°49 , 30"N 
116°38'00"E 

4°49'30"N 
116°38'00"E 

4°43'45"N 
116 o 36'00"E 

4°38'45"N 
116°37'00"E 

4°39'00"N 
116 Q 33'45"E 

4 o 43'30"N 
116°33'30"E 



Pababag Protected FR 



Batu Timbang VJR 



Sg. Pinangah Commercial FR 



Sg. Pinangah Commercial FR 



Sapulut Commercial FR 



Sapulut Commercial FR 



Sapulut Commercial FR 



118 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



46. PunBatu 



4°48'00 ,, N 
116°12W , E 



47. Pulun 



4°46'15 ,, N 
115°39'45"E 



Sabah Forest Industries 



48. Unnamed 
(Sg.Pangi) 



5°5'45"N Gunung Lumaku Protected FR / 
115°48'45"E Sabah Forest Industries 



49. Lakutan 



5°7'00"N 

ii5°43'i5"E 



Sabah Forest Industries 



50. Burong Island 



5°14'30"N 
115°ir30"E 



51. Labuan 



115°12'00"E 



52. Lian Cave 



5°29'30"N 
116°10'30"E 



53. Mantanani Island 
Besar 



6°43'30"N 
116°20 , 30"E 



& Kecil 



6°43'00 ,, N 
116°18'30"E 



54. Unnamed 



6°50'00"N 
116°49'(XrE 



55. Unnamed 



7°1'00"N 
116°45 , 30"E 



56. Melobang 



6°53'30"N 
117°2'30"E 



57. Karakit 



7°7'15"N 
117°5W'E 



Karakit VJR 



58. Kok Simpul 
& Tg. Kalutan 



7°13'00"N 
116°52'45"E 



Balambangan Protected FR 



59. TanjungTimohing 
(Balambangan) 



7 o 17'30"N 
116 o 54'30"E 



FR forest reserve; VJR virgin jungle reserve; - not found in forest reserve. 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 119-141. 



The Botany of the Islands of Mersing District, Johore, 
Peninsular Malaysia. 1. The Plants and Vegetation of 

Pulau Tinggi 

I.M. Turner 1 , J.W.H. Yong 2 

School of Biological Sciences 
National University of Singapore 
Singapore 119260 

A. Zainudin Ismail & A. Latiff 

Department of Botany 
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 
43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia 

Abstract 

A list of the vascular plant species found on Pulau Tinggi in the district of Mersing, Johore, 
Peninsular Malaysia is presented. This has been prepared from herbarium collections in 
Malaysia and Singapore and covers more than 500 species. A brief outline of the vegetation 
of the island and the principal species in each vegetation type are given. Pulau Tinggi is 
mostly covered with lowland dipterocarp forest. The island has good examples of several 
coastal vegetation types which include the presence of a number of rare seashore species 
including Argusia argentea, Manilkara kauki, Pouteria linggensis and Serianthes grandiflora. 

Introduction 

Pulau Tinggi (2° 18' N, 104° T E) is an island of roughly 14.5 km 2 lying 13 
km off the east coast of Johore. Tinggi rises abruptly to a height of 610 m 
at its summit, with most of the slopes covered in forest. Turner et al. (1993) 
provided a preliminary account of the botany of Pulau Tinggi. Subsequent 
further research allows a more detailed report to be given here. 

Flora 

A list of the vascular plants recorded from Pulau Tinggi is given in Appendix 
1. Records are taken from herbarium specimens in the Singapore Botanic 

'Present Address: Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Shimosakamoto, Otsu 520 0105, Japan 

2 Present Address: Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian 
National University, G.P.O. Box 475, Canberra A.C.T. 2601, Australia 



120 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Gardens (SING), School of Biological Sciences, National University of 
Singapore (SINU), Forest Research Institute Malaysia (KEP) and 
Department of Botany, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKMB). The 
collections were made by J.B. Feilding who visited Pulau Tinggi in late 
1892, I.H. Burkill who was there from 16 to 20 June 1915, Strugnell and 
Mohd. Yasin in 1952, J. Sinclair in May 1954, F.S.P. Ng in April 1967, A. 
Zainudin Ismail in 1990 and 1996, and groups from the National University 
of Singapore in 1991, 1992 and 1996. The list consists of 510 native or 
naturalized species and 62 cultivated ones. 

Vegetation 

The main vegetation on Pulau Tinggi is the tropical rain forest that covers 
the upper slopes of the island. In and around the villages this has been 
cleared to give way to cultivated areas. Close to the villages these are 
permanent, higher up the clearings (ladangs) are often abandoned in a 
form of shifting agriculture. Currently these ladangs are mostly abandoned, 
probably reflecting a gradual reduction in the permanent population of 
Pulau Tinggi in recent years, and a shift to employment in the holiday 
resorts on the island. The seashores support a range of different vegetation 
types, largely related to their substrate. The sandy beaches differ in their 
plant community from the more frequent rocky ones. There are also two 
areas of mangrove vegetation. On some of the coral reef flats there are 
seagrass meadows. The distribution of the major terrestrial vegetation types 
is shown in Fig. 1. 

Forest 

We probably know least about this vegetation type on Tinggi compared to 
the others. The area of forest is extensive and penetrated by relatively few 
trails, and collecting from tall trees is technically difficult. Therefore we 
can only be explicit with regard to the understorey vegetation. Turner et 
al. (1993) described the summit of Tinggi, which is an open grassy area, 
probably maintained as such by human visitors. The forest on the lower 
slopes is tall, reaching to 30 m or more in height and contains typical 
primary forest species such as members of the Dipterocarpaceae and 
Myristicaceae (see Appendix 1). The palm Orania sylvicola is abundant, 
and there is a zone of bamboo below the summit. This was tentatively 
identified as Dendro calamus hirtellus by Turner et al. (1993), an 
identification confirmed from further collections by Dr K.M. Wong. Typical 
forest understorey herbs, such as gingers, aroids and ferns, are to be found 
in abundance. 

The lower edges of the forest grade into secondary forest and 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



121 



Tg Bahj 




P Apil 

O 



q jk P. Nanga Kechil 

P. Mentigt O 

y0*^~*% P. Nanga Besar 




Figure 1. Maps of Pulau Tinggi and its major vegetation types. (P. = Pulau, Tg = Tanjung, Tk 
= Telok, Kg = Kampung, Bt = Bukit; spot heights in metres) 



122 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



abandoned ladangs. Common species in this region include Vitex pinnata 
and Melastoma malabathricum. Old crop plants may also be found. We 
came across the garden pandan, Pandanus amaryllifolius growing along 
one stream, and the climber Tinospora crispa, which is grown for its 
medicinal uses, in another area. Newly cleared areas, if not planted, soon 
give way to pioneering plants such as Trema tomentosa, Chromolaena 
odorata and Macaranga heynei. 

Cultivated Areas 

The kampung houses on Tinggi are set among the typical tumult of 
ornamental and useful plants seen in any Malay village. Coconut palms 
(Cocos nucifera) dominate the flat areas near the sea, though their 
cultivation appears to be largely neglected at present. The coconut groves 
are mostly carpetted with cattle-grazed lallang (Imperata cylindrica) and 
clumps of Lantana camara. The kwini (Mangifera odorata) is the only crop 
currently exported from Pulau Tinggi. Other commonly grown trees include 
rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and nutmeg 
(Myristica fragrans). The attractive herb Tacca palmata is quite common in 
the plantations. 

Sea Shores 

Most of Tinggi's coastline is rocky, usually of large boulders. The north 
coast is mostly inaccessible, even by boat. Common trees found just above 
the high tide line are Memecylon edule, Allophylus cobbe, Ficus superba 
and Pouteria obovata. Cycas rumphii, Glycosmis mauritiana, Premna 
serratifolia and Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa are shrubby species also common 
on the rocks. Pandanus dubius is abundant on the north coast in such 
situations. The rocky promontories most exposed to salt spray from the 
sea support Pemphis acidula or Xylocarpus rumphii. Ferns are often 
encountered creeping over the surface of the rocks. These include Davallia 
solida, Drynaria quercifolia, Phymatosorus scolopendria and Pyrrosia 
lanceolata. Cracks support other herbs, notably the naturalized alien 
Kalanchoe pinnata, Dianella ensifolia and Asplenium macrophyllum. Hoya 
verticillata and Dischidia major are common epiphytes. The orchids 
Dendrobium crumenatum and Aerides odorata can be found growing both 
epiphytically and on rocks. 

On the sandy beaches, mostly found in the bays on the south and 
east coasts, the creepers Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea littoralis, Vitex trifolia 
and Cyperus stoloniferus can be found. The back of the beach is typically 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



123 



lined with shrubs of Scaevola taccada, Pandanus odoratissimus and 
Dendrolobium umbellatum behind which grow trees such as Hibiscus 
tiliaceus, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Terminalia catappa, Barringtonia 
asiatica and Guettarda speciosa. Less frequently encountered are Thespesia 
populnea, Cordia subcordata and Casuarina equisetifolia. Individual trees 
of Erythrina fusca, Erythrina variegata and Hernandia nymphaeifolia are 
to be found at Telok Seruang. 

Mangrove 

There are two areas of mangrove vegetation on Pulau Tinggi. At Telok 
Terih there is a range of mangrove habitats at the mouth of the Sungai 
Terih Besar. Telok Pinang contains a smaller area of mangrove. 

A preliminary survey at Telok Terih found that an almost pure stand 
of Rhizophora apiculata occupies the seaward front of the mangrove where 
the substrate is muddiest (Fig. 2). Patches of different species, including 




Figure 2. Map of the mangrove vegetation found at Telok Terih, Pulau Tinggi. 



124 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Avicennia rumphiana, Bruguiera cylindrica and Aegiceras comiculatum are 
found behind. The back mangrove is quite diverse with big trees of 
Xylocarpus granatum and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Dolichandrone spathacea, 
Cynometra ramiflora and Bruguiera sexangula also occur here, with an 
understorey of Acrostichum aureum and Acrostichum speciosum. The trees 
on the rocky fringe bordering the mangrove support many epiphytes 
including the rubiaceous myrmecophyte Hydnophytum formicarum and 
the clubmoss Huperzia carinata. 

The Telok Pinang mangrove is dominated by Rhizophora apiculata 
and Rhizophora stylosa but with an admixture of a number of other species 
including Ceriops decandra and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. There appears to 
be more human utilization of the mangroves in Telok Pinang than Telok 
Terih, but there is evidence that the local people may be replanting areas 
cut, presumably for fuel or for use as poles. Species found at Telok Terih 
but not seen at Telok Pinang include Avicennia alba, Bruguiera sexangula 
and Ceriops tagal. The mangroves on Tinggi are notable for the scarcity of 
Sonneratia alba and Avicennia alba. 

Sea Grasses 

We have located herbarium specimens of three species of sea grass collected 
from the coastal waters of Pulau Tinggi. There are fairly extensive areas of 
sea grass in front of Kampung Tanjung Balang, mostly of Cymodocea 
rotundifolia interspersed with the smaller Halodule uninervis. Burkill also 
collected Thallassia hemprichii. Enhalus acoroides shoots were found among 
the seashore flotsam, but no plants were seen growing around the island. 
Japar (1994) also reports Halophila ovalis from Tinggi. 

Botanical Significance 

We now have records for more than 500 species of vascular plant from 
Pulau Tinggi. However, we believe that this is likely to represent less than 
half of the flora of the island. Many forest species remain uncollected. 

As outlined by Turner et al. (1993), the most important collections 
from Pulau Tinggi are those of Pandanus lais and Canarium hirsutum. The 
former has not been collected since 1915, but we have located the latter. 
Several plants were encountered near the path running behind the 
mangroves in Telok Terih. It grows at the edge of secondary forest and 
becomes reproductive at a fairly small size (4-5 m tall). 

The most exciting of the recent collections is the discovery of a new 
east coast locality for Argusia argentea. Until now it was only known from 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



125 



Pulau Tengah in Johore. This adds to the number of rare seashore species 
that have been recorded from Pulau Tinggi. Others in this category include 
Serianthes grandiflora, Manilkara kauki and Pouteria linggensis. 

Didymocarpus tiumanicus was believed to be endemic to Pulau 
Tioman (Henderson 1930, as Paraboea tiumanica), but we have now found 
it on Tinggi, and it has been collected on Pulau Pemanggil also. Thus this 
species has to be added to the flora of Johore, and must be thought of as a 
Tioman Archipelago endemic, rather than being confined to the one island. 
Another species not previously reported from Johore is Mallotus 
philippensis. 

One sterile collection was identified by Mr K.M. Kochummen as 
possibly Swintonia acuta, a species only previously recorded from Borneo. 
Fertile material is needed to confirm the occurrence of this species in 
Peninsular Malaysia. 

Acknowledgements 

The members of 1996-97 NUS Botany Honours Class are thanked for their 
invaluable assistance in collecting and making observations on Pulau Tinggi. 
That trip was arranged by the Malaysian Nature Society and Abdullah 
Piee, Nik Mohamad and Dr Loh Chi Leong are thanked for their company 
on Tinggi. A number of people assisted with identification of collections, 
particularly Haji Sidek Kiah and Ali Ibrahim at the Singapore Botanic 
Gardens and Chua Keng Soon at NUS. Mr K.M. Kochummen and Dr Saw 
Leng Guan are thanked for their assistance with the Anacardiaceae, and 
Dr Wong Khoon Meng for confirming the identity of the Tinggi bamboo. 

References 

Henderson, M.R. 1930. Notes on the flora of Pulau Tioman and 
neighbouring islands. Gardens' Bulletin Straits Settlements. 5: 80-93. 

Japar, S.B. 1994. Status of seagrass resources in Malaysia. In: C.R. 
Wilkinson, S. Sudara & L.M. Chou. Proceedings, Third ASEAN- Australia 
Symposium on Living Coastal Resources, pp. 283-289 Vol. 1 Australian 
Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. 

Turner, I.M. 1995. A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya. Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore 47: 1-757. 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, K.S. Chua, P.T. Chew, & Haji Samsuri bin Haji 
Ahmad 1993. A botanical reconnaisance of Pulau Tinggi, Johore. Malayan 
Nature Journal 46: 157-168. 



126 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Appendix h A list of species collected from Pulau Tinggi. 

One representative herbarium collection is cited for each species. Species only found 
in cultivation, or as relics of cultivation, are indicated as such by 'c' in the margin. 
Nomenclature follows Turner (1995) where possible. 



Pteridophyta 

Adiantaceae 

Adiantwn stenochlamys Baker - Strugnell 

KEP 70933 (KEP) 
Taenitis blechnoides (Willd.) Sw. - PT96 

649 (SINU) 

Aspleniaceae 

Asplenium macrophyllum Sw. - PT96-186 
(SINU) 

Asplenium nidus L. - PT96-217 (SINU) 
Asplenium tenerum G. Forst. - PT96-131 
(SINU) 

Blechnaceae 

Blechnum f inlay sonianum Wall, ex Hook. 
& Grev. - J.W.H.Yong PT5 (SINU) 

Davalliaceae 

Davallia angustata Wall, ex Hook. & 
Grev. - I.M. Turner PT13 (SINU) 

Davallia denticulata (Burm./.) Mett. ex 
Kuhn - PT96-423 (SINU) 

Dennstaedtiaceae 

Lindsaea doryophora K.U. Kramer 

I.M.Turner PT4 (SINU) 
Lindsaea lucida Blume - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 947 (SING) 
Pteridium esculentum (G. Forst.) 

Cockayne - I.M. Turner PT66 (SINU) 
Tapeinidium pinnatum (Cav.) C.Chr. - 

I.M. Turner PT31 (SINU) 
Teclaria griff ithii (Baker) C. Chr. - 

I.M.Turner PT78 (SINU) 
Teclaria semipinnata (Roxb.) C.V. 

Morton - Radhika Ramadas PT99 

(SINU) 

Teclaria singaporeana (Hook. & Grev.) 
Copel.-PT96-113(SINU) 



Dryopteridaceae 

Ctenitis vilis (Kunze) Ching - I.M.Turner 

PT33 (SINU) 
Heterogonium giganteum (Blume) 

Holttum - I.M.Turner PT78 (SINU) 
Pleocnema irregularis (C. Presl) Holttum 

-I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 923 (SING) 

Gleicheniaceae 

Dicranopteris linearis (Willd.) Spreng. - 

PT96-230 (SINU) 
Stichurus truncatus (Willd.) Nakai - 

I.M.Turner PT53 (SINU) 

Hymenophyllaceae 

Cephalomanes javanicum (Blume) Bosch 

- I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 937 (SING) 
Hymenophyllum polyanthos Sw. - 

I.M.Turner PT14 (SINU) 

Lomariopsidaceae 

Teratophyllum rotundifoliatum (R. 
Bonap.) Holttum - I.M.Turner PT76 
(SINU) 

Lycopodiaceae 

Huperzia carinata (Desv. ex Poir.) Trevis. 

- PT96-208 (SINU) 

Huperzia phlegmaria (L.) Rothm. - PT96 
202 (SINU) 

Marattiaceae 

Angiopleris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm. - 
PT96-107 (SINU) 

Oleandraceae 

Nephrolepis auriculata (L.) Trimen - 
I.M.Turner PT9 (SINU) 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



127 



Polypodiaceae 

Colysis pedunculata (Hook. & Grev.) 

Ching - I.M.Turner PT55 (SINU) 
Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Sm. - PT96 

238 (SINU) 
Drynaria sparsisora (Desv.) T. Moore - 

PT96-388 (SINU) 
Lecanopteris Crustacea Copel. - 

J.W.H.Yong PT104 (SINU) 
Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm./.) 

Pic.Serm. - PT96-332 (SINU) 
Pyrrosia lanceolata (L.) Farwell - PT96 

451 (SINU) 
Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) M.G. Price - 

PT96-457 (SINU) 
Selliguea heterocarpa (Blume) Blume - 

I.M.Turner PT26 (SINU) 

Pteridaceae 

Acrostichum aureum L. - PT96-644 
(SINU) 

Acrostichum speciosum Willd. - PT96-312 
(SINU) 

Pteris ensiformis Burm./ - PT96-654 
(SINU) 

Schizaeaceae 

Lygodium circinnatum (Burm./.) Sw. - 

PT96-378 (SINU) 
Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw. - PT96- 

364 (SINU) 
Schizaea digitata (L.) Sw. - PT96-671 

(SINU) 

Selaginellaceae 

Selaginella intermedia (Blume) Spring - 

PT96-285 (SINU) 
Selaginella padangensis Hieron. - I.H. 

Burkill s.n., June 1915 (SING) 
Selaginella willdenowii (Desv.) Baker - 

PT96-106 (SINU) 

Thelypteridaceae 

Amphineuron opulentum (Kaulf.) 
Holttum - PT96-637 (SINU) 



Christella parasitica (L.) Lev. - J. Sinclair, 

S.F.N. 40291 (SING) 
Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd.) H. Ito - 

PT96-491 (SINU) 
Pronephrium menisciicarpon (Blume) 

Holttum - I.M.Turner PT43 (SINU) 
Pronephrium repandum (Fee) Holttum - 

PT96-683 (SINU) 

Vittariaceae 

Antrophyum callifolium Blume - PT96- 
124 (SINU) 

Spermatophyta 

Acanthaceae 

Asystasia nemorum Nees - PT96-53 
(SINU) 

c Justicia gendarussa Burm./. - PT96-15 
(SINU) 

c Thunbergia affinis S. Moore - PT96-4 
(SINU) 

Actinidiaceae 

Saurauia pentapetala (Jack) Hoogland - 
D.J.Metcalfe PT71 (SINU) 

Alangiaceae 

Alangium kurzii Craib - A. Zainudin AZ 

5785 (UKMB) 
Alangium rotundifolium (Hassk.) 

Bloemb. - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 907 (SING) 

Amaranthaceae 

Amaranthus lividus L. - PT96-657 (SINU) 
Amaranthus spinosus L. - PT96-679 
(SINU) 

Amaryllidaceae 

Crinum asiaticum L. - PT96-231 (SINU) 

Anacardiaceae 

Campnosperma auriculatum (Blume) 
Hook./. - Mohd. Yasin bin Aboo, KEP 
70930 (KEP) 



128 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



c Mangifera indica L. - PT96-609 (SINU) 
Mangifera magnified Kochummen - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5922 (UKMB) 
Mangifera pentandra Hook./. - I.H. 

Burkill s.n., June 1915 (SING) 
Melanochyla caesia (Blume) Ding Hou - 

PT96-160 (SINU) 
Parishia maingayi Hook./. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5921 (UKMB) 
c Spondias cytherea Sonn. - PT96-153 

(SINU) 

Swintonia cf. acuta Engl. - A. Zainudin AZ 
5841 (UKMB) 

Anisophylleaceae 

Anisophyllea corneri Ding Hou - PT96- 
525 (SINU) 

Annonaceae 

c Annona squamata L. - PT96-63 (SINU) 
Desmos dasymaschalus (Blume) Safford 

- A. Zainudin AZ 5896 (UKMB) 
Phaeanthus ophthalmicus (Roxb. ex G. 

Don) J. Sinclair - PT96-664 (SINU) 
Polyalthia cauli flora Hook./. & Thomson 

- Samsuri 61 (SINU) 

Uvaria cordata (Dunal) Alston - Samsuri 

62 (SINU) 
Uvaria hirsuta Jack - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 872 

(SING) 

Apocynaceae 

Alstonia angustiloba Miq. - I.M.Turner 

PT42 (SINU) 
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5859 (UKMB) 
Cerbera manghas L. - PT96-172 (SINU) 
Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius (Blume) P.I. 

Forst. - J.W.H. Yong PT25 (SINU) 
c Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. - 

PT96-303 (SINU) 

Araceae 

Aglaonema simplex Blume - I.H. Burkill 
S.F.N. 912 (SING) 



Alocasia beccarii Engl. - I.M.Turner PT11 
(SINU) 

Alocasia denudata Endl. - PT96-101 
(SINU) 

Alocasia longiloba Miq. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5787 (UKMB) 
Anadendrum montanum (Blume) Schott 

- A. Zainudin AZ 3259 (UKMB) 

c Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent. - PT96- 
167 (SINU) 
Homalomena angustifolia (Jack) Hook./. 

- I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 908 (SING) 
Homalomena propinqua Schott - PT96- 

158 (SINU) 
Homalomena sagittifolia Jungh. ex Schott 

- I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 931 (SING) 
Rhaphidophora korthalsii Schott - J. 

Feilding s.n., 1892 (SING) 
Schismato glottis calyptrata (Roxb.) Zoll. 
& Moritzi - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 883 
(SING) 

Schismatoglottis wallichii Hook./. - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 932 (SING) 
Scindapsus pictus Hassk. - J.C.W.Chee 

PT94 (SINU) 

Araliaceae 

Arthrophyllum diversifolium Blume - 

PT96-402 (SINU) 
Arthrophyllum maingayi Philipson - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5961 (UKMB) 
Macropanax maingayi (C.B. Clarke) 

Philipson - A. Zainudin AZ 3251 

(UKMB) 

Schefflera elliptica (Blume) Harms - I.H. 
Burkill S.F.N. 886 (SING) 

Aralidiaceae 

Aralidium pinnatifidum (Jungh. & de 
Vriese) Miq. - PT96-620 (SINU) 

Asclepiadaceae 

Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr. - PT96-237 
(SINU) 

Hoy a diversifolia Blume - J. Feilding s.n., 
27 Nov. 1892 (SING) 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



129 



Hoya elliptica Hook./. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5878 (UKMB) 
Hoya multiflora Blume - I.M.Turner 91- 

31 (SINU) 
Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G. Don - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 898 (SING) 

Avicenniaceae 

Avicennia alba Blume - PT96-613 
(SINU) 

Avicennia rumphiana Hallier/. - PT96-175 
(SINU) 

Balsaminaceae 

c Impatiens balsamina L. - PT96-55 (SINU) 

Begoniaceae 

Begonia herveyana King - J. Feilding s.n., 
Oct. 1892 (SING) 

Bignoniaceae 

Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) K. Schum. 
- PT96-651 (SINU) 

Bombacaceae 

c Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. - PT96-16 
(SINU) 

c Durio zibethinus L. - PT96-33 (SINU) 

Boraginaceae 

Argusia argentea (L.f.) Heine - PT96-257 
(SINU) 

Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 3201 (UKMB) 
Cordia subcordata Lam. - PT96-276 

(SINU) 

Burmanniaceae 

Burmannia championii Thwaites - PT96- 
511 (SINU) 

Burseraceae 

Canarium hirsutum Willd. - I.H. Burkill 
S.F.N. 906 (SING) 



Canarium Morale Blume - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5864 (SING) 
Canarium pilosum Benn. - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 862 (SING) 
Santiria apiculata Benn. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5919 (UKMB) 
Santiria rubiginosa Blume - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5836 (UKMB) 

Capparaceae 

Cleome rutidosperma DC. - PT96-14 
(SINU) 

Casuarinaceae 

Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. Forst. & G. 
Forst. -PT96-176 (SINU) 

Celastraceae 

Bhesa paniculata Arn. - J.W.H.Yong 

PT10 (SINU) 
Loesneriella pauciflora (DC.) A.C. Sm. - 

PT96-277 (SINU) 
Salacia korthalsiana Miq. - I.M.Turner 

PT115 (SINU) 
Salacia macrophylla Blume - I.M.Turner 

PT83 (SINU) 

Chloranthaceae 

Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verde. 
- PT96-515 (SINU) 

Chrysobalanaceae 

Maranthes corymbosa Blume - A. 
Zainudin AZ 5931 (UKMB) 

Colchicaceae 

c Gloriosa superba L. - PT96-49 (SINU) 

Combretaceae 

Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt - PT96- 

298 (SINU) 
Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. - PT96-272 

(SINU) 

Terminalia catappa L. - PT96-680 (SINU) 



130 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Commelinaceae 

Amischotolype gracilis (Ridl.) I.M. 

Turner - PT96-281 (SINU) 
Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan - J. 

Feildingm.1892 (SING) 

Compositae 

Acmella paniculata (Wall, ex DC.) R.K. 
Jansen - Y.F. Chan & M.C. Loh PT48 
(SINU) 

Ageratum convzoides L. - PT96-74 
(SINU) 

Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. - J. Sinclair, 

S.F.N. 40282 (SING) 
Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & 

H. Rob. - PT96-653 (SINU) 
Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist - I.H. 

Burkill s.n., June 1915 (SING) 
c Cosmos sulphureus Cav. - PT96-52 

(SINU) 

Erechtites valerianifolia (Wolf) DC. - 

PT96-221 (SINU) 
Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. - A. 
' Zainudin AZ 5939 (UKMB) 
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. - PT96-650 

(SINU) 

Vernonia patida (Dryand.) Merr. - PT96- 

259 (SINU) 
Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC. - PT96-386 

(SINU) 

c Zinnia elegans Jacq. - PT96-142 (SINU) 

Connaraceae 

Cnestis palala (Lour.) Merr. - A. Zainudin 
AZ 5881 (UKMB) 

Convallariaceae 

Peliosanthes tela Andr. ssp. humilis 
(Andr.) Jessop - D.J.Metcalfe PT60 
(SINU) 

Convolvulaceae 

c Ipomoea batalus (L.) Lam. - PT96-94 
(SINU) 

Ipomoea littoraUs Blume - I.H. Burkill 
S.F.N. 889 (SING) 



Ipomoea pes-caprea (L.) R.Br. - PT96- 

199 (SINU) 
Merremia peltata (L.) Merr. - J. Sinclair, 

S.F.N. 40281 (SING) 

Costaceae 

Costus globosus Blume - PT96-159 
(SINU) 

Crassulaceae 

c Kalanchoe laciniata (L.) DC. - I.H. 
Burkill S.F.N. 926 (SING) 
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. - PT96- 
339 (SINU) 

Cycadaceae 

Cycas rumphii Miq. - PT96-320 (SINU) 

Cymodoceaceae 

Cymodocea rotundata Ehrenb. & Hempr. 

- PT96-235 (SINU) 
Halodule uninervis (Forssk.) Asch. - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 899 (SING) 

Cyperaceae 

Cyperus dubius Rottb. - PT96-247 
(SINU) 

Cyperus javanicus Houtt. - PT96-442 
(SINU) 

Cyperus rotundatus L. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5769 (UKMB) 
Cyperus stoloniferus Retz. - PT96-248 

(SINU) 

Fimbristylis cymosa R.Br. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5768 (UKMB) 
Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl - PT96- 

318 (SINU) 
Hypolytrum nemorum (Vahl) Spreng. - 

PT96-411 (SINU) 
Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. - I.H. Burkill 

s.n., June 1915 (SING) 
Kyllinga polycephala Willd. ex Kunth - 

PT96-100 (SINU) 
Mapania cuspidata (Miq.) Uittien var. 

petiolata (C.B. Clarke) Uittien - PT96- 

416 (SINU) 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



131 



Scleria biflora Roxb. - PT96-462 (SINU) 
Scleria levis Retz. - PT96-459 (SINU) 
Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw. - PT96-224 
(SINU) 

Scleria purpurascens Steud. - PT96-279 
(SINU) 

Dilleniaceae 

Tetracera Mica (Christ. & Panz.) Merr. 

- PT96-346 (SINU) 
Tetracera scandens (L.) Merr. - PT96-325 

(SINU) 

Dipterocarpaceae 

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (Blanco) 
Blanco - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 930 
(SING) 

Shorea macroptera Dyer - Mohd. Yasin 
bin Aboo, KEP 70928 (KEP) 

Shorea materialis Ridl. - I.H. Burkill 
S.F.N. 946 (SING) 

Shorea pauciflora King - Mohd. Yasin bin 
Aboo, KEP 70941 (KEP) 

Dioscoreaceae 

Dioscorea bulbifera L. - A. Zainudin AZ 
5894 (UKMB) 

Dracaenaceae 

Dracaena maingayi Hook./. - PT96-342 
(SINU) 

Dracaena umbratica Ridl. - A. Zainudin 
AZ 3219 (UKMB) 

Ebenaceae 

Diospyros cauliflora Blume - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5916 (UKMB) 
Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh. - PT96- 

189 (SINU) 
Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb. - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 874 (SING) 
Diospyros malabarica (Descr.) Kostel. - 

PT96-447 (SINU) 
Diospyros toposia Buch.-Ham. - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 943 (SING) 



Elaeocarpaceae 

Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jack) Wall. - A. 
Zainudin AZ 5858 (UKMB) 

Erythroxylaceae 

Erythroxylum cuneatum (Miq.) Kurz - 
PT96-315 (SINU) 

Euphorbiaceae 

c Acalypha hispida Burm./.- PT96-12 
(SINU) 

Antidesma coriaceum Tul. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 3222 (UKMB) 
Antidesma cuspidatum Miill.Arg. - PT96- 

476 (SINU) 
Antidesma montanum Blume - F.S.P. Ng, 

FRI 5031 (KEP) 
Antidesma velutinosum Blume - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5831 (UKMB) 
c Baccaurea motleyana (Miill.Arg.) 

Miill.Arg. - PT96-458 (SINU) 
Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw.) Miill.Arg. 

- PT96-145 (SINU) 
Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. - PT96-162 

(SINU) 

Breynia reclinata (Roxb.) Hook./. - PT96- 

412 (SINU) 
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm./.) C.E.C. 

Fisch. - DJ.Metcalfe PT49 (SINU) 
Bridelia tomentosa Blume - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5814 (UKMB) 
Claoxylon longifolium (Blume) Endl. ex 

Hassk. - A. Zainudin AZ 3260 

(UKMB) 

Croton argyratus Blume - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5862 (UKMB) 
Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy 

Shaw - DJ.Metcalfe PT2 (SINU) 
Euphorbia cyathophora Murr. - PT96-234 

(SINU) 

Euphorbia hirta L. - PT96-50 (SINU) 
c Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 3237 (UKMB) 
Excoecaria agallocha L. - PT96-218 

(SINU) 



132 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Glochidion fuscum (Mull.Arg.) Boerl. - 

A. Zainudin AZ 3210 (UKMB) 
Glochidion penangense (Mull.Arg.) Airy 
Shaw - PT96-393 (SINU) 
c Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) 

Mull.Arg. - PT96-485 (SINU) 
c Jatropha gossypiifolia L. - PT96-677 
(SINU) 

Macaranga heynei I.M. Johnst. - PT96- 

166 (SINU) 
Macaranga gigantea (Rchb./. & Zoll.) 

Mull.Arg. - PT96-686 (SINU) 
Macaranga tanarius (L.) Mull.Arg. - 

PT96-663 (SINU) 
Macaranga triloba (Blume) Mull.Arg. - 

I.M.Turner PT23 (SINU) 
Mallotus penangensis Mull.Arg. - PT96- 

147 (SINU) 
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull.Arg. - 

PT96-681 (SINU) 
Mallotus oblongifolius (Miq.) Mull.Arg. 

- PT96-466 (SINU) 

Mallotus subcuneatus (Gage) Airy Shaw 

- I.M.Turner PT105 (SINU) 
Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex 

Blume) Rchb./. & Zoll. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5813 (UKMB) 
Micrococca mercurialis (L.) Benth. - 

PT96-30 (SINU) 
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. 

- PT96-151 (SINU) 

Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. - 

PT96-655 (SINU) 
Phyllanthus urinaria L. - PT96-640 

(SINU) 

c Ricinus communis L. - PT96-367 (SINU) 
Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. - PT96- 

84 (SINU) 
Suregada multiflora (Juss.) Baill. - PT96- 

347 (SINU) 
Trigonostemon longifolius Baill. - PT96- 

109 (SINU) 

Fagaceae 

Castanopsis megacarpa Gamble - F.S.P. 
Ng, FRI 5087 (KEP) 



Castanopsis inermis (Lindl. ex Wall.) 

Benth. & Hook./. - Mohd. Yasin bin 

Aboo, KEP 70926 (KEP) 
Lithocarpus bancanus (Scheff.) Rehder - 

A. Zainudin AZ 5923 (UKMB) 

Flacourtiaceae 

Casearia grewiifolia Vent. - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 871 (SING) 
c Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. - 

I.H. Burkill s.n., June 1915 (SING) 
Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5782 (UKMB) 
Hemiscolopia trimera (Boerl.) Slooten - 

PT96-443 (SINU) 

Flagellariaceae 

Flagellaria indica L. - PT96-271 (SINU) 

Gesneriaceae 

Didymocarpus antirrhinoides A. Weber 
- Strugnell KEP 70932 (KEP) 

Didymocarpus tiumanicus (Ridl.) B.L. 
Burtt - PT96-619 (SINU) 

Gnetaceae 

c Gnetum gnemon L. - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 
964 (SING) 
Gnetum macrostachyum Hook./ - PT96- 
393 (SINU) 

Goodeniaceae 

Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb. - PT96- 
44 (SINU) 

Gramineae 

Acroceras tonkinense (Balansa) C.E. 
Hubb. ex Bor - I.M.Turner PT72 
(SINU) 

c Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl. 
'vittata' - A. Zainudin AZ 5797 
(UKMB) 

c Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl. var. 
vulgaris - A. Zainudin AZ 5969 
(UKMB) 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



133 



Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T. Blake - 

PT96-675 (SINU) 
Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv. - PT96- 

490 (SINU) 
Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. - 

PT96-149 (SINU) 
Cyrtococcum accrescens (Trin.) Stapf - 

LH. Burkill S.F.N. 913 (SING) 
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. - 

PT96-263 (SINU) 
Dendrocalamus hirtellus Ridl. - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 909 (SING) 
Digitaria setigera Roem. & Schult. - 

PT96-602 (SINU) 
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. - PT96-143 

(SINU) 

Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn. ex 

Hook. & Arn. - PT96-152 (SINU) 
Eragrostis cumingii Steud. - I.M.Turner 

PT74 (SINU) 
Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. - PT96- 

150 (SINU) 
Ischaemum muticum L. - PT96-144 

(SINU) 

Miscanthus floridulus (Labill.) Warb. ex 

K. Schum. - I.M.Turner & DJ.Metcalfe 

PT89 (SINU) 
Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin.) de Koning 

&Sosef-PT96-674 (SINU) 
Oplismenus compositus (L.) P.Beauv. - 

PT96-467 (SINU) 
Panicum sarmentosum Roxb. - PT96-473 

(SINU) 

Paspalum conjugatum Berg. - I.M.Turner 

PT113 (SINU) 
Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 3246 (UKMB) 
Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb. ex 

Murr.) Kunth-PT96-118 (SINU) 
Schizostachyum jaculans Holttum - A. 

Zainudin AZ5817 (UKMB) 
Setaria geniculata (Lam.) P. Beauv. - 

PT96-223 (SINU) 
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br. var. 

flaccidus (Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp 

- I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 925 (SING) 



Thuarea involuta (G. Forst.) R.Br, ex 
Roem. & Schult. - PT96-212 (SINU) 

Urochloa paspaloides Presl - A. Zainudin 
AZ 5952 (UKMB) 

Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. - PT96-90 
(SINU) 

Guttiferae 

Calophyllum depressinervosum M.R. 

Hend. & Wyatt-Sm. - A. ZainudinAZ 

5845 (UKMB) 
Calophyllum ferrugineum Ridl. - PT96- 

289 (SINU) 
Calophyllum flavoramulum M.R. Hend. 

& Wyatt-Sm. - A. Zainudin AZ 5843 

(UKMB) 

Calophyllum inophyllum L. - PT96-167 
(SINU) 

Calophyllum pulcherrimum Wall, ex 
Choisy - KEP 70936 (KEP) 

Cratoxylon cochinchinense (Lour.) 
Blume - A Zainudin AZ 5830 
(UKMB) 

Garcinia atroviridis Griff, ex T. Anderson 
- A. Zainudin AZ 5854 (UKMB) 

Garcinia eugeniifolia Wall, ex T. 
Anderson - A. Zainudin AZ 5803 
(UKMB) 

Garcinia griffithii T. Anderson - Samsuri 

63 (SINU) 
Garcinia hombroniana Pierre - PT96-232 

(SINU) 

Garcinia nervosa Miq. - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 887 (SING) 
Garcinia nigrolineata Planch, ex T. 

Anderson - A. Zainudin AZ 5897 

(UKMB) 

Mesua aff. assamica (King & Prain) 
Kosterm. - F.S.P. Ng, FRI 5088 (KEP) 

Heliconiaceae 

c Heliconia psittacorum L.f. - A. Zainudin 
AZ 5793 (UKMB) 

Hernandiaceae 

Hernandia nymphaeifolia (Presl) Kubitski 



134 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



- J. Feilding 4007, 1892 (SING) 

Hydrocharitaceae 

Thallassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Asch. - 
I.H.Burkill S.F.N. 900 (SING) 

Hypoxidaceae 

Molineria latifolia (Dryand.) Herb. - 
PT96-134 (SINU) 

Icacinaceae 

Phytocrene bracteata Wall. - I.H. Burkill 
S.F.N. 902 (SING) 

Ixonanthaceae 

honanthes icosandra Jack - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5868 (UKMB) 
honanthes reticulata Jack - A. Zainudin 

AZ3252 (UKMB) 

Labiatae 

c Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br. - PT96-18 
(SINU) 

Leucas zeylanica (L.) R.Br. - PT96-27 
(SINU)' 

Ocimum basilkum L. - PT96-13 (SINU) 
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. - PT96-37 (SINU) 

Lauraceae 

Actinodaphne Imontana Gamble - J. 

Sinclair, S.F.N. 40290 (SING) 
Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5915 (UKMB) 
Cassytha filiformis L. - PT96-47 (SINU) 
Cinnamomum cf. altissimum Kostermans 

- I.M.Turner PT64 (SINU) 
Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees) Merr. - PT96- 

527 (SINU) 

Lecythidaceae 

Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz - PT96- 

183 (SINU) 
Barringtonia macrostachya (Jack) Kurz - 

I.H.Burkill S.F.N. 929 (SING) 



Leeaceae 

Leea indica (Burm./.) Merr. - I.H. Burkill 
S.F.N. 920 (SING) 

Leguminosae 

Abrus precatorius L. - PT96-177 (SINU) 
Adenanthera malayana Kosterm. - F.S.P. 

Ng, FRI 5072 (KEP) 
Adenanthera pavonina L. - PT96-349 

(SINU) 

Archidendron ellipticum (Blume) I.C. 
Nielsen - A. Zainudin AZ 5788 
(UKMB) 

Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb. ssp. 
integrifolia - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 951 
(SING) 

Callerya atropurpurea (Wall.) Schot - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5842 (UKMB) 
Canavalia cathartica Thouars - PT96-322 

(SINU) 

Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5825 (UKMB) 
Crotalaria pallida Aiton - PT96-79 

(SINU) 

Crotalaria retusa L. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5895 (UKMB) 
Cynometra ramiflora L. - PT96-652 

(SINU) 

Dalbergia candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain 

- J. Feilding s.n., Nov. 1892 (SING) 
Dendrolobium umbellatum (L.) Benth. - 

PT96-336 (SINU) 
Denis trifoliata Lour. - PT96-387 (SINU) 
Erythrinafusca Lour. - PT96-292 (SINU) 
Erythrina variegata L. - PT96-209 (SINU) 
Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze - I.H. 

Burkill., S.F.N. 891 (SING) 
Koompassia malaccensis Maing. ex 

Benth. - Mohd. Yasin bin Aboo, KEP 

70927 (KEP) 
Lucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit - 

PT96-10 (SINU) 
Mimosa pudica L. - PT96-397 (SINU) 
Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K. 

Heyne - PT96-220 (SINU) 
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre - PT96-319 

(SINU) 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



135 



c Saraca indica L. - A. Zainudin AZ 5806 
(UKMB) 

Serianthes grandiflora Benth. - PT96-273 
(SINU) 

Senna alata (L.) Roxb. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5815 (UKMB) 
c Senna fruticosa (Mill.) Irwin & Barneby 

- PT96-3 (SINU) 
Senna tora (L.) Roxb. - PT96-60 (SINU) 
Sindora echinocalyx (Benth.) Prain - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 896 (SING) 
Sophora tomentosa L. - PT96-327 (SINU) 
c Tamarindus indica L. - PT96-362 (SINU) 
Tephrosia noctiflora Bojer ex Baker - 

PT96-488 (SINU) 
Vigna marina (Burm.) Merr. - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 892 (SING) 
c Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek - PT96- 

647 (SINU) 

Loranthaceae 

Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. - PT96- 
633 (SINU) 

Lythraceae 

c Lawsonia inermis L. - PT96-43 (SINU) 
Pemphis acidula J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. - 

PT96-169 (SINU) 
Sonneratia alba J.J.Sm. - PT96-210 (SINU) 

Malvaceae 

c Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. - PT96- 

670 (SINU) 
Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet - A. 

Zainudin AZ 3239 (UKMB) 
c Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. - PT96-38 

(SINU) 

Hibiscus tiliaceus L. - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 

893 (SINU) 
c Malvaviscus penduliflorus DC. - PT96- 

82 (SINU) 
Sida rhombifolia L. - PT96-80 (SINU) 
Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa - 

PT96-196 (SINU) 
Urena lobata L. - PT96-621 (SINU) 



Marantaceae 

Donax grandis (Miq.) K. Schum. - PT96- 
122 (SINU) 
c Maranta arundinacea L. - A. Zainudin 
AZ 5808 (UKMB) 

Melastomataceae 

Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don - PT96-69 
(SINU) 

Melastoma malabathricum L. - PT96-323 
(SINU) 

Memecylon campanulatum C.B. Clarke - 
A. Zainudin AZ 3226 (UKMB) 

Memecylon edule Roxb. - PT96-601 
(SINU) 

Memecylon lilacinum Zoll. & Moritzi - 
I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 903 (SING) 

Pachycentria constricta (Blume) Blume - 
PT96-500 (SINU) 

Ptemandra echinata Jack - I.H. Burkill s.n., 
June 1915 (SINU) 

Meliaceae 

c Lansium domesticum Correa - PT96-2 
(SINU) 

c Melia azederach L. - PT96-667 (SINU) 
Xylocarpus granatum J. Konig - PT96- 

304 (SINU) 
Xylocarpus rumphii (Kostel.) Mabb. - 

PT96-239 (SINU) 

Menispermaceae 

Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) DC. - PT96- 

245 (SINU) 
Fibraurea tinctoria Lour. - PT96-414 

(SINU) 

Hypserpa nitida Miers - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 880 (SING) 
Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. - 

PT96-494 (SINU) 
Stephania capitata (Blume) Spreng. - 

PT96-280 (SINU) 
c Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook./. & 

Thomson - PT96-420 (SINU) 



136 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



Moraceae 

Artocarpus dadah Miq. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5925 (UKMB) 
Artocarpus hispidus F.M. Jarrett - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5846 (UKMB) 
Artocarpus lanceifolius Roxb. - J. Sinclair 

s.n.. May 1954 (SING) 
Artocarpus rigidus Blume - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5863 (UKMB) 
Ficus consociata Blume var. murtoni 

King - I.M.Turner PT52 (SINU) 
Ficus drupacca Thunb. - PT96-422 

(SINU) 

Ficus globosa Blume - PT96-646 (SINU) 
Ficus grossularioides Burm./*. - 

I.M.Turner PT81 (SINU) 
Ficus hispida L.f. - PT96-330 (SINU) 
Ficus microcarpa L.f. - PT96-355 (SINU) 
Ficus scortechinii King - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 954 (SING) 
Ficus subcordata Blume - PT96-348 

(SINU) 

Ficus superba (Miq.) Miq. - PT96-368 
(SINU) 

Ficus tinctoria G. Forst. ssp. gibbosa 

(Blume) Corner - PT96-292 (SINU) 
Ficus vasculosa Wall, ex Miq. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5962 (UKMB) 
Parartocarpus ?bracteatus (King) Becc. - 

F.S.P. Ng FRI 5076 (KEP) 
Streblus ilicifolius (Vidal) Corner - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N.904 (SING) 

Musaceae 

Musa acuminata Colla ssp. malaccensis 
(Ridl.) N.W. Simmonds - PT96-146 
(SINU) 

Myristicaceae 

Gymnacranthera forbesii (King) Warb. - 

A. Zainudin AZ 5902 (UKMB) 
Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5896 (UKMB) 
Horsfieldia polyspherula (Hook./.) J. 

Sinclair - J. Sinclair, S.F.N. 40288 

(SING) 



Horsfieldia tomentosa Warb. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5847 (UKMB) 
Knema communis J. Sinclair - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5926 (UKMB) 
Knema hookeriana (Wall, ex Hook./. & 

Thomson) Warb. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5807 (UKMB) 
Knema malayana Warb. - PT96-244 

(SINU) 

Knema scortechinii (King) J. Sinclair - J. 
Sinclair, S.F.N. 40287 (SING) 
c Myristica fragrans Houtt. - PT96-66 
(SINU) 

Myrsinaceae 

Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco - 

PT96-181 (SINU) 
Ardisia elliptica Thunb. - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 852 (SING) 
Ardisia oxyphylla Wall, ex DC. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5857 (UKMB) 
Embelia ribes Burm. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5908 (UKMB) 
Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Vill. - 

PT96-467 (SINU) 
Maesa ramentacea Wall, ex Roxb. - PT96- 

498 (SINU) 
Rapanea porteriana Wall, ex A. DC. - 

I.M.Turner PT66 (SINU) 

Myrtaceae 

c Psidium guajava L. - PT96-260 (SINU) 
Rhodamnia cinerea Jack - A. Zainudin 
AZ 5867 (UKMB) 
c Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. 
Perry - PT96-489 (SINU) 
Syzygium grande (Wight) Walp. - PT96- 
250 (SINU) 
c Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. 
Perry - PT96-622 (SINU) 
Syzygium pauper (Ridl.) I.M. Turner - 

I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 939 (SING) 
Syzygium pendens (Duthie) I.M. Turner 
- D.J.Metcalfe & J.W.H.Yong PT90 
(SINU) 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



137 



Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. & L.M. 
Perry - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 940 (SINU) 
c Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. 
& L.M. Perry - PT96-117 (SINU) 

Nyctaginaceae 

Boerhavia diffusa L. - PT96-141 (SINU) 
c Mirabilis jalapa L. - PT96-28 (SINU) 

Ochnaceae 

Campy lospermum serratum (Gaertn.) 
Bittrich & M.C.E. Amaral - J. Feilding 
s.n.,21 Oct. 1892 (SING) 

Olacaceae 

Strombosia javanica Blume - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 952 (SING) 
Ximenia americana L. - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 

884 (SING) 

Oleaceae 

Oka brachiata (Lour.) Merr. - A. Zainudin 
AZ 3257 (UKMB) 

Opiliaceae 

Cansjera rheedii J.F. Gmel. - J. Feilding 

s.n., 27 Oct. 1892 (SING) 
Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5832 (UKMB) 

Orchidaceae 

Aerides odorata Lour. - PT96-502 (SINU) 
Anoectochilus geniculatus Ridl. - PT96- 

285 (SINU) 
Bulbophyllum vaginatum (Lindl.) Rchb./. 

- PT96-228 (SINU) 

Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.) Blume 

- H.T.W.Tan PT8 (SINU) 
Cymbidium atropurpureum (Lindl.) 

Rolfe - A. Zainudin AZ 5885 (UKMB) 
Cymbidium f inlay sonianum Lindl. - 

PT96-188 (SINU) 
Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. - PT96-333 

(SINU) 

Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh - 
PT96-301 (SINU) 



Oxalidaceae 

c Averrhoea bilimbi L. - PT96-57 (SINU) 
c Averrhoa carambola L. - PT96-23 (SINU) 
Oxalis barrelieri L. - PT96-404 (SINU) 

Palmae 

Arenga westerhoutii Griff. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5802 (UKMB) 
Calamus javensis Blume - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5800 (UKMB) 
Caryota mitis Lour. - PT96-335 (SINU) 
Daemonorops lewisiana (Griff.) Mart. - 

I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 866 (SING) 
Daemonorops melanochaetes Blume - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5920 (UKMB) 
Korthalsia rigida Blume - J.W.H.Yong 

PT16 (SINU) 
Korthalsia rostrata Blume - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5917 (UKMB) 
Licuala ferruginea Becc. - PT96-635 

(SINU) 

Licuala spinosa Wurmb - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5872 (UKMB) 
Nypa fruticans Wurmb - PT96-274 

(SINU) 

Orania sylvicola (Griff.) H.E. Moore - 

PT96-161 (SINU) 
Plectocomia elongata Mart, ex Blume - 

I.M.Turner PT63 (SINU) 

Pandanaceae 

Freycinetia sumatrana Hemsl. - 

I.M.Turner PT39 (SINU) 
c Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. - PT96- 

409 (SINU) 
Pandanus dubius Spreng. - PT96-268 

(SINU) 

Pandanus lais Kurz - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 

957 (SING) 
Pandanus c.f. longicaudatus Holttum & 

H. St John - J.W.H.Yong PT61 (SINU) 
Pandanus odoratissimus L.f - PT96-201 

(SINU) 

Passifloraceae 

Adenia macrophylla (Blume) Koord. var. 



138 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



macrophylla - I.M.Turner PT69 
(SINU) 

Passiflora foetida L. - PT96-11 (SINU) 
Passiflora laurifolia L. - PT96-626 (SINU) 

Pedaliaceae 

Sesamum oheniale L. - PT96-187 (SINU) 

Phormiaceae 

Dianella ensifotia (L.) DC. - PT96-408 
(SINU) 

Piperaceae 

Piper caninum Blume - D.J.Metcalfe 

PT122 (SINU) 
Piper pedicellosum Wall. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5789 (UKMB) 
Piper protracrwn C. DC. - M.C.Lim PT29 

(SINU) 

c Piper sarmentosum Roxb. - PT96-24 
(SINU) 

Pittosporaceae 

Pittosporum ferrugineum W.T. Aiton - 
PT96-48 (SINU) 

Podocarpaceae 

Podocarpus polystachyus R.Br, ex Endl. - 
PT96-193 (SINU) 

Polgalaceae 

Poly gala paniculata L. - PT96-156 
(SINU) 

Xanthophxllum affne Korth. ex Miq. - 
F.S.P. Ng, FRI 5085 (KEP) 

Xanthophxllum amoenum Chodat - A. 
Zainudin AZ 5914 (UKMB) 

Xanthophxllum vitellinum (Blume) Dietr. 
- A. Zainudin AZ 5918 (UKMB) 

Portulacaceae 

Portulaca oleracea L. - PT96-215 (SINU) 

Punicaceae 

c Punka granatum L. - PT96-46 (SINU) 



Ranunculaceae 

Clematis smilacifolia Wall. - I.H. Burkill 
S.F.N. 857 (SING) 

Rhamnaceae 

Colubrina asiatica L. ex Brongn. - I.H. 
Burkill S.F.N 894 (SING) 

Rhizophoraceae 

Bruguiera cxlindrica (L.) Blume - PT96- 

198 (SINU) 
Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. ex 

Savignv - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 953 

(SING) 

Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. - PT96- 

643 (SINU) 
Ceriops decandra (Griff.) W. Theob. - 

PT96-454 (SINU) 
Ceriops tagal (Pers.) C.B. Rob. - PT96- 

206 (SINU) 
Rhizophora apiculata Blume - PT96-297 

(SINU) 

Rhizophora mucronata Lam. - PT96-211 
(SINU) 

Rhizophora stxlosa Griff. - PT96-453 
(SINU) 

Rosaceae 

Rubus moluccanus L. var. angulosus 
Kalkman - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 860 
(SING) 

Rubiaceae 

Aidia densiflora (Wall.) Masam. - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 870 (SING) 
Borreria laevicaulis (Miq.) Ridl. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5934 (UKMB) 
Chassalia cuniflora (Wall.) Thwaites - 

J.W.H.Yong PT106 (SINU) 
c Gardenia augusta (L.) Merr. - PT96-403 

(SINU) 

Guettarda speciosa L. - I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 

855 (SING) 
Hedxotis capitellata Wall, ex G. Don - 

PT96-616 (SINU) 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



139 



Hedyotis herbacea L. - PT96-632 (SINT) 
Hydnophytum formicamm Jack - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 869 (SING) 
Ixora javanica (Blume) DC. - F.S.P. Ng. 

FRI 5045 (KEP) 
Ixora lobbii King & Gamble - J. Feilding 

s.n.. Oct. 189f(SING) 
Ixora pendula Jack - A. Zainudin AZ 

3225 (UKMB) 
Lasianthus cxanocarpus Jack - PT96-668 

(SINU) 

Morinda citrifolia L. - PT96-425 (SINU) 
Morinda elliptica (Hook./.) Ridl. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 3217 (UKMB) 
Morinda umbellata L. - PT96-432 (SINU) 
Ophiorrhiza discolor R.Br. - H.T.W.Tan 

PT32 (SINU) 
Pavetta naucleiflora R. Br. ex G. Don - 

I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 868 (SING) 
Psvchotria bracriYbotrxs Ridl. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5828 (UKMB) 
PsYchotria sarmeniosa Blume - PT96-493 

(SINU) 

ScYphiphora hydrophyOacea C.F. Gaertn. 

- PT96-192 (SINU) 
Spermacoce anicularis L.f. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5960 (UKMB) 
Timonius compressicaulis (Miq.) Boerl. - 

I.H. Burkill S.F.N. 854 (SING) 
Uncaria cordata (Lour.) Merr. - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 950 (SING) 
Urophyllum sp. 2 - PT96-126 (SINU) 
Urophyllum streptopodium Wall. ex. 

Hook./. - I.H. Burkill S.F.N 935 (SING) 

Rutaceae 

c Cimis auramifolia (Christm.) Swingle - 

PT96-495 (SINU) 
c Citrus maxima (L.) Merr. - PT96-83 

(SINU) 

Ghcosmis mauritiana (Lam.) Tanaka - 

PT96-396 (SINU) 
Maclurodendron porreri (Hook./.) T.G. 

Hartley - A. Zainudin AZ 3261 

(UKMB) 

MurraYa paniculata (L.) Jack - PT96-380 
(SINU) 



Paramigtna lobata Burkill - PT96-345 
(SINU) 

Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. - A. 
Zainudin AZ 3242 (UKMB) 

Sapindaceae 

Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch. - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 895 (SING) 
Dodonaea Yiscosa Jacq. - J. Feildins 4062 

(SING) 

Giuoa pleuropteris (Blume) Radlk. - 

PT96-604(SINU) 
Lepisaruhes fniricosa (Roxb.) Leenh. - A. 

Zainudin AZ 3220 (UKMB) 
Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh. - 

F.S.P. Ng. FRI 5092 (KEP) 
Lepisanthes tetraplnUa (Yahl) Radlk. - 

PT96-128 (SINU) 
Sephelium juglandifolium Blume - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5848 (UKMB) 
Pometia pinnata J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. - 

Mohd. Yasin bin Aboo. KEP 70929 

(KEP) 

Sapotaceae 

Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard - I.H. 
Burkill S.F.N. 942 (SING) 
c Manilkara zapota (L.) Roven - PT96-20 
(SINU) 

Palaquium rostratum (Miq.) Burck - 

F.S.P. Ng FRI 5077 (KEP) 
PaYena lucida A. DC. - F.S.P. Ng FRI 

5082 (KEP) 
Pouteria linggensis (Burck) Baehni - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 876 (SING) 
Pouteria maingaYi (C.B. Clarke) Baehni 

-F.S.P. Ng. FRI 5079 (KEP) 
Pouteria obo\ata (Burck) Baehni - PT96- 

450 (SINU) 

Scrophulariaceae 

Scoparia dulcis L. - PT96-605 (SINU) 
Torenia ciliata Sm. - PT96-673 (SINU) 
c Torenia fournieri Linden a Fourn. - A. 
Zainudin AZ 596" ( UKMB) 



140 



Gard. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997/ 



SIMAROUBACEAE 

Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. - PT96-81 
(SINU) 

Smilacaceae 

Smilax lanceifolia Roxb. - I.M.Turner 
PT92 (SINU) 

Solanaceae 

c Capsicum annuum L. - PT96-31 (SINU) 
Physalis minima L. - PT96-317 (SINU) 
Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal. - PT96-226 
(SINU) 

c Solanum melongena L. - PT96-5 (SINU) 
Solanum torvum Sw. - PT96-509 (SINU) 

Sterculiaceae 

Commersonia bartramia (L.) Merr. - 

PT96-618 (SINU) 
Helicteres hirsuta Lour. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5827 (UKMB) 
Heritiera littoralis Dryand. - PT96-174 

(SINU) 

Sterculia coccinea Jack - D.J.Metcalfe & 

J.W.H.Yong PT59 (SINU) 
Sterculia rubiginosa Vent. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5905 (UKMB) 

Stemonaceae 

Stichoneuron caudatum Ridl. - A. 
Zainudin AZ 3248 (UKMB) 

Taccaceae 

Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl. - I.M.Turner 

PT91 (SINU) 
Tacca palmata Blume - PT96-662 (SINU) 

Theaceae 

Gordonia concentricicatrix Burkill - A. 

Zainudin AZ 5924 (UKMB) 
Gordonia multinervis King - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5851 (UKMB) 
Ternstroemia bancana Miq. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5855 (UKMB) 



Thymelaeaceae 

Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. - Mohd. 

Yasin bin Aboo, KEP 70924 (KEP) 
Linostoma pauciflorum Griff. - PT96-648 

(SINU) 

Tiliaceae 

Colona serratifolia Cav. - A. Zainudin 

AZ 5816 (UKMB) 
Grewia laevigata Vahl - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 879 (SING) 
Microcos hirsuta (Korth.) Burret - I.H. 

Burkill S.F.N. 933 (SING) 
Muntingia calabura L. - PT96-22 (SINU) 

Turneraceae 

Turnera ulmifolia L. - PT96-291 (SINU) 

Ulmaceae 

Gironniera hirta Ridl. - I.M.Turner PT65 
(SINU) 

Trema tomentosa (Roxb.) Hara - PT96-45 
(SINU) 

Urticaceae 

Pipturus argenteus (G. Forst.) Wedd. - I.H. 
Burkill an., June 1915 (SING) 

Verbenaceae 

Callicarpa longifolia Lam. - Y.F.Chan & 
M.CLoh PT44 (SINU) 
c Clerodendrum calamitosum L. - PT96-25 
(SINU) 

c Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb. 

- PT96-71 (SINU) 
Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. - 

PT96-214 (SINU) 
c Clerodendrum paniculatum L. - PT96-34 

(SINU) 

c Clerodendrum serrulatum (L.) Moon - A. 

Zainudin AZ 3235 (UKMB) 
Gmelina asiatica L. - PT96-32 (SINU) 
Gmelina elliptica Sm. - A. Zainudin AZ 

5887 (UKMB) 
Lantana camara L. - PT96-36 (SINU) 



1. The Plants and Vegetation of Pulau Tinggi 



141 



Premna serratifolia L. - PT96-17 (SINU) 
Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl - PT96- 

261 (SINU) 
Vitex negundo L. - PT96-1 (SINU) 
Vitex pinnata L. - PT96-350 (SINU) 
Vitex trifolia L. - PT96-229 (SINU) 

Violaceae 

Rinorea bengalensis (Wall.) Kuntze - 

J.W.H.Yong PT17 (SINU) 
Rinorea horneri (Korth.) Kuntze - 

J.W.H.Yong & D.J.Metcalfe PT7 

(SINU) 

Rinorea sclerocarpa (Burgersd.) M.Jacobs 
- PT96-125 (SINU) 

Viscaceae 

Viscum ovalifolium Wall, ex DC. - PT96- 
241 (SINU) 



Vitaceae 

Ampelocissus elegans (Kurz) Gagnep. - 
A. Zainudin AZ 5927 (UKMB) 

Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. - 
PT96-269 (SINU) 

Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin - F.S.P. Ng, 
FRI 5101 (SING) 

Cissus hastata Miq. - PT96-363 (SINU) 

Cissus repens Lam. - PT96-358 (SINU) 

Zingiberaceae 

c Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw. - I.H. Burkill 
S.F.N. 861 (SING) 
? Amomum cephalotes Ridl. - I.H. Burkill 

S.F.N. 882 (SING) 
Amomum testaceum Ridl. - PT96-417 
(SINU) 

Amomum xanthophlebium Baker - PT96- 
507 (SINU) 



Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 143-145. 



143 



Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak edited by E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong, 
jointly published by the Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Research 
Institute Malaysia and the Sarawak Forestry Department. Vol 1 (1995) LI 
+ 513 pp, Vol 2 (1996) x + 443 pp. 

The Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak is an ambitious project, some might 
even say 'mission impossible'. The aim is to produce a flora of the trees, 
woody plants of at least 5 m tall and 10 cm dbh, of the two Bornean states 
of Malaysia. This, it is estimated, will be enough to fill eight volumes, each 
covering some 300-400 species; and, what is more, it is proposed to complete 
the whole undertaking in ten years. 

Two volumes have been published so far, and they are simply 
magnificent. It is always possible to find something to criticise, and I will 
indulge in the reviewer's liberty to nitpick below, but in general the first 
two volumes of the flora are excellent in every department. The quality of 
production is outstanding, the standard of the taxonomic treatments 
excellent, the drawings wonderful. 

The first volume starts with three introductory chapters. These are: 
an overview of the background to the Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak 
Project by Professor E. Soepadmo, a brief history of plant collecting and 
floristic accounts of Borneo by Dr Wong Khoon Meng, and an essay on 
the biogeography and ecology of northern Borneo by Professor Peter 
Ashton. There follow accounts of 31 families (Acer., Alangi., Anisophylle., 
Araucari., Bignoni., Burser., Cappar., Celastr., Chrysoblan., Clethr., 
Connar., Corn., Datisc, Goodeni., Hyperic, Illici., Jugland., Monimi., Nyss., 
Ochn., Olac, Oxalid., Pittospor., Rhamn., Rhizophor., Rut., Simaroub., 
Sonnerati., Staphyle., Styr. & Trigoni.). Volume Two includes 23 families 
(Anacardi., Boragin., Caprifoli., Casuarin., Chloranth., Crypteroni., 
Ctenolophon., Daphniphyll., Epacrid., Erythroxyl., Ixonanth., Lee., Logani., 
Lythr., Malv., Myric, Nyctagin., Santal., Sapind., Scyphostegi., Tetramerist., 
Ulm. & Winter.). The accounts are contributed by many authors, including 
the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and many junior staff 
members of Malaysian Herbaria. The project workhorse is clearly Mr K.M. 
Kochummen who has provided the treatments of most of the larger families 
included thus far. The family accounts include a key to all genera occurring 
in Sabah and Sarawak, followed by more detailed entries for genera that 
include trees, with full keys and species descriptions of arborescent taxa. 
This is a proper flora and not merely a manual for foresters, so major 
synonyms and typification are given, but the inclusion of one plate for 
each genus containing trees, the use of not-overly-technical language and 
strict adherence to alphabetical arrangement of taxa will help to make the 
flora more accessible to readers who are not taxonomists. 



144 



Card. Bull. Sing. 49(1) (1997) 



The preparatory work for the flora has led to the discovery of many 
new species, 39 in volume two alone. Also Wong and Sugau, in their 
treatment of the Loganiaceae employ a much narrower species concept in 
Fagraea than Leenhouts (1962) did in his account for Flora Malesiana. In a 
precursory paper, Wong and Sugau (1996) have divided Leenhouts's 
Fagraea fragrans, F. ceilanica and F. elliptica and F. racemosa into many 
elements. The relative susceptibility of taxonomists to see discontinuity or 
intergradation will frequently lead to different treatments of groups 
exhibiting complex variation like Fagraea. Users of the Tree Flora of Sab ah 
and Sarawak will have the opportunity to test whether Wong and Sugau's 
species are justified. 

My only major complaint about the flora is the frequent omission of 
any discussion about the taxonomy employed. In the introduction it is 
stated that Brummit (1993) is the main guide to familial and generic 
circumscription, yet the two volumes contain instances where Brummit has 
not been followed e.g. the maintenance of the Sonneratiaceae and the 
Hypericaceae, the inclusion of Irvingia and Ailanthus in the Simaroubaceae, 
and the recognition of Neckera and Roureopsis, all of which I felt warranted 
more discussion. Similarly the use of Scaevola sericea over Scaevola taccada 
needed reference to the literature on this major nomenclatural controversy. 
I believe the correct name for Scleropyrum wallichianum is Scle ropy rum 
pentandrum (Dennst.) Mabb. (Mabberley 1977) and that William Theobold 
made the combination Ceriops decandra well before Ding Hou (Mabberley 
1985) . 

These are minor quibbles. The Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak is 
excellent and should be included in any library (personal or institutional) 
which purports to cover the flora of Southeast Asia. The team that has 
produced the two volumes deserves hearty congratulations for what has 
been achieved, and encouragement to face the challenges ahead. 

References 

Brummitt, R. K . 1992 Vascular Plant Families and Genera. Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew. 

Leenhouts, P.W. 1962 Loganiaceae. Flora Malesiana, series 1, 16: 293-336. 

Mabberley, D.J. 1977 Francis Hamilton's commentaries with particular 
reference to Meliaceae. Taxon 26: 523-540. 

Mabberley, D.J. 1985 William Theobald (1829-1908): unwitting reformer 
of botanical nomenclature? Taxon 34: 433^444. 



Book review: Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak 



145 



Wong, K.M., & Sugau, J.B. 1996 A revision of Fagraea (Loganiaceae) 
Borneo, with notes on related Malesan species and 21 new species. 
Sandakania 8: 1-93. 

Ian Turner 

School of Biological Sciences 
National University of Singapore 



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Singapore Botanic Gardens Cluny Road Singapore 259569 Tel: 4741165 Telefax: 4754295 



THE GARDENS' BULLETIN 



The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore publishes papers on plant taxonomy (including revisions), 
horticulture, phytogeography, floristics, morphology, anatomy and related fields with 
emphasis on plants in the West Malesian region. 



EDITORIAL BOARD 



Dr Ruth Kiew 
(Editor) 

Singapore Botanic Gardens 



Dr R.T. Corlett 
University of Hong Kong 
Hong Kong 



Dr T.W. Foong 
(Assist. Editor) 
Singapore Botanic Gardens 



Dr M.C. Roos 
Rijksherbarium 
Leiden, Netherlands 



Dr S.C. Chin 

Singapore Botanic Gardens 

Dr M.J.E. Coode 
Royal Botanic Gardens 
Kew, U.K. 



Dr E. Soepadmo 

Forest Research Institute Malaysia 
Kepong, Malaysia 

Dr W.K. Tan 

Singapore Botanic Gardens 



The Gardens' Bulletin is published twice yearly by the National Parks Board, Singapore. 
Neither the National Parks Board nor the Editorial Board is responsible for the opinions or 
conclusions expressed by the contributing authors. 

The annual subscription for the Gardens' Bulletin is Singapore $100.00 including 
postage. Overseas subscribers are required to make payment in the form of bank drafts or 
international money orders in Singapore currency payable to National Parks Board, 
Singapore. 

Instructions for contributing authors are found on the inside backcover. 



JUL V 2 3 1999 ARNOLD 

ARBORETUM 



Biodiversity in the 
Nature Reserves of 
Singapore 



Edited by 

Lena Chan 

National Parks Board 

Richard T. Corlett 

University of Hong Kong 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar, 
Singapore, December 1997 



The Gardens' Bulletin 

Singapore 



VOL. 49 (Part 2) December 1997 ISSN 0374-7859 



CONTENTS 



Preface i 

Acknowledgements iii 

Corlett, R.T. 

The vegetation in the Nature Reserves of Singapore 147 

Chew, P.T.. Saifuddin Suran and Ali Ibrahim 

Checklist of vascular plants in the Nature Reserves of Singapore 161 

Lim, K.S. 

Bird biodiversity in the Nature Reserves of Singapore 225 

Ng, P.K.L. and K.K.P. Lim 

The diversity and conservation status of fishes in the Nature Reserves 

of Singapore 245 

Ng, P.K.L. 

The conservation status of freshwater prawns and crabs in Singapore 

with emphasis on the Nature Reserves 267 

Khew, S.K. and S.S.H. Neo 

Butterfly biodiversity in Singapore with particular reference to the 

Central Catchment Nature Reserve 273 

Seow-Choen, F. 

Stick and leaf insect (Phasmida: Insecta) biodiversity in the Nature Reserves 

of Singapore 297 

Yang, CM., H.K. Lua and K.L. Yeo 

Semi-aquatic bug (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) fauna in the Nature Reserves 

of Singapore 313 

Balke, M., L. Hendrich and CM. Yang 

Water beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) in the Nature Reserves of Singapore 321 



Murphy, D.H. 

Odonata biodiversity in the Nature Reserves of Singapore 



333 



Teo, R.C.H. and S. Rajathurai 

Mammals, reptiles and amphibians in the Nature Reserves of 
Singapore - Diversity, abundance and distribution 



353 



Date of Publication: 30 March 1999 



Published by 

National Parks Board 
Singapore Botanic Gardens 
Cluny Road 
Singapore 259569 



Printed by Oxford Graphic Printers Pte Ltd 



PREFACE 



Singapore, despite having a total area of only 648 sq. kilometre, inherited a 
rich natural indigenous legacy including over two thousand plant species, 
eighty mammal species, a hundred bird species, and forty freshwater fish 
species. The Nature Reserves, comprising Bukit Timah Nature Reserve 
and Central Catchment Nature Reserve, are situated in the centre of 
Singapore and constitute the largest remaining naturally vegetated area. 
Although the biodiversity of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve has been well- 
studied, prior to the Nature Reserves Survey, documentation relied heavily 
on ad hoc. sporadic, and irregular surveys carried out by individual 
researchers or groups with interest in specific taxonomic categories. In 
contrast, the Central Catchment Nature Reserve was poorly surveyed before 
this project. 

By the early 1990s, it was apparent that a concerted effort at 
scientifically documenting the biodiversity of the largest conservation area 
in Singapore was long overdue. In 1991. a physical and biological survey 
of the Nature Reserves was proposed with the following broad targets: 

1. Geophysical survey on drainage, topography and soil of the Reserves: 
and 

2. Detailed flora and fauna surveys and identification of specimens. 

The Singapore Government financed the physical survey while the 
cost of the biological survey was supported with funds provided by Lady 
Yuen Peng McNeice. patron of the Singapore Botanic Gardens and the 
Cheng Kim Loke Foundation. The project, co-ordinated by the Nature 
Conservation Branch of the National Parks Board, spanned from 1992 to 
1997. It culminated in a seminar held in December 1997 where the 
participating researchers presented their findings. 

New records of at least four mammals, two reptiles and three 
amphibians and the rediscovery of two reptiles and two amphibians that 
had not been sighted in the Nature Reserves for the past thirty years, 
amply confirm that the merits of a co-ordinated systematic survey. 

The findings have already been put to good use. A Recreational 
Masterplan for the Nature Reserves has been formulated taking into account 
the distribution of sensitive species. Biological databases have been 
established for the taxonomic groups surveyed during this project and this 
will form the cornerstone of the proposed National Biodiversity Reference 
Centre. The information accumulated forms a reliable baseline for 
monitoring studies. There are many more projects in the pipeline that will 
utilise the biodiversity data collected, particularly in the field of nature 
conservation education. 

This survey has indeed been a landmark in the history of nature 



11 



conservation in Singapore. It has amassed valuable data that should be 
made more accessible, to academics as well as the general public. To 
reach a wider audience and to provide a single permanent record for 
monitoring and future comparisons, much of the data collected during the 
survey and presented in the Nature Reserves Seminar has been compiled 
into this special issue of the Gardens' Bulletin. 

The work carried out during the Nature Reserves Survey has laid a 
firm foundation from which Singapore could springboard into nature 
conservation initiatives in the New Millenium. 



Dr. Tan Wee Kiat 
Chief Executive Officer 
National Parks Board 
1 February 1999 



iii 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The Nature Reserves Survey would not have been possible if not for the 
foresight of the Singapore Government and Lady Yuen Peng McNeice's 
ardent support for conservation. The generous financial support from 
Lady McNeice, the Cheng Kim Loke Foundation and the Singapore 
Government is gratefully acknowledged. 

Dr. Leong Chee Chiew was instrumental in the initiation of this 
project and in subsequently steering its course. He has unstintingly stood 
by the project through thick and thin and we are very grateful for it. 

The consultants, Mr. Wong Yew Kwan and Professor D. H. Murphy, 
contributed to the Nature Reserves Survey in many ways, far beyond their 
terms of reference. 

For a survey spanning several years, particular credit must be given 
to several people who were responsible for the smooth running of the 
project. This list includes Ali Ibrahim, Sharon Chan, Chew Ping Ting, 
Cheryl Chia, Wendy Kan, Shirley Pottie, Saifuddin Suran, Tay Eng Pin, 
Robert Teo and Elspeth Waghorn. 

It is impossible to name all the individuals who so magnanimously 
contributed their time or expertise to the survey work carried out on the 
diverse taxonomic groups. From the Nature Society (Singapore), the 
dedicated and exemplary work of the Vertebrate Group and the Bird 
Group is most appreciated. Many members from the Department of 
Biological Sciences, the Zoological Reference Collection and the Geography 
Department of the National University of Singapore participated actively 
in the project and many thanks go to them for their unwavering support 
and involvement. The number of weekends that Khew Sin Khoon and the 
Butterfly Watching and Research Group of the Nature Society (Singapore) 
had sacrificed in the documentation of butterfly biodiversity was numerous 
and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. We are much richer in our 
knowledge of stick- and leaf-insect biodiversity entirely due to the single- 
minded devotion of Dr Francis Seow-Choen and his family to this interesting 
taxonomic group. The contribution of the National Institute of Education 
of the National Technological University is also acknowledged. We thank 
the Public Utilities Board and the Ministry of Defence for their unfailing 
assistance in transportation and logistic support. 

The fieldwork was greatly facilitated by the staff members of the 
Nature Reserves Management Branch, especially the work of the rangers, 
the daily rated employees and the drivers. We sincerely thank Sharon 
Chan for her continuous and stalwart support in fieldwork co-ordination, a 
contribution that cannot be over-acknowledged. 

Sharon Chan also played a pivotal role in the initiation and 



iv 



organisation of the Nature Reserves Seminar and its success can largely be 
credited to her efforts. We also acknowledge the contributions of Nasir 
Abdullah, Rehan Yusoff, Tay Soon Lian and Sunia Corina Teo from the 
Nature Reserves Management Branch and all the other logistic support 
staff during the Nature Reserves Seminar. The co-ordinated efforts of 
Chew Ping Ting, Cheryl Chia and Saifuddin Suran of the Nature 
Conservation Branch ensured the smooth running of the seminar. 

This special issue of the Gardens' Bulletin occupies an unique niche 
in the Nature Reserves Survey Project. Many people contributed to bringing 
this volume to fruition. In particular, we thank Chew Ping Ting and Cheryl 
Chia for the excellent production of the GIS maps and general c ' r ^g. 
Our profoundest thanks must go to Cheryl Chia for her untiring amendment 
and editing of the numerous versions of the papers. Without Cheryl, the 
editorial work would have been more tedious and prolonged. Special 
thanks are due to Dr Ruth Kiew for her efficient assistance in the general 
editing of the papers. We would also like to thank Dr Ian Turner for his 
critical comments on some of the papers. 

Finally, we thank Dr Tan Wee Kiat and Dr Chin See Chung iyt their 
unfailing support of the project, which kept the morale high. 

To all the above-named and the many more unnamed contributors, 
we express our keenest appreciation for all the time, effort, support and 
dedication each and everyone gave to this mammoth task of documenting 
the biodiversity of Singapore. This volume stands as a testimony to their 
dedication to nature conservation. 

Thank you, Terima kasih, Xie xie and Nantri. 



Lena Chan & Richard Corlett 
1 February 1999 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 147-159. 



The Vegetation in the Nature Reserves of Singapore 

RICHARD T. CORLETT 

Department of Ecology & Biodiversity 
University of Hong Kong 
Pokfulam Road 
Hong Kong, China 

Abstract 

nmba 

Singapore's native, non-coastal biota is almost entirely forest-dependent. Progressive 
deforestation during the nineteenth century reduced forest cover to isolated patches in a 
matrix of grassland. All primary forest patches outside the nature reserves were cleared but 
protection within the reserves has allowed the growth of secondary forest. The surviving 
primary forest patches are still distinct from the oldest secondary forest in their species 
diversity and structural complexity. The freshwater swamp forest at Nee Soon is also clearly 
distinct from the dryland primary forest. The highest conservation priority must be given to 
the primary forest remnants, which support most of the surviving flora, and to the older 
second, y forest. Non-forest areas within the reserves should be reforested. 

Introduction 

Vegetation forms the matrix in which both plants and animals live, as well 
as supplying the food on which most animals depend. In Singapore's 
continuously hot and wet climate, forest is the natural vegetation on almost 
all substrates. Corlett (1991a) estimated that mangrove forest made up 
13% of the original forest area, freshwater swamp forest an additional 5%, 
and the remainder was lowland dipterocarp forest. Before human impact, 
permanent open sites would have been confined to coastal cliffs and sandy 
beaches. This basic fact has profound implications for understanding the 
biodiversity of modern Singapore: all native, non-coastal species of plants 
and animals are adapted to and, usually, dependent on forest, and are thus 
adversely affected by deforestation. 

There is no evidence for significant forest clearance in the interior of 
the island before the nineteenth century, although coastal settlements have 
existed for centuries (Corlett, 1992a, 1992b). Most of the deforestation 
occurred in the period 1819-1900, after the foundation of the British colony 
resulted in a rapid rise in population. Much of the initial clearance of 
primary forest was for the cultivation of gambier (Uncaria gambir, 
Rubiaceae), which grows best on soil newly cleared of forest and needs a 
roughly equal area of forest to provide firewood for boiling the gambier 
leaves (Jackson, 1965). The gambier growers moved on when the soil and 



148 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



firewood supplies were exhausted. The results of this "reckless, migratory 
cultivation" were described by Cantley (1884): 

Such Crown forests as remain uncut are widely distributed in isolated 
patches over the island. These forest patches or clumps are of various 
sizes, from half an acre or so to about 25 acres [10 ha], and of no 
particular shape; their distance from each other may average a quarter 
of a mile [0.4 km] though often exceeding a mile [1.6 km]. The 
interspace is generally waste grassland, which supports, as a rule, 
only strongly-growing grass known locally as "lalang" [Imperata 
cylindrica]. 

From 1884, many of the larger forest patches were included in forest 
reserves, but most of these were eventually abandoned (Corlett, 1995a). 
Primary forest remnants survived only in those areas that have received 
continuous protection, all of which are within the current nature reserves 
in the central part of the island. Here, the cessation of cultivation and 
control of grassland fires allowed the growth of secondary forest, which 
restored links between some of the remnant patches. Subsequently, 
however, the construction of reservoirs, roads and both recreational and 
military facilities has re-fragmented the forest area (Figure 1). 

The vegetation of Singapore as a whole has been described by Corlett 
(1991a, 1992a). This paper concentrates on the vegetation of the current 
nature reserves. 

Sources 

Singapore has had more than a century of continuous botanical collecting 
activity. Checklists for the flora have been published by Ridley (1900), 
Keng (1990), Turner et al. (1990) and Turner (1993). New species continue 
to be added to a total which now stands at 2323 native species (Ali Ibrahim 
et al, 1997). Corlett (1990, 1995b) recorded a total of 843 forest angiosperm 
species seen, collected or reported from Bukit Timah Nature Reserve since 
records began. Turner (1994) gives the total recorded forest vascular flora 
of Singapore as 1673 species (with 912 spp. at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve) 
and Turner et al. (1994) estimate that 1196 (71%) of these survive today, 
all but a few within the nature reserves. More than 700 vascular plant 
species have been recorded from freshwater swamp forest in Singapore 
but many of these were only known from areas which had been cleared 
(Turner et al., 1996a). The many forest plots enumerated during the forest 
surveys described below cover a total of 20 ha, which is only about one 



Vegetation 



149 




METRES 

Figure 1. Map of the Nature Reserves showing the major vegetation types. 



150 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



percent of the total forest area within the reserves. However, much of the 
rest of the reserve area has been sampled by collectors within the past 
century, with particular attention paid to previously under-collected parts 
of the Central Catchment Nature Reserves since 1992. Despite this, more 
species undoubtedly remain to be discovered and some currently believed 
to be extinct (Turner et al. 1995) have been rediscovered (Kiew & Chan, 
in press). 

Wee (1964) mapped the vegetation of the nature reserves from the 
1955 aerial photographs, followed by field reconnaissance. He recognized 
five vegetation types: high forest (recognized only on Bukit Timah). 
regenerating high forest, regenerating swamp forest, belukar tua (old 
secondary forest), and belukar muda (young secondary forest, shrubland, 
grassland and fernland). Hill (1977) mapped the vegetation of the whole 
of Singapore, including the nature reserves, from aerial photographs. Within 
the reserves, he recognized five vegetation types: lowland rain forest, 
freshwater swamp forest, tall secondary forest (with crowns mainly >10 m 
high), low secondary forest (<10 m), and grass and scrub (including 
Dicranopteris fernlands). Wong et al. (1994), using 1990 aerial photographs, 
recognized four vegetation types within the Central Catchment Nature 
Reserve: Type 1, consisting of early successional vegetation with only 
scattered trees; Type 2, with many small-crowned trees 8-15 m tall; Type 
3, with taller, larger-crowned trees; and Type 4, with some very large trees. 
These structural types were mapped in Turner et al. (1996b), who also 
compared this structural classification with a floristic ordination and 
classification of Wong etal.'s (1994) plot data. Metcalfe etal (1998) classified 
the forest types in a 200 m x 200 m grid at Bukit Timah into four types: 
near-pristine forest with no visible signs of human disturbance (around 
10% of the forest area), other primary forest (52%), old secondary forest 
(31%), and young secondary forest (7%). 

The first quantitative vegetation studies within the area now covered 
by the reserves were done in 1933 by Corner, in a patch of primary 
freshwater swamp forest along the old Mandai Road (Corner, 1978). He 
enumerated slightly over a hectare of this forest, which was felled for an 
extension of Seletar Reservoir in 1940. Then, in the late 1950s, Gilliland 
and co-workers measured and identified all plants within three 1000 feet x 
6 feet (305 x 2m) transects in the nature reserves: one in regenerating high 
forest south of MacRitchie Reservoir (Gilliland & Wantman, 1958), one in 
tall secondary forest adjacent to Lornie Road and the golf course (Gilliland. 
1958), and one in younger secondary forest in the Mandai area (Gilliland 
& Mohd. Jabil, 1958). Gilliland named the three forest types the Shoreaf 
Agrostistachys community, the Rhodamnia/ Champ ereia community, and 
the Eugenia/ 'Arthrophy Hum community, respectively. 



Vegetation 



151 



Wong (1987) enumerated all trees > 24 inches (61cm) girth at breast 
height (gbh) in twenty 0.4 acre (0.16 ha) clusters of four circular subplots 
located systematically on a grid at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Swan 
(1988) mapped, measured and identified all stems > 2 cm dbh in two 0.24 
ha plots on Bukit Timah, in Fern Valley and Jungle Falls Valley, 
respectively. Corlett (1991b) measured and identified all stems > 2 cm dbh 
in fifteen 0.1 ha plots in tall secondary forest in the Central Catchment 
Nature Reserve. An additional five plots were located in primary forest 
remnants (Corlett, unpublished). Sim et al. (1992) included a 225 m 2 plot 
at Bukit Timah in a survey of Adinandra belukar in Singapore. In by far 
the biggest survey to date, Wong et al. (1994) measured and identified 
trees > 30 cm gbh in sixty-two 0.2 ha clusters of four circular subplots in 
the Central Catchment Nature Reserve and Turner et al. (1996c) 
enumerated herbaceous plants in 46 of these clusters. In 1993, the Center 
for Tropical Forest Science and the National Institute of Education, 
Nanyang Technological University, established a 2 ha permanent plot in 
the primary forest core of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (LaFrankie et al., 
1996; Ercelawn et al., 1998). All trees > 1 cm dbh have now been censused 
twice, in 1993 and 1995, allowing the assessment of short-term recruitment 
within the plot. 



Vegetation 

Dryland Primary Forest 

All studies of the nature reserves have recognized a distinct forest type 
characterized by the presence of huge individual trees, including 
dipterocarps. It is likely that all the patches of this type were logged for 
timber and exploited for firewood before and, probably, to some extent, 
after protection. This exploitation seems to have been relatively light at 
Bukit Timah and may have been extremely heavy in some patches kept as 
firewood reserves for gambier plantations in the centre of the island. 
However, these distinctions have been largely obscured by a century or 
more of regeneration so it is now simplest and most informative to refer to 
all this forest as primary, i.e., forest which has never been completely 
cleared (Corlett, 1994). The continuity of forest occurrence on a site results 
in a richer flora than even the oldest secondary forests (Corlett, 1995c; 
Turner et al, 1997). The total area of dryland primary forest in the Nature 
Reserves is approximately 192 ha, 80% of which is within the Central 
Catchment Nature Reserve. 

Most of the dryland primary forest remnants in Singapore consist of 
lowland dipterocarp forest, with members of the family Dipterocarpaceae 



152 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



(Anisoptera, Dipterocarpus, Hopea, Shored) dominant among the large 
trees. The species composition in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve 
most closely matches the Red Meranti-Keruing forest type of Wyatt-Smith 
(1963, 1964). Most of the primary forest on Bukit Timah Hill can be 
distinguished as coastal hill dipterocarp forest by the dominance of Shorea 
curtisii and Dipterocarpus caudatus subsp. penangianus (Wong, 1987; Swan, 
1988; LaFrankie et al, 1996), but the flora is otherwise similar to that of 
the patches in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Other prominent 
large tree species in the dryland primary forest include several members of 
the Burseraceae, Adenanthera bicolor (Leguminosae), Dyer a costulata 
(Apocynaceae), Gluta wallichii (Anacardiaceae), Ixonanthes icosandra 
(Ixonanthaceae), Koompassia malaccensis (Leguminosae) and Mangifera 
griff ithii (Anacardiaceae). The major families of smaller trees and shrubs 
are the Annonaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae. 
Woody climbers have been ignored in most plot surveys and undercollected 
in general. Rattans (spiny, climbing palms in the genera Calamus, 
Daemonorops, Korthalsia and Plectocomia) are particularly abundant at 
Bukit Timah and in some of the primary forest patches in the central 
catchment area. The other major families of large, woody climbers are the 
Rubiaceae (Uncaria), Annonaceae (Artabotrys, Fissistigma), Apocynaceae 
(Leuconotis, Willughbeia), Leguminosae (Dalbergia, Derris, Entada, 
Spatholobus) and Connaraceae (Rourea). Ferns and several families of 
monocotyledons dominate the herb flora, but herb diversity is low in 
Singapore's forests, and not strongly differentiated between types (Turner 
et al, 1996c). 

Primary Freshwater Swamp Forest 

In all floristic surveys - and, for that matter, most faunistic surveys - the 
most distinctive forest type is the freshwater swamp forest at Nee Soon. 
This swamp system is extremely complex and we do not know enough to 
explain the patterns observed. Indeed, they are probably not explicable in 
terms of the present day environment, since the all-important water regime 
must have been drastically altered by changes both up and down stream of 
the existing remnants. Turner et al. (1996a) bring together current 
knowledge of the Nee Soon swamp forest and estimate the total area as 
about 87 ha. Swamp forest occurs in low-lying areas where the water table 
is close to the soil surface and the soil is usually rich in organic matter. 
Many of the most characteristic tree species produce striking stilt roots 
(e.g., Palaquium xanthochymum, Sapotaceae and Xylopia fusca, 
Annonaceae) and/or pneumatophores of various types (plank-like in 
Lophopetalum multinervium, Celastraceae) illustrated in Corner (1978), 



Vegetation 



153 



presumably as an adaptation to this substrate and the periodic floods to 
which most of the forest is subject. 

Secondary Forests 

Secondary forest is the most extensive vegetation type in the Nature 
Reserves, covering a total area of about 1560 ha. Although different types 
of secondary forest often seem sharply distinct at their boundaries on the 
ground and in aerial photographs, ordination and classification techniques 
show that they are all part of a floristic continuum (Corlett, 1991b; Turner 
et al., 1997). Most authors have interpreted this continuum as representing 
stages in successional development after the abandonment of cultivation. 
However, it is possible that much of the variation reflects degrees of site 
degradation, and that areas abandoned at the same time may have very 
different vegetation. Unfortunately, we cannot usually date the start of 
forest succession sufficiently accurately to test this hypothesis. 

The strongest evidence against "time since abandonment" as the 
only determining factor is the striking persistence of some - but by no 
means all - of the patches of open, scrubby vegetation between a vegetation 
map based on 1955 aerial photographs (Wee, 1964) and the present day, 
43 years later. The ground in these areas is typically covered in a dense 
growth of the fern Dicranopteris linearis, grasses or, occasionally, sedges. 
Trees, particularly Adinandra dumosa (Theaceae) and Rhodamnia cinerea 
(Myrtaceae), occur as scattered clumps and isolated individuals. Fire has 
undoubtedly been a factor in some cases, but soil factors or the inhibitory 
effects of a dense herbaceous ground cover may also be important. 
Whatever the explanation, these persistent open areas should not be seen 
as a model for the early stages of succession in areas now covered in tall 
secondary forest. For these latter areas, presumably on more fertile soils, 
the first stage of forest succession seems to have been the dense Adinandra- 
dominated forest, which can be seen today in a few places within the 
reserves and several areas outside (Corlett, 1991b; Sim et al, 1992). Holttum 
(1954) reported that in 1930-40 "there were very large areas of dense, 
almost pure Adinandra forest" in the catchment area, although much of 
this was felled for use as poles just before and during the war. Macaranga 
conifer a (Euphorbiaceae), while apparently not a normal component of 
this community, becomes prominent in regeneration after fire or cutting, 
presumably in response to the increased nutrient supply (Corlett, 1991b). 

Structural and floristic classifications of the secondary forests within 
the reserves do not agree well (Turner et al., 1996b, 1997) but most sites 
can be arranged along a successional gradient, whether or not this represents 
time since initiation of succession. Rhodamnia cinerea (Myrtaceae) is 



154 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



present, and often dominant, at all sites, but the other components are 
more variable. At one extreme are sites where the light-demanding pioneers, 
Adinandra dumosa (Theaceae) and Macaranga conifera (Euphorbiaceae), 
are still prominent, tree crowns are small and indistinct on aerial 
photographs, and the canopy height ranges from 8-15 m. At the other 
extreme, where the canopy has attained 15-25 m, some tree crowns are 
larger, and most light-demanding species have been eliminated. At this 
stage, the forest is dominated by tree species in the families Myrtaceae 
(Rhodamnia, Syzygium), Guttiferae (Calophyllum, Garcinia), and 
Lauraceae (Litsea), with Campnospermum auriculatum (Anacardiaceae), 
Elaeocarpus spp. (Elaeocarpaceae), Gynotroches axillaris (Rhizophoraceae), 
Ixonanthes reticulata (Ixonanthaceae) and Timonius wallichianus 
(Rubiaceae). The giant specimens of Syzygium grandis (Myrtaceae) in 
some areas were, apparently, planted as fire-breaks in Imperata grassland 
in the late nineteenth century. 

Non-forest vegetation 

There has been no detailed study of the non-forest vegetation within the 
Nature Reserves. Exotic grasses and legumes dominate some recently- 
abandoned areas on the fringes, while native grasses and the fern, 
Dicranopteris, cover most open areas in the interior. There are also some 
large patches of native shrubland, dominated by the Melastoma 
malabathricum (Melastomatacaea), Dillenia suffruticosa (Dilleniaceae), 
Adinandra dumosa (Theaceae) and Macaranga heynei (Euphorbiaceae). 

Discussion 

Because of the rarity of open habitats in the primeval landscape of 
Singapore, most of Singapore's surviving non-coastal biodiversity is confined 
to forest. Man-made, non-forest vegetation is typically species-poor and/or 
dominated by exotics (Corlett, 1992a, 1992b). Most of the forest vegetation 
was cleared during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with a 
minimum probably being reached in the period 1910-1940. Many extinctions 
occurred during this period of deforestation, with the vertebrates most 
vulnerable and the vascular plants least (Corlett & Turner, 1997). 
Subsequently, the forest area has increased as secondary forest developed 
but extinctions have continued as a result of additional pressures in some 
areas and, no doubt, as a consequence of the vulnerability of small 
populations to chance extinction. Secondary forests are now much more 
extensive than the primary forest remnants they surround (Figure 1) and 



Vegetation 



155 



some are probably a hundred years or more old. However, secondary 
forests in Singapore have accumulated species slowly and selectively, and 
are still floristically impoverished in comparison with the primary forest 
(Corlett & Turner, 1997; Turner et al, 1997). A major reason for this 
relative impoverishment seems to be the failure of many primary forest 
species to disperse out from their refuges, and at least part of this can be 
attributed to the disproportionate extinction of large seed-dispersing 
frugivores in Singapore. Preliminary results from the 2-ha permanent plot 
at Bukit Timah suggest that the same problem may be limiting regeneration 
of some animal-dispersed species within the primary forest, particularly 
members of the family Myristicaceae (Ercelawn et al, 1998). The elevated 
abundance of seed-predating rodents may be another factor limiting 
colonization of new sites. Whatever the explanation, there is no doubt that 
preserving all the remaining primary forest remnants from destruction or 
disturbance must be the basis of any plant conservation strategy in Singapore 
(Turner & Corlett, 1996). 

The importance of the primary forest does not mean, however, that 
the more extensive secondary forests are of no value. These forests buffer 
the tiny primary remnants from the harsh external environment and provide 
the major habitat in Singapore for all those forest-dependent animal species, 
which do not require the more complex structure and greater floristic 
diversity of the primary forest. Moreover, both the structural complexity 
and floristic diversity of the secondary forest will increase with time. The 
secondary forests are the future of the nature reserves. 

Most of the non-forest vegetation of the reserves is of limited 
conservation value. The native shrubland dominated by Melastoma, Dillenia, 
Adinandra and Macaranga heynei may be an exception, since the continuous 
supply of nectar and small fruits it provides, in contrast to the more "pulsed" 
supply in the older forest types, may increase the carrying capacity of the 
reserves as a whole for nectar- and fruit-eating animals. In contrast, the 
marginal areas dominated by exotic grasses and/or legumes, the bigger 
patches of Dicranopteris fernland, and the grasslands dominated by Imperata 
and other species, support little wildlife. Reforestation of these areas with 
native species would help reduce fragmentation and increase the total area 
of habitat available for forest-dependent plant and animal species. 

Acknowledgments 

A comprehensive list of those who have contributed to this paper would 
exceed the limits of editorial tolerance, but I would like to offer special 
thanks to P.T. Chew, H.T.W Tan, I.M. Turner, J.V. LaFrankie, F.R. Swan, 
D.H. Murphy, Ali bin Ibrahim, and Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad. 



156 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



References 

Ali Ibrahim, P.T. Chew, Hj Sidek Kiah & J.T.K. Lai. 1997. New records of 
plant species from Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 49: 49-54. 

Cantley, N. 1884. Report on the Forests of the Straits Settlements. Singapore 
Printing Office, Singapore. 

Corlett, R.T. 1990. Flora and reproductive phenology of the rain forest at 
Bukit Timah, Singapore. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 6: 55-63. 

Corlett, R.T. 1991a. Vegetation. In: L.S. Chia, A. Rahman & D.B.H. Tay 
(eds.). The Biophysical Environment of Singapore. Singapore University 
Press, pp. 134-154. 

Corlett, R.T. 1991b. Plant succession on degraded land in Singapore. Journal 
of Tropical Forest Science. 4: 151-161. 

Corlett, R.T. 1992a. The angiosperm flora of Singapore 1. Introduction. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 44: 3-21. 

Corlett, R.T. 1992b. The ecological transformation of Singapore: 1819— 
1990. Journal of Bio geography . 19: 411-420. 

Corlett, R.T. 1994. What is secondary forest? Journal of Tropical Ecology. 
10: 445-447. 

Corlett, R.T. 1995a. History. In: S.C. Chin, R.T. Corlett, Y.C. Wee & S.Y. 
Geh (eds.). Rain Forest in the City: Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, 
Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. Suppl. 3: 7-10. 

Corlett, R.T. 1995b. Flowering plants. In: S.C. Chin, R.T. Corlett, Y.C. 
Wee & S.Y. Geh (eds.). Rain Forest in the City: Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve, Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. Suppl. 3: 11-27. 

Corlett, R.T. 1995c. Tropical secondary forests. Progress in Physical 
Geography. 19: 159-172. 

Corlett, R.T. & I.M. Turner. 1997. Long-term survival in tropical forest 
remnants in Singapore and Hong Kong. In: W.F. Laurance & R.O. 
Bierregaard, Jr. (eds.). Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, 
and Conservation of Fragmented Communities. University of Chicago 
Press, pp. 333-345. 

Corner, E.J.H. 1978. The freshwater swamp-forest of South Johore and 
Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. Suppl. 1: 1-266. 



Vegetation 



157 



Ercelawn, A.C., J.V. LaFrankie, S.K.Y. Lum & S.K. Lee. (1998). Short- 
term recruitment of trees in a forest fragment in Singapore. Tropics. 
8: 105-115. 

Gilliland, H.B. 1958. Plant communities on Singapore Island. Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore. 17: 82-90. 

Gilliland, H.B. & Mohd. Jabil. 1958. Notes on the classification of 
vegetation. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Humid Tropics 
Vegetation, Tijiawi, Indonesia, 1958. UNESCO Science Cooperation 
Office for S.E. Asia. 

Gilliland, H.B. & M.J. Wantman. 1958. Regenerating high forest on 
Singapore Island. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 17: 228-243. 

Hill, R.D. 1977. The vegetation map of Singapore: A first approximation. 
Journal of Tropical Geography. 45: 26-33. 

Holttum, R.E. 1954. Adinandra belukar: a succession of vegetation from 
bare ground on Singapore Island. Malayan Journal of Tropical 
Geography. 3: 27-32. 

Jackson, J.C. 1965. Chinese agricultural pioneering in Singapore and Johore, 
1800-1917. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 
38: 77-105. 

Keng, H. 1990. The Concise Flora of Singapore: Gymnosperms and 
Dicotyledons. Singapore University Press. 

Kiew, R & L. Chan, (in press). Habitat management: the strategy to 
preserve the biodiversity of the Singapore Botanic Gardens rain forest. 
In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Botanic Gardens Convention 
Congress. Kirstenbosch, South Africa. 

LaFrankie, J.V., A.C. Ercelawn & S.K. Lee. 1996. Tree population structure 
in a tropical forest fragment in Singapore. Asian Journal of Tropical 
Biology. 2: 39-48. 

Metcalfe, D.J., P.J. Grubb & I.M. Turner. 1998. The ecology of very small- 
seeded shade-tolerant trees and shrubs in lowland rain forest in Singapore. 
Plant Ecology. 134: 131-149. 

Ridley, H.N. 1900. The flora of Singapore. Journal of the Straits Branch 
Royal Asiatic Society. 33: 27-196. 

Sim, J.W.S., H.T.W. Tan & I.M. Turner. 1992. Adinandra belukar: an 
anthropogenic heath forest in Singapore. Vegetatio. 102: 125-137. 



158 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Swan, F.R. 1988. Tree distribution patterns in the Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve, Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 41: 59-81. 

Turner, I.M. 1993. The names used for Singapore plants since 1900. Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore. 45: 1-287. 

Turner, I.M. 1994. The taxonomy and ecology of the vascular plant flora of 
Singapore: a statistical analysis. The Botanical Journal of the Linnean 
Society. 114: 215-227. 

Turner, I.M. & R.T. Corlett. 1996. The conservation value of small, isolated 
fragments of lowland tropical rain forest. Trends in Ecology and 
Evolution. 11: 330-333. 

Turner, I.M., K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan. 1990. A checklist of the native and 
naturalized vascular plants of the Republic of Singapore. Journal of the 
Singapore National Academy of Science. 18 & 19: 58-88. 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan & K.S. Chua. 1996c. Relationships between herb 
layer and canopy composition in a tropical rain forest successional mosiac 
in Singapore. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 12: 843-851. 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, Ali bin Ibrahim & R.T. Corlett. 1995. Preliminary 
list of the conservation status of the vascular plants native to Singapore. 
In: H.T.W. Tan (ed.). A Guide to the Threatened Plants of Singapore. 
Singapore Science Centre, pp. 118-151. 

Turner, I.M., Y.K. Wong, P.T. Chew & Ali bin Ibrahim. 1996b. Rapid 
assessment of tropical rain forest successional status using aerial 
photographs. Biological Conservation. 77: 177-183. 

Turner, I.M., Y.K. Wong, P.T. Chew & Ali bin Ibrahim. 1997. Trees species 
richness in primary and old secondary tropical forest in Singapore. 
Biodiversity and Conservation. 6: 537-543. 

Turner, I.M., CM. Boo, Y.K. Wong, P.T. Chew & Ali bin Ibrahim. 1996a. 
Freshwater swamp forest in Singapore, with particular reference to that 
around the Nee Soon firing ranges. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 
48: 129-157. 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, Y.C. Wee, Ali bin Ibrahim, P.T. Chew & R.T. 
Corlett. 1994. A study of plant species extinction in Singapore: lessons 
for the conservation of tropical biodiversity. Conservation Biology. 
8: 705-712. 

Wee, Y.C. 1964. A note on the vegetation of Singapore island. Malayan 
f orester. 27: 257-266. 



Vegetation 



159 



Wong, Y.K. 1987. Ecology of trees of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 40: 45-76. 

Wong, Y.K., P.T. Chew & Ali bin Ibrahim. 1994. The tree communities of 
the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin 
Singapore. 46: 37-78. 

Wyatt-Smith, J. 1963. An introduction to forest types. Malayan Forest 
Records. 23: 7/1-7/57. 

Wyatt-Smith, J. 1964. A preliminary vegetation map of Malaya with 
descriptions of the vegetation types. Journal of Tropical Geography. 
18: 200-213. 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 161-223. 



Checklist of Vascular Plants in the Nature Reserves of 

Singapore 

P.T. CHEW, SAIFUDDIN SURAN AND ALI IBRAHIM 

Singapore Botanic Gardens, 
1 Cluny Road, 
Singapore 259569 

Abstract 

This vascular plant checklist of the Nature Reserves of Singapore is a compilation of 
historical records (herbarium specimens, published and unpublished checklists) as well as 
recent field observations and studies. A total of 1634 species of vascular plants have been 
recorded in the Nature Reserves since the last century, of which 443 (or 29% of the 
indigenous species) have not been seen during the last 10 years. 

Introduction 

The current Nature Reserves of Singapore consist of the Bukit Timah 
Nature Reserve (BTNR) and the Central Catchment Nature Reserve 
(CCNR). Floristic inventory and research in the past were mostly 
concentrated at BTNR, the Bukit Timah Reserve as it was formerly known. 
It was one of the first Forest Reserves to be established in Singapore in 
1883. 

In 1951, the Nature Reserves Ordinance was enacted and the Central 
Catchment Area, now known as the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, 
was included as one of the five Forest Reserves. In 1990, the newly gazetted 
National Parks Act established a National Parks Board, which acts as a 
trustee for the current Nature Reserves. 

The objectives of the Nature Reserves are, as stated in Part II of the 

National Parks Act 1990: 

(a) the propagation, protection and preservation of the plants 
(flora) and animals (fauna) of Singapore; 

(b) the study, research and preservation of objects and places of 
aesthetic, historical or scientific interest; 

(c) the study, research and dissemination of knowledge in botany, 
horticulture, biotechnology and natural and local history; 



162 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (J 997) 



and the following was added as Part VII in the National Parks Act 1996: 

(d) recreational and educational use by the public. 

In 1991, a six-year Nature Reserves Survey (NRS) project was initiated by 
the National Parks Board (NParks), primarily to inventory the physical 
and biological components of the Nature Reserves, particularly, that of the 
lesser known CCNR. 

Materials 

The documentation of Singapore's flora started in the late nineteenth 
century. A literature and herbarium search at the Singapore Botanic 
Gardens Herbarium (SING) yielded a long list of historical flora records 
of the Nature Reserves of Singapore. These include Report on the Forests 
of the Straits Settlements (Cantley, 1884), Flora of Singapore (Ridley, 1900), 
Freshwater Swamp-forest of South Johore and Singapore (Corner, 1978); 
and specimen records by H.N. Ridley, I.H. Burkill, R.E. Holttum, E.J.H. 
Corner, and more recently, J. Sinclair in the 1950s-1960s. 

After a lapse of about 30 years, interest in biodiversity revived when 
field collections were carried out at Lower Peirce (within the CCNR) 
under an independently commissioned survey for a separate project 
proposal in 1990. This was followed by the NRS project, of which floristic 
inventory was the primary component during the period 1991 to 1994. 
Field surveys of the CCNR flora were conducted by NParks staff and 
consultants (Wong et aL, 1994; Ali et al, 1997), and researchers and student 
assistants from the National University of Singapore (Turner et al, 1994, 
1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1997). 

Besides these recent compilations of Singapore flora, checklists 
(Turner et aL, 1990, Turner,1993, 1995; Wee & Ng, 1994; Ng & Wee, 1994; 
Chin et ai, 1995; Tan, 1995) and selected flora inventory research carried 
out in the Nature Reserves in the last decade (Wong, 1987; Swan, 1988; 
Corlett, 1990, 1991; Sim et aL, 1992; Tan et aL, 1995; LaFrankie et aL, 1996; 
Chua et aL, 1996) are available. 

In addition, the flora in a two-hectare plot in the BTNR is under a 
long-term population dynamic study carried out by the National Institute 
of Education, Nanyang Technological University, in conjunction with the 
Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS). 



Checklist of vascular plants 



163 



Methods 

The compiled list of indigenous vascular plant species (Appendix 1) that 
are or were probably found growing in the Nature Reserves since the last 
century is derived from the various publications listed above, herbarium 
records in the Singapore Botanic Gardens Herbarium, and the unpublished 
checklists noted below. Naturalised species sampled in the survey are 
recorded in Appendix 2. The record sources for the four columns, R, H, P 
and S, in Appendices 1 and 2 are as follows: 

R — records from field collections, published data from NRS, and published 
data during the period 1991 - 1997 from the "Additions to the Flora of 
Singapore" and "The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore" series published in 
the Gardens' Bulletin Singapore, 44 - 49. 

H — herbarium specimens records in SING. 

P — publication records denoted as follows: C - Corlett (1990, 1991); F - 
Wee (1983, 1984); N - Corner (1978); T - Chua et al (1996), Tan et al 
(1995), Tan (1995, 1997); W - Wong (1987). 

S — unverified records denoted as follows: 1 - observations from NParks 
staff and NRS unpublished checklists, 2 - unpublished checklist of BTNR 
flora (Corlett, late 80s), 3 - collections from the Centre for Natural Product 
Research (CNPR) project and 4 - collections from the CTFS project. 

The records reported under S are non-exhaustive. Sources 1, 3 and 4 
are complementary to R while source 2 is complementary to H, based on 
dates of collections. Of the new unverified records discovered from this 
survey that are not found in the Singapore checklist (Turner, 1993), those 
that have not been recorded as far south as Johore, the nearest state of 
Peninsula Malaysia, were left out. 

Observations 

The total vascular plant records for the Nature Reserves of Singapore is 
1634 species, as listed in Appendices 1 and 2. Of these species, 1525 are 
indigenous (Appendix 1) and 109 (7%) are exotic (Appendix 2). For the 
NRS, 916 species (under R) were recorded with an additional 258 species 
(1, 3 & 4 under S) noted during the period. 



164 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



A total of 1190 vascular plant species are recorded for the Nature 
Reserves within the last 10 years, of which 341 species or 29% (excluding 
those listed in recent publications under P) are new records for the Nature 
Reserves. 

Of the 1267 old records (those older than 10 years) for the Nature 
Reserves, 443 (35%) species were not seen during this NRS project period. 
Some of these species may be extinct as a result of habitat loss (tidal 
freshwater swamp where the present Upper Seletar Reservoir resides) and 
forest fragmentation due to clearing and cultivation within the century. 
Others probably still survive in the Nature Reserves. 

Out of 1190 species recorded within the last ten years in the Nature 
Reserves, 90 (7.5%) are exotic. In comparison, only 11 (0.8%) species out 
of 1297 species were exotic for records earlier than the last ten years, an 
eight fold increase in ten years. 

Discussion 

From the literature survey, it can be seen that in the last few decades there 
was an absence of field work in the CCNR. It is noteworthy that prior to 
the NRS, the Singapore flora checklist comprises mainly records more 
than 30 years old. Consequently, the NRS inventory sets an important 
milestone in the documentation of flora in Singapore in filling this gap. 

Records of lianas, herbaceous, climbing and creeping epiphytes, 
terrestrial ferns, sedges, grasses, and aquatic and semi-aquatic flora are 
also expected to be not as complete as that of the tree flora in the NRS, as 
these were randomly sampled rather than sampled intentionally as defined 
taxonomic groups. 

As noted above, exotics have been invading the Nature Reserves 
within the last few decades. The number of exotic species establishing in 
the Nature Reserves should be monitored in future surveys for management 
implications in the conservation of indigenous species. 

Acknowledgements 

We should like to thank Drs. R.T. Corlett, H.T.W. Tan, I.M. Turner, 
S.K.Y. Lum, J.V. LaFrankie and their students and assistants, and Mr Y.K. 
Wong, D.H. Murphy and E.S.K. Tang for providing published and 
unpublished flora checklists and records of the Singapore Nature Reserves. 



Checklist of vascular plants 



165 



References 

Ali Ibrahim, P.T. Chew, Hj Sidek Kiah & J.T.K. Lai. 1997. New records of 
plant species from Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 49: 49-54. 

Cantley, N. 1884. Report on the Forests of the Straits Settlements. Singapore 
Printing Office, Singapore. 

Chin, S.C., R.T. Corlett, Y.C. Wee & S.Y. Geh (eds.). 1995. Rain forest in 
the city: Bukit Timah Nature Reserve Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin 
Singapore. Suppl. 3. 

Chua, K.S., B.C. Soong & H.T.W. Tan. 1996. The Bamboos of Singapore. 
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Singapore. 

Corlett, R.T. 1990. Flora and reproductive phenology of the rain forest at 
Bukit Timah, Singapore. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 6: 55-63. 

Corlett, R.T. 1991. Plant succession on degraded land in Singapore. Journal 
of Tropical Forest Science. 4: 151-161. 

Corner, E.J.H. 1978. The freshwater swamp-forest of South Johore and 
Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. Suppl. 1: 59-224. 

LaFrankie, J.V., S.K. Lee & A.C. Ercelawn. 1996. Tree population structure 
in a tropical forest fragment in Singapore. Asian Journal of Tropical 
Biology. 2: 39-48. 

National Parks Act 1990. Republic of Singapore Government Gazette Acts 
Supplement 77:No. 10 of 1990. 

National Parks Act 1996. Republic of Singapore Government Gazette Acts 
Supplement 20:No. 22 of 1996. 

Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book: 
Threatened Plants & Animals of Singapore. The Nature Society 
(Singapore). 

Ridley, H.N. 1900. The flora of Singapore. Journal of the Straits' Branch of 
the Royal Asiatic Society. 33: 27-196. 

Sim, J.W.S., H.T.W. Tan & I.M. Turner. 1992. Adinandra belukar: an 
anthropogenic heath forest in Singapore. Vegetatio. 102: 125-137. 

Swan, F.R. Jr. 1988. Tree distribution patterns in the Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 41: 59-81. 



166 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Tan, H.T.W. (e<±). 1995. A Guide to the Threatened Plants of Singapore. 
Singapore Science Centre. 

Tan, H.T.W. (ed.). 1997. A Guide to the Carnivorous Plants of Singapore. 
Singapore Science Centre. 

Tan, H.T.W., K.S. Chua & I.M. Turner. 1995. Rubiaceae of the Bukit 
Timah Nature Reserve. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. Suppl. 3: 29-59. 

Turner, I.M. 1993. The names used for Singapore plants since 1900. Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore. 45: 1-287. 

Turner, I.M. 1995. A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya. Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore. 47: 1-757. 

Turner, I.M., K.S. Chua & H.T.W. Tan. 1990. A checklist of the native and 
naturalized vascular plants of the Republic of Singapore. Journal of the 
Singapore National Academy of Science. 18-19: 58-88. 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, K.S. Chua & D.J. Metcalfe. 1994. Recent 
botanical collections from the Nature Reserves of Singapore. Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore. 46: 1-36. 

Turner, I.M., CM. Boo, Y.K. Wong, P.T. Chew & Ali Ibrahim. 1996a. 
Freshwater swamp forest in Singapore, with particular reference to that 
found around the Nee Soon Firing Ranges. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 
48: 129-157. 

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan & K.S. Chua. 1996b. Relationships between 
herb layer and canopy composition in a tropical rain forest successional 
mosaic in Singapore. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 12: 843-851. 

Turner, I.M., Y.K. Wong, P.T. Chew & Ali Ibrahim. 1996c. Rapid 
assessment of tropical rain forest successional status using aerial 
photographs. Biological Conservation. 77: 177-183. 

Turner, I.M., Y.K. Wong, P.T. Chew & Ali Ibrahim. 1997. Tree species 
richness in primary and old secondary tropical forest in Singapore. 
Biodiversity and Conservation. 6: 537-543. 

Wee, Y.C. 1983. A Guide to the Ferns of Singapore. Singapore Science 
Centre. 

Wee, Y.C. 1984. Common Ferns and Fern-allies of Singapore. Malayan 
Nature Society (Singapore Branch). 



Checklist of vascular plants 



167 



Wee, Y.C. & P.K.L. Ng (eds.). 1994. A First Look at Biodiversity in 
Singapore. National Council on the Environment, Singapore. 

Wong, Y.K. 1987. Ecology of the trees of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 40: 45-76. 

Wong, Y.K., P.T. Chew & Ali Ibrahim. 1994. The tree communities of the 
Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin 
Singapore. 46: 37-78. 



168 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (J 997) 



Appendix 1. Indigenous vascular plant species in the Nature 
Reserves. 

(R - records from field collections, published data from NRS, and published data 
during the period 1991-1997 from the "Additions to the Flora of Singapore" and 
"The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore" series published in the Gardens' Bulletin 
Singapore 44-49. 

H - herbarium specimens records in SING. 

P - publication records denoted as follows: C-Corlett (1990, 1991); F-Wee (1983, 
1984); N-Corner (1978);T-Chua et al. (1996), Tan et al (1995), Tan (1995, 1997); 
W-Wong (1987). 

S - unverified records denoted as follows: 1-observations from NParks staff and 
NRS unpublished checklists, 2-unpublished checklist of BTNR flora (Corlett, late 
80s), 2-collections from the Centre for Natural Product Research (CNPR) project 
and 4-collections from the CTFS project.) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


ACANTHACEAE 










Hygrophila ringens (L.) R. Br. ex Steud. 


+ 






2 


Justicia vasculosa Wall. 


+ 








Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek. 








1 


Ruellia repens L. 


+ 








Staurogyne griffithiana (Nees) Kuntze 








2 


Staurogyne setigera (Nees) Kuntze 


+ 






2 












ACTINIDIACEAE 










Saurauia pentapetala (Jack) Hoogland 




+ 
















ADIANTACEAE 










Adiantum flabellulatum L. 






F 




Syngramma alismifolia (C. Presl) J.J. Sm. 


+ 








Taenitis blechnoides (Willd.) Sw. 


+ 




F 




Taenitis interrupta Hook. & Grev. 


+ 


















ALANGIACEAE 










Alangium ebenaceum (C.B. Clarke) Harms 






N 




Alangium griffithii (C.B. Clarke) Harms 




+ 






Alangium nobile (C.B. Clarke) Harms 


+ 


+ 


C 




Alangium ridleyi King 




+ 


C 















Checklist of vascular plants 



169 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


AMARANTHACEAE 










Altpvnntithpvn kpkkWk (\ \ DC 1 


+ 








/4 r>i fir fl fit hi i v tvicolov T 

/l /nil/ LI! 11 1 III 3 IflLlslUf Ij. 










vnthuln nrn^trntn (\ \ Rliimp 








1 










ANACARDIACEAE 










RniiPn mnrmnhvlln Onff 

A-/ L/llC H f/IKL / W Ls 1 I \ tin VJ X 111 • 






w 




Rnupn nrmnsitifnlin (Rovh ^ Meisn 




-L. 


w 




Riichnnnnin nrhorpsrpiis (Rlume^ Rlume 


j. 


^_ 






Ritrhflnnnifl KPK^ifolin Rlnmp 






cw 




f nmnjinsnpf'Hin nuYiculnfuiii (Rlnmp ) Hook f 

V-^LC/ / ( Is f l\J*J ' * ' »*•' Hill IK. 11 III l 11 1 1 l 1 JJ1 / 1 1UvIV# / « 


-i_ 


J- 


CNW 




CotJipnospcnun sqiuuwitwn Ridl. 






N 




Drncnntnmplnn rlnn (Rlanco^ Mptt & Rolfp 








1 


Crhitn wnllirhii (Hook f ^ Oino Hon 






CNW 




A/fnupifprn rnptin Tack 

^ '1 11 / 1 C 1 / C / ll (. KL JU( .j ci v_ rv 








1 


XI nnoifprn foptidn T our 

i'll(J(i.l(t.( U ^1/ Lllllli 1 — i V' Ll 1 . 










Mnnpifprn priffitliii Hook f 

.U Ll/l ^1 f L / u £'1/ / It'll! llULIft,!. 










\1 mipifprn Jnppiiifprn Ciriff 

.'tllM^l/L/ll III L C f 11 f L / 11 \J 1 1 I I . 








2 


\4n)tpifprn irinrrnrnmn Rlnmp 

J rl III I Kl 1 C / It f 1 UlL 1 IsL ll 1 L/ll U 1 Ll 1 1 1 L. 










\1 mipifpi'fl odorntfl Crriff 

±rllw 1 c I / L 1 ll ly If \J 1 ll 1 ll VJ 1 111 • 










Mruipifprn nunrlvifirln Tark 

iVlllf l ifl 1 c / i( 1/ 1 ( ll ll / 1 1 I ll It J LlK. rv 




+ 


N 




\4flfipifprn < \iih<\Pssilifnlin Kostprm 

.'ILI/lLlfll ll Jlll/JL J Jill / L/l til 1\U J Ivl 111 . 










V/ plnnnchvln niiriculntn Hook f 

±Ticiiirii/iii\iii ii it i it 1 1 in i it x i vi w rv . | . 


+ 




N 




\fplfl)ir>rh\'lfl hvfictPfltn ICino 

~vicinrH-'Lfi\lli in in i l ll l ll ivlll ii. 




+ 






\1 plfl}inch\'ln rflPKin (Rl ^ Diner Hon 

^ 'I C 1 Ul 1 l/L 1 1 \ I ll LlltO/ll yLJl.J L^t 1 1 1 11V_'LI 






N 




\f plfliinrhvlfl fiilvi}iPY\'i<i (Rlump^ Diner Hon 

^itlU/ll'Llf V 1U / 111 I ll 1 1 I i ij ^UlUlllC^ -L-'lll ii, 1 1U Ll 




+ 






Pnri <ihw DiKiPjiiK Hnnk f 

1 III 13/1111 IflJiw/lfJ 1 LVJVJ L\ . J . 










PfiriKhin vnnin onyj Hnnk f 

L III lolllll lllllli tcCiVI llUUft./i 


+ 


+ 






Pfli'iKhifl iifliiciiuon Pncrl 

I llllJIllll I'll 1 1 t 1 / 11 i^ll 




+ 


W 




SwDittDiin srhwp?! Icii (Tpn^m & Rinn ^ Tpn<im R: Rinn 

\JWUM\tlHM juill CHMl 1 X CI | Mil. LV U 11111. ) I CI | 5111. tV lllllli. 


+ 


+ 
















ANCISTROCLADACEAE 










Ancistrocladus teaorius (Lour.) Merr. 


+ 


















ANISOPHYLLEACEAE 










Anisophyllea disticha (Jack) Baill. 


+ 


+ 


N 





170 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Anisophyllea griffithii Oliv. 






C 


1 












ANNONACEAE 










Alphonsea maingayi Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 








Anaxagorea javanica Blume 






W 




Artabotrys costatus King 


+ 








Artabotrys crassifolius Hook./. & Thomson 




+ 






Artabotrys maingayi Hook./. & Thomson 




+ 




1 


Artabotrys suaveolens (Blume) Blume 


+ 


+ 


c 




Artabotrys wrayi King 




+ 






Cyathocalyx ramuliflorus (Maingay ex Hook./. & Thomson) Scheff. 


+ 




cw 




Cyathocalyx ridleyi (King) J. Sinclair 


+ 




cw 




Cyathostemma viridiflorum Griff. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Desmos chinensis Lour. 








1 


Desmos dasymaschalus (Blume) Safford 


+ 


+ 






Desmos dumosus (Roxb.) Safford 




+ 






Ellipeia cuneifolia Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 








Fissistigma fidgens (Hook./. & Thomson) Merr. 


+ 


+ 






Fissistigma lanuginosum (Hook./. & Thomson) Merr. 




+ 


w 




Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr. 




+ - 


w 




Friesodielsia biglandidosa (Blume) Steenis 




+ 


N 




Friesodielsia borneensis (Miq.) Steenis 




+ 


N 




Friesodielsia lati folia (Hook./. & Thomson) Steenis 


+ 


+ 






Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 






2 


Goniothalamus malayanus Hook./. & Thomson 




+ 






Goniothalamus ridleyi King 


+ 




N 




Goniothalamus tapis Miq. 








2,4 


Meiogyne virgata (Blume) Miq. 




+ 




3 


Mezzettia parviflora Becc. 


+ 


+ 


CN 




Miliusa longipes King 




+ 






Mitrella kentii (Blume) Miq. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Monocarpia marginalis (Scheff.) J. Sinclair 


+ 








Phaeanthus ophthalmicus (Roxb. ex G. Don) J. Sinclair 


+ 




C 




Polyalthia angustissima Ridl. 


+ 




N 




Polyalthia cauliflora Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 


+ 






Polyalthia clavigera King 




+ 







Checklist of vascular plants 



171 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


Polyalthia glauca (Hassk.) F. Muell. 


+ 




N 




Polyalthia hookeriana King 


+ 




W 




Polyalthia hypoleuca Hook./. & Thomson 








4 


Polyalthia jenkensii (Hook./. & Thomson) Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 


+ 






Polyalthia lateriflora (Blume) King 


+ 




N 




Polyalthia macropoda King 


+ 






2 


Polyalthia rumphii (Blume) Men*. 


+ 




W 




Polyalthia sclerophylla Hook./. & Thomson 






N 




Polyalthia sumatrana (Miq.) Kurz 


+ 




c 




Popowia fusca King 


+ 


+ 


c 




Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. 


+ 


+ 


c 




Popowia tomentosa Maingay ex Hook./. & Thomson 






N 


4 


Pyramidanthe prismatica (Hook./. & Thomson) J. Sinclair 


+ 




c 




Uvaria cordata (Dunal) Alston 


+ 


+ 






Uvaria curtisii King 




+ 






Uvaria grandiflora Roxb. ex Hornem. 








1 


Uvaria hirsuta Jack 










Uvaria leptpoda (King) R.E. Fr. 










Uvaria pauci-ovulata Hook./. & Thomson 




+ 






Xylopia caudata Hook./ & Thomson 


+ 


+ 


N 




Xylopia ferruginea (Hook./. & Thomson) Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Xylopia fiisca Maingay ex Hook./. & Thomson 






N 




Xylopia magna Maingay ex Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 








Xylopia malayana Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 




CNW 














APOCYNACEAE 










Alstonia angustifolia Wall, ex A. DC. 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Alstonia angustiloba Miq. 




+ 


c 




Alstonia macrophvlla Wall, ex G. Don 










Alstonia pneumatophora Back, ex L.G. den Berger 










Alstonin snntulntn Rhimp 






N 


1 


Alyxia reinwardtii Blume 








1 


Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston 


+ 








Dyera costulata (Miq.) Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


W 




Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius (Blume) P.I. Forst. 


+ 








Kibatalia maingayi (Hook./.) R.E. Woodson 


+ 









172 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Kopsia singapurensis Ridl. 


+ 




NT 




Leuconotis griffithii Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Leuconotis maingayi Dyer ex Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Parameria laevigata (A.L. Juss.) Moldenke 








1 


Parameria polyneura Hook./. 




+ 


N 




Parsonsia curvisepala K. Schum. 




+ 






Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz 




+ 






Tabemaemontana corymbosa Roxb. ex Wall. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume 


+ 


+ 






Tabemaemontana peduncularis Wall. 








2 


Urceola brachysepala Hook./. 




+ 






Urceola elastica Roxb. 


+ 








Urceola torulosa Hook./. 




+ 


N 




Willughbeia angustifolia (Miq.) Markgr. 




+ 






Willughbeia edulis Roxb. 


+ 


+ 


CN 




Willughbeia flavescens Dyer ex Hook./. 




+ 


N 




Willughbeia tenuiflora Dyer ex Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Wrightia laevis Hook./. 




+ 
















AQUIFOLIACEAE 










77ex cymosa Blume 


+ 


+ 


N 




//ex macrophylla Hook./ 


+ 


+ 


N 




//ex maingayi Hook./. 




+ 
















ARACEAE 










Aglaonema nebulosum N.E. Br. 


+ 


+ 






Aglaonema nitidum (Jack) Kunth 


+ 


+ 


N 




Aglaonema simplex Blume 


+ 






2 


Alocasia denudata Engl. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson 








2 


Amorphophallus prainii Hook./. 








2 


Amydrium medium (Zoll. & Moritzi) Nicolson 








1,2 


Anadendrum montanum (Blume) Schott 


+ 




N 




Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott 


+ 








Cryptocoryne griffithii Schott 


+ 






2 


Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott 


+ 









Checklist of vascular plants 



173 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Epipremnum giganteum (Roxb.) Schott 








1.2 


Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. 








1.2 


Homalomena confiisa Furtado 








1 


Homalomena griffithii (Schott) Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook./. 




+ 




1 


Homalomena paludosa Hook./. 








2 


Homalomena pygmaea (Hassk.) Engl. 




+ 






Homalomena sagittifolia Jungh. ex Schott 


+ 




N 




Lasia spinosa (L.) Thw. 








1 


Pistia stratiotes L. 








1 


Pothos peninsularis Alderw. 


+ 




N 




Rhaphidophora korthalsii Schott 


+ 






2 


Rhaphidophora lobbii Schott 


+ 






2 


Rhaphidophora sylvestris (Blume) Engl. 


+ 






2 


Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb.) Zoll. & Moritzi 








1.2 


Schismatoglottis wallichii (Roxb.) Hook./. 


+ 






2 


Scindapsus hederaceus Miq. 








2 


Scindapsus pictus Hassk. 


+ 






2 


Typhonium roxburghii Schott 




+ 
















ARALIACEAE 










Arthrophyllum diversifolium Blume 


+ 


+ 


N 




Schefflera elliptica (Blume) Harms 




+ 
















ARALIDIACEAE 










Aralidium pinnatifitidum (Jungh. & de Vriese) Miq. 




+ 
















ARISTOLOCHIACEAE 










Thottea grandiflora Rottb. 


+ 


+ 
















ASCLEPIADACEAE 










Cynanchwn ovalifolium Wight 




+ 






Dischidia albiflora Griff. 








2 


Dischidia cochleata Blume 




+ 






Dischidia hirsuta (Blume) Decne. 






N 




Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr. 


+ 






2 



174 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Dischidia nummularia R. Br. 


+ 




N 




Genianthus maingayi Hook./. 




+ - 






Hoya lacunosa Blume 


+ 


+ 






Hoya lati folia G. Don 




+ 




1 


Hoya obtusifolia Wight 








2 


Hoya verticiUata (Vahl) G. Don 


+ 








Toxocarpus griff ithii Decne. 




+ 
















ASPLENIACEAE 










Asplenium batuense Alderw. 


+ 








Asplenium longissimum Blume 


+ 




F 




Asplenium macrophyllum Sw. 




+ 






Asplenium nidus L. 


+ 




FN 




Asplenium tenerum G. Forst. 


+ 




F 














BALSAMINACEAE 










Hydrocera triflora (L.) Wight & Arn. 


+ 


















BIGNONIACEAE 










Deplanchea bancana (Scheff.) Steenis 






N 




Radermachera pinnata (Blanco) Seem. 




+ 




4 


Stereospermum colais (Dillwyn) Mabb. 




+ 
















BLECHNACEAE 










Blechnum f inlay sonianum Wall, ex Hook. & Grev. 


+ 


+ 


F 




Blechnum orientale L. 


+ 




FN 




Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. /.) Bedd. 


+ 




N 














BOMBACACEAE 










Coelostegia griffithii Benth. 




+ 


N 


4 


Durio griffithii (Mast.) Bakh. 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Durio singaporensis Ridl. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Neesia altissima (Blume) Blume 






C 




Neesia malayana Bakh. 




+ 


N 


1 


Neesia synandra Mast. 


+ 


+ 


T 















Checklist of vascular plants 



175 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


BORAGINACEAE 










Heliotropium indicum L. 


+ 


















BURMANNIACEAE 










Burmannia championii Thw. 




+ 






Burmannia coelestis D. Don 


+ 




T 




Gymnosiphon aphyllus Blume 








2 


Thismia aseroe Becc. 






T 


2 


Thismia fumida Ridl. 








2 












BURSERACEAE 










Canarium grandifolium (Ridl.) H.J. Lam 


+ 




W 


2 


Canarium littorale Blume 


+ 


+ 


C 




Canarium odontophyllum Miq. 




+ 


N 




Canarium patentinervium Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Canarium pilosum Benn. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Dacryodes costata (Benn.) H.J. Lam 


+ 


+ 


W 




D aery odes incurvata (Engl.) H.J. Lam 




+ 


N 




Dacryodes laxa (Benn.) H.J. Lam 


+ 


+ 


W 




Dacryodes longifolia (King) H.J. Lam 








4 


Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H.J. Lam 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Dacryodes rugosa (Blume) H.J. Lam 




+ 


W 




Santiria apiculata Benn. 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Santiria conferta Benn. 




+ 






Santiria griffithii (Hook./.) Engl. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Santiria laevigata Blume 


+ 


+ 


W 




Santiria oblongifolia Blume 




+ 






Santiria rubiginosa Blume 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Santiria tomentosa Blume 


+ 


+ 


W 




Triomma malaccensis Hook./. 


+ 






2 












CAMPANULACEAE 










Lobelia zeylanica L. 




+ 




3 












CAPPARACEAE 










Capparis micracantha DC. 




+ 







176 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


CAPRIFOLIACEAE 










Viburnum sambucinum Blume 




+ 
















CECROPIACEAE 










Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. 


+ 


+ 


C 














CELASTRACEAE 










Bhesa paniculata Arn. 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Bhesa robusta (Roxb.) Ding Hou 


+ 








Cassine viburnifolia (Juss.) Ding Hou 




+ 






Euonymus javanicus Blume 






N 




Kokoona reflexa (Lawson) Ding Hou 


+ 




CW 




Lophopetalum multinervium Ridl. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Lophopetalum pachyphyllum King 




+ 






Lophopetalum wightianum Arn. 


+ 


+ 


C 




Salacia grandiflora Kurz 


+ 


+ 






Salacia korthalsiana Miq. 




+ 






Salacia macrophylla Blume 




+ 






Salacia viminea Wall, ex Lawson 




+ 
















CHLORANTHACEAE 










Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verde. 




+ 
















CHRYSOBALANACEAE 










Atuna racemosa Raf. 




+ 






Licania splendens (Korth.) Prance 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Maranthes corymbosa Blume 


+ 


+ 


c 




Parastemon urophyllus (Wall, ex A. DC.) A. DC. 




+ 


N 


3 


Parinari costata (Korth.) Blume 




+ 


N 




Parinari oblongifolia Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


N 














COMBRETACEAE 










Combretum sundaicum Miq. 




+ 


C 




Terminalia phellocarpa King 




+ 


N 




Terminalia subspathulata King 


+ 


+ 

















Checklist of vascular plants 



111 



UUVVlViJ 


R 


H 


P 


s 


COMMFLINACEAE 










Amisrhntnlvnp prnriJis (Riril ) T M Turner 

Jill I to W f l\s IKJ i y is*-- ' tfl^ t i ( . » l IvlUl * / x lax Hvl 








2 


AmiKchntolvnp wnrpiyintn Hassle 










C nmmplinfl hpnphnlpviviv T 

\^KJ 1 I If f f C- lit t li t/C/ICf 1 14- It- / U tO 1— / . 








1 


CotTirriclinci diffusa Burm./. 


+ 








Miirtinnnin nnHiflnrn (\ \ Rrenan 

irl 14/ lilt/ ti tiw /iwunn' / U \ -1— / • / 1— ' 1 v 1 1U1 1 








1 












COMPOSITAE 










AcYYipUn lilipiwosfi (\Sw 1 C^ass 

/ H / /II Mil lIlltl/M/JU 1 U »T . 1 VyUJu • 










Bliifneci hcdsoLiYiifeYQ. (L.) DC. 








1 


Bhimpn lncprn fRurm f ^ DC 

A_/ 1 1 1 / / 1 L 11 1 14 ^ / 14 1 X-/ Ul 111. / • 1 J — ' V_ . 


+ 








Frlintfl nmvtrntn (\ W 

Ljl-UL/tM L/ f L/tJl/ 1(111 I . 1 i — / • 










Elephcintopiis sccibcv L. 










Fmilin vnnrhifnlin (\ \ DC 




+ 






Crvnurn nvocumhpyis (] our ^ Mptt 




+ 






1/ pyyinnin nvhnvpn Rurh -Ham 






T 


3 


V 7 PYYIOYIlfl CIVlPYPfl (\ \\ PSS 

r If /H//ttU l^trtl^r l~ 14 \ !_/ • I 1_/V^ JO • 








1 












CONNARACEAE 










AppIhph hnrnppnsi*: (Honk f ) Merr 


+ 




W 




ApplflPfl tYincronhvHfl (7c\W \ T ppnh 


-\- 


+ 






C^npstis rifllfllfl (] our ^ Mprr 

It JL to Ls W 11.1 tut \ i — / Vy 14.1 . f 1T1U1 1 i 


-i- 




N 




C nnyinriiK fprrnpinpus Tark 










C nnnnru v prnndis lark 




-). 




3 


C nnviflvii'i mnnnrnrnn v T 




-). 


N 




C^nnnnrwi tilnnrhnninnu^ Srhpllpnh 




-). 






C ovmflYMs. KPwiHprnn/ini^ Tark 






N 




Fllinnnthus tnmpntnsus Kiir7 




-). 


W 


4 


ftnurpfl fulpPYis Planrh 










Rnnrpfl yyiiynn^niHpv (\1%Y\]\ Planrh 

iVL/ll/CU liliillUijL/lltCo y V alll^ I Idllvll. 


T 


^_ 






Rnurpn mivinr ( fraprtn ^ T ppnh 
i\ULii cu fiiirtui ^uaci ill. 1 Lcciin. 






CN 


i 

J. 












CONVALLARIACEAE 










Peliosanthes tela Andrews 


+ 


+ 
















CONVOLVULACEAE 











178 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Argyreia ridleyi (Prain) Prain ex Ooststr. 


+ 




N 




Erycibe griffithii C.B. Clarke 






N 




Erycibe leucoxyloides King ex Prain 








2 


Erycibe maingayi C.B. Clarke 








2 


Erycibe malaccensis C.B. Clarke 


+ 






2 


Erycibe tomentosa Blume 


+ 








Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. 


+ 








Merremia hederacea (Burm./.) Hallier/. 


+ 








Merremia umbellata (L.) Hallier/. 








3 


Neuropeltis racemosa Wall. 








1,2 


Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D.F. Austin & Staples 


+ 


















CORNACEAE 










Mastixia pentandra Blume 








4 


Mastixia trichotoma Blume 


+ 


+ 
















COSTACEAE 










Costus globosus Blume 




+ 






Costus speciosus (J. Konig) Sm. 


+ 


+ 
















CRYPTERONIACEAE 










Crypteronia griffithii C.B. Clarke 




+ 


T 














CTENOLOPHONACEAE 










Ctenolophon parvifolius Oliv. 


+ 


















CUCURBITACEAE 










Trichosanthes celebica Cogn. 


+ 


+ 






Trichosanthes wallichiana (Ser.) Wight 




+ 






Trichosanthes wawraei Cogn. 


+ 


+ 
















CYATHEACEAE 










Cyathea glabra (Blume) Copel. 


+ 




FN 




Cyathea latebrosa (Wall, ex Hook.) Copel. 


+ 




FN 




Cyathea squamidata (Blume) Copel. 






F 















Checklist of vascular plants 



179 





R 




P 


s 


CYPFR ACFAF 










A rtinnsrirnus ornwu*; f \ CrOPtcrliphpiir & T~) A ^imrKnn 
ficiiriujLii uiid g/L/jjiij \L-,.j.j vjuc igntutui tx iv./i. .jiiiipowii 










L-U / tA L I \ UlUdlULfl Vj JJlVJlltill. 




+ 






^ ynprtiv rli oitnti R nyh 
\^\ptfLl3 UlgllUlllS IxUAU. 


















C \>npri i c Pinsnnn T 
K^yycillj iiudyiifi L. 


-(_ 


"r 






^ vn/?»*//c //7v//c T am 
\^yUcflld ILl.vLld i dill. 




_i_ 

T 






Fiinlnrriirn rnvicinum R Rr 

Ls l y ILIL f III 1 1 Clt 1 IL ll 1 III 1 1 IX. Ul. 




_1_ 

T 






Flpnchnriv rlulriv fRurm /" ^ T-fpncrh 

L^lcULlllll IJ UImCIj ^ iJ Ul lll.y • ^ lltll3V.Il. 




T 






Flpnrlmvis r>rhms:tnrli\'s NtPiin 

L^lcULillli IJ ULlll UjlllCll V J JICUU. 




_i_ 






r* / m n f*7 en*// c n ri lyyiin ntn Vilnl 
i IfflUf iJly llj UL ilitlliUUU V dill 










Fiinhrist\>lis nirnrttntnn ( T ^ van! 
i iffiuiiji\iij u i l ii ui ut 1 1 u yi-'-j v din 










Fimhristvlis darn (7c\\\ X r Wc\t\\7\ \ Wpyt 

1 It 1 IU 1 (J I V ttJ ii H 1 it \ Z_- w 1 1 . CX IVIVJIIIZ.1^ .>ll 1 1. 










Fimhristvlis nhtuvntn I R ("'larkp^ Rirll 

i It I IU 1 lJl \ llJ UUlllolllll \K-.iJ. V_lal\C j IX1U1. 










Fi m nri vt\'h s nnunflnvn R Rr 

i llllUi lJl\ llj yllllLl i lUI ll IX. 1J1 . 




T 






Fimhristvlis iirnhpllnris (1 3m ^ Vahl 

LllilUllolXllo III I lUC till 1 f J 1 -L el 1 1 1 . 1 V alll 


-j- 








Finrpvin l iinhpll ntn Rnttn 

I llllCllll III 1 lUC lllllll IXVJllU. 










Crfihyii n trivtiv Mppc 
KJUlllllU ll nccj 


JL 








FfvTinlvtriim HPtnnrum l\f%Y\] \ Snrpno 
ii\yui\iiiiiii I ic 1 1 iu i hi 1 1 \ vaiii^ oL/iciiw,. 










J('\'In)i on nvPA'iTr>hi i c Rnttn 

lY V f ((r (Elf UlCvljUllllJ IXVJllU. 










/ irtnmmhn mirmrpnhnln /R Rr \ T^nntri 
L^iyuLiu yiiu 1 1 lit i ULcy I nun ui.) rvuiini 




+ 






A/fnnnm/i hnnpnun (\Ain \ Rpntri /£ r T-fnnV /?v R T^l TqpVc 
iviuuuiiiu uuiiLUfiu ^iviiu.^ jjciiiii. cx iiuuis.. c.v d.lj. Jai\j. 


_|_ 




IN 




IVlupUtllU LUbylllUlU ^ivllLj.^ VJllllCll 










A4nnnyiin ph rtni <? \ \Am \ I R I lartp 
lviiiyiiiiiu Ciiuuij iiviiu.^ x.u. v^iaiis.c 






IN 




Lviiiytuiiu i\iii v,.Jj. v^iaiivc 










A4nnnmn rtnlnvtriv iT-TcjccLt py ^stpiirl ^ T-prn _\ 7 il1 

Lviujjuniu jjuiiisii id ^ndsiK. c.i vjicuu.j rciii.-viii. 


T 


+ 






lviupUillU JtJUUiilUlU ^JX-Ulz.^ Vw.Jj. V^ldllvC 










IVlUpUfilU \\ UlllLilll V^.Jj. V^ldlKC 










j\iiyiiLiiUjpuru Lur\ftiuuju yi^.) oiiii. 




+ 






nil con vn nirwn (\ nut* 1 MQLinn 

i\ii\ tiLHubjJuru iiiuru {L^vm.) ividKiiiu 




+ 






\oViriPYir\r\]prtiis mi i ^v/in nil i c (\ \ PqIIq 

oLiiutiiufJicLiiis niiiLrunuiits \L..) rdiid 




+ 






^rlprin hiflnrn Rnvh 

i~JLlCllll UljlUIll 1XVJAU. 




+ 






Scleria ciliaris Nees 


+ 








Scleria corymbosa Roxb. 




+ 






Scleria levis Retz. 


+ 


+ 






Scleria purpurascens Steud. 




+ 







180 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


K 


Li 


n 
r 


c 


Scleria rugosa R. Br. 




+ 






Scleria sumatrensis Retz. 




+ 






Scleria terrestris (L.) Fassett 




+ 
















a duxtidijvi i a rr a it 
IJArnlMrn i LLAtt At. 










Daphniphyllum laurinum (Benth.) Baill. 


+ 


















Fl A V A T I IA CV A IT 
V ALJL1 Alt AH 










Davallia angustata Wall, ex Hook. & Grev. 




+ 






Davallia solida (G. Forst.) Sw. 






r 




Davallici triphylla Hook. 






r 














LIU. IN IN 5 1 AL\LI 1 IALlAL 










Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) J.J. Sm. 


+ 




XT 

IN 




Lindsaea cultrata (Willd.) Sw. 






t; 
r 




Lindsaea divergens Hook. & Grev. 






r 




Lindsaea doryophora K.U. Kramer 


+ 




r; 

r 




Lindsaea ensifolia Sw. 


+ 




r; 
r 




Lindsaea parasitica (Roxb. ex Griff.) Hieron. 


+ 




XT 

IN 




Microlepia speluncae (L.) T. Moore 


+ 








Pteridium esculentum (G. Forst.) Cockayne 


+ 




E 

r 














njT ¥ IT VI A CT? A 17 

LI 1 L L H, IN 1 A e, A L\ 










Dillenia excelsa (Jack) Gilg 




+ 




A 

4 


Dillenia grandifolia Wall, ex Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 


+ 


IN W 




Dillenia pulchella (Jack) Gilg 




+ 






Dillenia reticulata King 








Z,4 


Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff.) Mart. 


+ 


+ 






Tetracera akara (Burm./.) Merr. 




+ 


IN 




Tetracera arborescens Jack 






XT 


1 


Tetracera fagifolia Blume 




+ 




3 


Tetracera indica (Christm. & Panz.) Merr. 


+ 


+ 






Tetracera macrophylla Wall, ex Hook./. & Thomson 








1 












DIOSCOREACEAE 










Dioscorea laurifolia Wall, ex Hook./. 


+ 


+ 







Checklist of vascular plants 



181 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Dioscorea polyclades Hook./. 




+ 






Dioscorea prainiana Knuth 


+ 


+ 






Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth 


+ 


+ 






Dioscorea stenomeriflora Prain & Burkill 


+ 


















DIPTEROCARPACEAE 










Anisoptera laevis Ridl. 


+ 








Anisoptera megistocarpa Slooten 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Dipterocarpus caudatus Foxw. 




+ 


cw 


4 


Dipterocarpus cornutus Dyer 


+ 


+ 






Dipterocarpus elongatus Korth. 


+ 


+ 






Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (Blanco) Blanco 


+ 








Dipterocarpus kunstleri King 




+ 




1 


Dipterocarpus palembanicus Slooten 








1 


Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Hopea griffithii Kurz 


+ 


+ 






Hopea mengarawan Miq. 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Hopea sangal Korth. 




+ 






Shorea bracteolata Dyer 


+ 




w 




Shorea collina Ridl. 




+ 






Shorea curtisii Dyer ex King 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Shorea gibbosa Brandis 


+ 








Shorea gratissima (Wall, ex Kurz) Dyer 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Shorea leprosula Miq. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Shorea macroptera Dyer 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Shorea ochrophloia Strugnell ex Symington 


+ 






4 


Shorea ovalis (Korth.) Blume 


+ 


+ 






Shorea parvifolia Dyer 


+ 


+ 


c 




Shorea pauciflora King 


+ 


+ 


w 




Shorea platycarpa F. Heim 


+ 


+ 


N 




Vatica maingayi Dyer 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Vatica nitens King 




+ 






Vatica pauciflora (Korth.) Blume 




+ 


N 




Vatica ridleyana Brandis 


+ 


+ 






Vatica stapfiana (King) Slooten 




+ 

















182 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


p 


s 


DRACAENACEAE 










Dracaena cantleyi Baker 


+ 


+ 






Dracaena elliptica Thunb. 






N 


1 


Dracaena granulata Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Dracaena maingayi Hook./. 




+ 


T 


1 


Dracaena porteri Baker 


+ 


+ 






Dracaena singapurensis Ridl. 




+ 




1 


Dracaena umbratica Ridl. 


+ 


+ 
















DRYOPTERIDACEAE 










Heterogonium sagenioides (Mett.) Holttum 






F 




Pleocnemia olivacea (Copel.) Holttum 


+ 








Tectaria barberi (Hook.) Copel. 




+ 






Tectaria singaporeana (Hook. & Grev.) Copel. 


+ 


+ 


F 














EBENACEAE 










Diospyros argentea Griff. 




+ 






Diospyros buxifolia (Blume) Hiern 


+ 


+ 


W 




Diospyros clavigera C.B. Clarke 




+ 




4 


Diospyros confnsa Bakh. 




+ 




4 


Diospyros coriacea Hiern 




+ 


N 


4 


Diospyros diepenhorstii Mic|. 




+ 




4 


Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb. 


+ 




CNW 




Diospyros maingayi (Hiern) Bakh. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco 




+ 


N 




Diospyros ridleyi Bakh. 










Diospyros siamang Bakh. 






N 




Diosnvros stvracifnrmis Kinp & Gamble 






c 




Diospyros surnatrana Micj. 




+ 
















ELAEOCARPACEAE 










Elaeocarpus acmosepalus Ridl. 




+ 






Elaeocarpus ferrugineus (Jack) Steud. 


+ 


+ 


c 




Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume 


+ 


+ 






Elaeocarpus griffithii (Wight) A. Gray 




+ 


N 




Elaeocarpus mastersii King 


+ 


+ 


CNW 





Checklist of vascular plants 



183 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


Elaeocarpus nitidus Jack 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Elaeocarpus palembanicus (Miq.) Corner 


+ 


+ 






Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jack) Wall. 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Elaeocarpus polystachyus Wall, ex C. Mull. Berol. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Elaeocarpus rugosus Roxb. 


+ 


+ 






Elaeocarpus stipularis Blume 


+ 


+ 
















ERICACEAE 










Rhododendron longiflorum Lindl. 




+ 
















ERIOCAULACEAE 










Eriocaulon truncatum Buch.-Ham. ex Mart. 




+ 






Eriocaulon willdenovianum Moldenke 


+ 


+ 
















ESCALLONIACEAE 










Polyosma kingiana Schltr. 




+ 




1 












EUPHORBIACEAE 










Actephila excelsa (Dalzell) Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 


C 




Agrostistachys longifolia (Wight) Benth. 


+ 


+ 


CN 




Alchornea villosa (Benth.) Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Antidesma coriaceum Tul. 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Antidesma cuspidatum Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Aporusa benthamiana Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Aporusa bracteosa Pax & K. Hoffm. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Aporusa confusa Gage 


+ 






2 


Aporusa falcifera Hook./. 




+ 




4 


Aporusa frutescens Blume 


+ 


+ 






Aporusa lunata (Miq.) Kurz 








4 


Aporusa microstachya (Tul.) Mull. Arg. 


+ 






2 


Aporusa miqueliana Mull. Arg. 


+ 








Aporusa nervosa Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Aporusa nigricans Hook./. 




+ 




4 


Aporusa penangensis (Ridl.) Airy Shaw 


+ 








Aporusa prainiana King ex Gage 


+ 




w 





184 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Aporusa symplocoides (Hook./.) Gage 


+ 




C 




Austrobuxus nitidus Miq. 






N 




Baccaurea bracteata Mull. Arg. 




+ 


W 


3 


Baccaurea brevipes Hook./. 


+ 








Baccaurea griffithii Hook./. 




+ 




4 


Baccaurea hookeri Gage 


+ 








Baccaurea kunstleri King ex Gage 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Mull. Arg. 








2 


Baccaurea macrophylla (Mull. Arg.) Mull. Arg. 




+ 






Baccaurea maingayi Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


W 




Baccaurea minor Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Baccaurea motleyana (Mull. Arg.) Mull. Arg. 




+ 




1 


Baccaurea parviflora (Mull. Arg.) Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 


C 




Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw.) Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 






Baccaurea reticulata Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Baccaurea sumatrana Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 


W 




Blumeodendron tokbrai (Blume) J.J. Sm. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Breynia coronata Hook./. 


+ 








Breynia discigera Mull. Arg. 




+ 






Breynia reclinata (Roxb.) Hook./. 


+ 






2 


Bridelia cinnamomea Hook./. 




+ 






Bridelia griffithii Hook./. 




+ 


N 




Bridelia pustulata Blume 




+ 




3 


Bridelia stiputaris (L.) Blume 




+ 




1 


Bridelia tomentosa Blume 




+ 




3 


Cheilosa montana Blume 


+ 








Claoxylon indicum (Reinw. ex Blume) Endl. ex Hassk. 


+ 


+ 






Claoxylon longifolium (Blume) Endl. ex Hassk. 




+ 






Cleistanthus hirsutulus Hook./ 




+ 






Cleistanthus macrophyllus Hook./. 




+ 






Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq.) Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 






Croton caudatus Geisel. 




+ 




3 


Croton laevifolius Blume 


+ 


+ 


N 




Drypetes laevis (Miq.) Pax & K. Hoffm. 








4 


Drypetes longifolia (Blume) Pax & K. Hoffm. 








4 


Drypetes pendula Ridl. 


+ 


+ 


N 





Checklist of vascular plants 



185 



Species 


n 


o 
n 


p 

r 


c 


Elateriospermum tapos Blume 






w 
w 




Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw 


+ 


+ 






Glochidion arborescens Blume 




+ 






Kjiocniuiofi oorneense ^iviuii. /\rg.j docii. 




+ 






Glochidion brunneum Hook./. 




+ 






Glochidion hypoleucum (Mic|.) Boerl. 




+ 


NT 
IN 


D 


Glochidion littorale Blume 


+ 








Glochidion rubrum Blume 




+ 


M 

IN 




Glochidion sericeum Hook./. 




+ 


IN 




Glochidion singaporense Gage 




+ 






Glochidion superbum Baill. 


+ 


+ 






Koilodepas longifoliuvn Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


w 

W 




iviacaranga conijera y/^uii.) lviun. .rvrg. 


+ 


+ 


PNTW 
l^lN W 




iviacaranga giganiea \s\li\o.j. ol zami.j iviuii. /\rg. 


+ 


+ 


L^iN 




Macaranga hcynci I.M. Johnst. 


+ 


+ 






Macaranga hullcttii King cx Hook./. 




+ 






\ A r% r* stir rt ft n Miin/ii/jji/ 1 /! 1 D Pnn r AV X /~\ 1 1 \ \ /1 1 1 1 1 A rn 

iviacaranga nypoieuca \t\Liiv.j. ol zaju.^ iviun. /\rg. 


+ 


+ 


IN 




Macaranga lowii King ex Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


w 
w 




iviacaranga money 'unci ^iviuii. /AXg.j iviuii. -rvrg. 




+ 


IN 




Macaranga puncticulcitQ Gage 


+ 




M 
IN 




Macaranga recurvata Gage 




+ 


NT 
IN 




Macaranga trichocarpa (Rchb./. & Zoll.) Mull. Arg. 




+ 






Macaranga triloba (Blume) Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 


fVf 




Mallotus macrostachyus (Miq.) Mull. Arg. 




+ 






Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Mull. Arg. 


+ 


+ 






Mallotus pcnangcnsis Mull. Arg. 


+ 




W 
W 




Neoscortechinia kingii (Hook./.) Pax & K. Hoffm. 


+ 








Paracroton pendulus (Hassk.) Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Phyllanthus emblica L. 




+ 






Phyllanthus urinaria L. 








1 
1 


Pimelodendron griffithianum (Mull. Arg.) Benth. 


+ 


+ 


UJN W 




Ptychopyxis caput-medusae (Hook./.) Ridl. 




+ 


W 

w 


1 
1 


Ptychopyxis costata Miq. 








1 


Sapium discolor (Champ, ex Benth.) Mull. Arg. 




+ 


N 


1 


Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. 


+ 








Trigonopleura malayana Hook./. 








4 



186 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Trigonostemon longifolius Baill. 


+ 






2 


Trigonostemon malaccanus Miill. Arg. 








4 


Trigonosiemon villosus Hook./. 


+ 


















FAGACEAE 










Casianopsis inermis (Lindl. ex Wall.) Benth. & Hook./. 




+ 


N 




Castanopsis lucida (Nees) Soepadmo 


+ 


+ 






Casianopsis malaccensis Gamble 




+ 






Casianopsis megacarpa Gamble 


+ 


+ 


W 




Casianopsis nephelioides King ex Hook./ 


+ 


+ 






Castanopsis schefferana Hance 


+ 








Casianopsis wallichii King ex Hook./ 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Lithocarpus bennettii (Miq.) Rehder 


+ 


+ 


N 




Lithocarpus canlleyanus (King ex Hook./) Rehder 


+ 


+ 






Lithocarpus conocarpus (Oudem.) Rehder 


+ 


+ 


w 




Lithocarpus elegans (Blume) Hatus. ex Soepadmo 




+ 


N 


4 


Lithocarpus encleisacarpus (Korth.) A. Camus 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Lithocarpus ewyckii (Korth.) Rehder 


+ 


+ 


w 




Lithocarpus hystrix (Korth.) Rehder 




+ 




1 


Lithocarpus lucidus (Roxb.) Rehder 


+ 


+ ' 






Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehder 


+ 


+ 






Lithocarpus wallichianus (Lindl. ex Hance) Rehder 




+ 






Quercus argentata Korth. 




+ 




4 












FLACOURTIACEAE 










Casearia capitellata Blume 




+ 






Casearia clarkei King 




+ 






Casearia lobbiana Turcz. 




+ 


N 


1 


Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi 


+ 


+ 


N 




Homalium grandiflorum Benth. 




+ 






Osmelia maingayi King 




+ 


N 




Osmelia philippina (Turcz.) Benth 


+ 


+ 






Ryparosa hullettii King 




+ 
















FLAGELLARIACEAE 










Flagellaria indica L. 


+ 


+ 


N 





Checklist of vascular plants 



187 



Species 


K 


¥¥ 

H 


¥1 

r 


S 


GESJNEK1ACEAE 










Aeschynanthus albiaus (Blume) Steud. 


+ 








Aeschynantnus parvifolius R. Br. 






XT 

N 




Aeschynantnus radicans Jack 








2 


/4 7 ^7 77 " 7 • • T"> T> — 

Aeschynanthus wallichu R. Br. 






N 1 




Lyrtanara penaula Blume 




+ 






Didymocarpus platypus CB. Clarke 








1,2 












/~<¥ ¥7 , ¥/^¥¥¥71VT¥ A /"~'¥7 A ¥7" 

GLEICHLMACLAE 










Dicranopteris curranii Copel. 






T7 




Dicranopteris linearis (Burm./.) Underw. 






b 


1 


Sticherus truncatus (Willd.) Nakai 


+ 




t 














GNETACEAE 










Unetiim gnemon L. 


+ 


+ 






Gnetum gnemonoides Brongn. 


+ 


+ 






S~i 7 T T 1 £ 

Gnetum macrostachyum Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Gnetum microcarpum Blume 


+ 


+ 


L 














GRAMINEAE 










Bambusa vulgaris Scnrad. ex Wendl. 






T 




Lentotheca lappacea (L.) Desv. 


+ 


+ 






Lhrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Inn. 








1 


Z^ 1 ' 7 7 " T 

Cojx lacryma-jobi L. 


+ 


+ 






Cyrtococcum accrescens (Trin.) Stapf 




+ 






Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum (Steud) Stapf 




+ 






Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers. 




+ 






tragrostis atrovirens (Dest.) Inn. ex Steud. 




+ 






Eragrostis cumingii Steud. 




+ 






I" 1 . * '1*1 / "T* a \ X T O a 1 

tragrostis unioloiaes (Retz.) Nees ex Steud. 




+ 






Gigantochloa ligulata Gamble 






T 




Imperata cylinanca (L.) P. Beauv. 


+ 








Isachne globosa (Thunb.) Kuntze 


+ 








Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. & Schult. 


+ 








Ischaemum ciliare Retz. 




+ 






Ischaemum timorense Kunth 




+ 







188 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


Leptaspis urceolata (Roxb.) R. Br. 


+ 


+ 


NT 




Lophatherum gracile Brongn. 




+ 




1 


Panicum repens L. 




+ 






Paspalum scrobiciilatum L. 




+ 






Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Kunth 








1 


Scluzostachyum gracile (Munro) Holttum 






T 




Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble 






T 




Scluzostachyum zollingeri Steud. 


+ 








Soejatmia ridleyi (Gamble) K.M. Wong 




+ 


T 


1 












GUTTIFERAE 










Calophyllum calaba L. 






W 




Calophyllum costulatum M.R. Hend. & Wyatt-Sm. 








2 


Calophyllum dispar P.F. Stevens 


+ 








Calophyllum ferrugineum Ridl. 


+ 




CNW 




Calophyllum lanigerum Miq. 


+ 








Calophyllum macrocarpum Hook./. 


+ 








Calophyllum pulcherrimum Wall, ex Choisy 


+ 




CW 




Calophyllum rigidum Miq. 


+ 








Calophyllum rubiginosum M.R. Hend. & Wyatt-Sm. 


+ 




NW 




Calophyllum rufigemmatum M.R. Hend. & Wyatt-Sm. 


+ 






2 


Calophyllum soulattri Burm./. 








1 


Calophyllum sundaicum P.F. Stevens 


+ 








Calophyllum tetrapterum Miq. 


+ 




CN 




Calophyllum teysmannii Miq. 


+ 


+ 


CN 




Calophyllum wallichianum Planch. & Triana 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Cratoxylum arhorescens (Vahl) Blume 


+ 


+ 


N 




Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Blume 


+ 


+ 


CN 




Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer 


+ 




NW 




Cratoxylum maingayi Dyer 


+ 


+ 






Garcinia atroviridis Griff, ex T. Anderson 


+ 








Garcinia eugeniifolia Wall, ex T. Anderson 


+ 


+ 


C 




Garcinia forbesii King 


+ 


+ 


N 




Garcinia griffithii T. Anderson 


+ 


+ 


C 




Garcinia hombroniana Pierre 




+ 


W 


4 


Garcinia maingayi Hook./. 


+ 









Checklist of vascular plants 



189 



Species 


K 


ii 
H 


n 

r 




Garcinia nervosa Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Garcinia nigrolineata Planch, ex I . Anderson 




+ 


NW 


4 


Garcinia parvijolia (Miq.) Miq. 


+ 


+ 


C 




Garcinia rostrata (Hassk.) Miq. 






w 


1 


Garcinia scortechinii King 


+ 




CN 




Garcinia uropnylla Scort. ex King 


+ 








Ploianum alternifolium (Vahl) Melchior 


+ 




\1 7 

w 














¥¥ A M/^T T 4 1VT A /"""ir 1 A IT 1 

HAJNGUAINACEAE 










TT I / T 1 \ A * 

Hanguana malayana (Jack) Merr. 


+ 


+ 


XT 

N 














HERNANDIACEAE 










111: _ _ * '.£^11 —j. 1 ' /~* —ICC \ T\ 

llligera tnfoliata (Grin.) Dunn 




+ 
















it\7t\ti r\r<ii a niT a a t? 

HYDKOCHAKll ACEAE 










Blyxa japonica (Miq.) Maxim, ex Asch. & uurke 








1 


Hydnlla verticillata (L.f.) Royle 


+ 


















HYMENOPHYLLACEAE 










Lepnaiomanes javamcum (Blume) Bosch 


+ 








Cephalomanes obscurum (Blume) K.Iwatsuki 


+ 








Crepidomanes christu (Copel.) Copel. 


+ 








TT" 111 1 j ' f j O 

nymenopnyllum denticulatum Sw. 






F 




1 ricnomanes motleyi (Bosch) Bosch 






N 




Ti M 1 ' ' I j. * _f 7 ' / T""\ J \ TT 1 IT 

Mohneria latifoha (Dryand.) Herb, ex Kurz 


+ 


+ 
















¥/^ A *^¥"r*.T A d^T7 A ¥7 

ICACINACEAE 










Gompnandra quadrifida (Blume) Sleumer 


+ 


+ 






Gonocaryum gracile Miq. 




+ 




1 


lodes cirrhosa Turcz. 


+ 








lodes ovalis Blume 


+ 


+ 






/oaes velutina King 




+ 




1 


Phytocrene bracteata Wall. 


+ 


+ 


N 




P/atea latifoha Blume 




+ 






Stemonurus malaccensis (Mast.) Sleumer 








4 


Stemonurus scorpioides Becc. 


+ 


+ 


N 





190 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


IRVINGIACEAE 










Irvingia malayana Oliv. ex Benn. 


+ 


+ 


CN 














IXONANTHACEAE 










Ixonanthes icosandra Jack 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Ixonanthes reticulata Jack 


+ 


+ 


cw 














LAURACEAE 










Actinodaphne glomerata (Blume) Nees 


+ 


+ 






Actinodaphne macrophylla (Blume) Nees 




+ 


N 


1 


Actinodaphne malaccensis Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Actinodaphne pruinosa Nees 


+ 


+ 






Alseodaphne bancana Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Alseodaphne intermedia Kosterm. 


+ 


+ 






Alseodaphne oblanceolata (Merr.) Kosterm. 




+ 






Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble 


+ 




N 


2 


Beilschmiedia madang Blume 


+ 






2 


Cassytha filiformis L. 


+ 








Cinnamomum iners Reinw. 


+ 






2 


Cinnamomum javanicum Blume 


+ 


+ - 






Cinnamomum sintoc Blume 








4 


Cryptocarya ferrea Blume 


+ 




W 




Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight 




+ 






Cryptocarya impressa Miq. 


+ 






2 


Cryptocarya kurzii Hook./. 




+ 






Cryptocarya rugulosa Hook./. 


+ 




w 




Dehaasia incrassata (Jack) Kosterm. 


+ 








Under a lucida (Blume) Boerl. 


+ 


+ 


CN 




Litsea accedens (Blume) Boerl. 


+ 


+ 


c 




Litsea castanea Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Litsea cordata (Jack) Hook./. 








2 


Litsea costalis (Nees) Kosterm. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Litsea costata (Blume) Boerl. 


+ 






2 


Litsea elliptica Blume 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Litsea erectinervia Kosterm. 


+ 






2 


Litsea ferruginea (Blume) Blume 


+ 


+ 


N 





Checklist of vascular plants 



191 





R 


H 


P 


s 


I it sen firmn fRInmp^ Monk" f 

L^lloCU III Ilia IJLJ1U111C/ . 


-1- 




CN 




1 itspn ovnrilinp? Hnnlf r 
IjUjcu gfuciiiyco l lvjkj jv .y . 




-). 


NW 




/ itKpn vrnvidiv fWall NppO Monk f 

i_^lli3Cti (iillillllo I TV ail. CA littol 1 IVJUIv.l . 


-(- 


-\- 


CNW 




/ itKPn Innrpnlntn (Rliimp^ Kostprm 

-L/ltijCW ILll ILCUllllll IJJlLllll^J IXWol^llll. 




-). 






/ itKPn Innrifnlin fRnvh px ^A/all ^ Mnnk f 

i— /ttJCtt ILll l\~l 1 Ullll 1 1\UAU. CA >V dll. J 11UUIV./. 




-i- 




\ 


/ itKPn mnrhilifnlin frflmhlp 

i__/tiL>C tl 1 1 lliK^I llllj U lllA VJ clill LJ1V 




-f 


W 


3 


/ it'ipn mflinpflvi Monk f 

L^lloCli 1 1 lllll IfCH y I 1 1 V/ rv . / . 


-)- 








itspfi ridlpvi Oatnhlp 


+ 


-i- 






itKPn rnhustn Rlump 

i_^ltJCtl lUUllolll 1JIUI11C 










Npnlitvpn 7Pvlnnirn (Npps^ Mptt 


+ 


+ 






Mnthnnhnphp urnhplliflnvn Rlump 

2 V Lslf ILlL/f lis CLsC M 1 f IL/C III! l\J 1 If Ul LI 1 1 1 L. 


-)- 




cw 




Phnphp proudly (Npps^ Mptt 




















EFCYTHIDACFAF 










Finrviviptnviifl vncpwiovn (\ \ Snrpnp 




+ 
















LEEACEAE 










/ ppn nripulntn Knrth px Min 

jUCCU MrlKLllLllLl 1\U1 til. CA 1VHU, 








2 


1 ppn ivifiicfl fRurm f ^ Mptt 

L^CCtl Irllltai \ l J LI 1 1 I 1 . / . / IVlV^l 1 , 








2 


/ /^/7 vuhvn Rlump Snrpn(J 

l.t l U / til// t I LI I 1 1 C C -\ JL'I Llli,. 








3 












LFGUMINOSAF 










Acncin kpknnur T NipRpn 

^ It- t IL IU #VC/VLfL/H# La ■ ill^/lOVll 










A dpyinnthprn tnnlnvnnn TCnstprm 

JlllC 1 llll III IC 1 LI 1 1 ILllLl y III III IWJjl^lllI, 


-)- 








4 c/iHDn^ thvrsiflnrn fRpnth ^ Pnlhill 

/ltUAtL/f/C If IV 1 o 1 1 IU 1 LI \ 1JLIIUI./ 1 Ullllll 




_(- 


r 


3 


Alhtiiin ^nlpndput lVfin 

illUl^lLl J 1/ tc A tl.it/ tJ 1V11VJ. 




^_ 


N 




Avchidpvidvnvi huhnlinum ^Tark^ T f' Nipl<ipn 

A/ L/ IILIC-I ILll Ul I U LlULll ll Hit 1 1 1 JaLlV 1 l.»Vsa l^l^lot^ll 








4 


A ypPii n Pit nrrtvi rlvnpnrin ( Tucki T f^ 1 Miplcpn 
zif c/ unci lui ui i Liyyciii lu ijctcivi i.v^. iiiciocii 


_L 
T 


T 


c 




A rrhinpyinmyi rnvitnviiivYi (\AdYt \ T l" 1 MipIcpti 
/i( LiiiLiciiiii un LUiiiui iiifri \ iviai i. ) l.v_.. iMClaCll 




T 




4 


J^rLrlillcrlUi Uri tUljJilLilill ^DlUlllC^ l.V_^. IMClbCIl 


_L 
1 


_L 

T 


N 




A rrVii A pv\ Amvi o I /i h r\ v 1 1 m ^Rlnmp^ T ^ \Iiplcpn 
rYl LfiiUcrllli Un giUUUbllirl ^DIUIIIC^ l.v^. INlClsCIl 


_L 

T 


T 






ArchidpYidvon iirinpn fTark^ T C Niplspn 

^ a » tint ' itt i yy 1 1 u/ if tcu I J 1 x. . IIILIOV/Il 




-)- 






Archidendron microcarpum (Benth.) I.C. Nielsen 




+ 




1 


Bauhinia semibifida Roxb. 


+ 


+ 


c 




Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb. 






T 


2 


Callerya eriantha (Benth.) Schot 




+ 


N 


1 



192 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Crotalaria retusa L. 


+ 








Dalbergia hullettii Prain 




+ 






Dalbergia junghuhnii Benth. 




+ 






Dalbergia parviflora Roxb. 




+ 






Dalbergia pseudosissoo Miq. 




+ 




1 


Dalbergia velutina Benth. 




+ 






Derris amoena Benth. 


+ 


+ 






Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. 


+ 








Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd.) DC. 




+ 






Dialium indum L. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Dialium platysepalum Baker 


+ 


+ 


W 




Entada spiralis Ridl. 


+ 


+ 






Koompassia malaccensis Maing. ex Benth. 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Kunstleria ridleyi Prain 




+ 


N 


1 


Ormosia bancana (Miq.) Merr. 




+ 




1 


Ormosia macrodisca Baker 








1 


Ormosia sumatrana (Miq.) Prain 




+ 






Parkia speciosa Hassk. 


+ 




CN 




Saraca indica L. 




+ 






Sindora coriacea (Baker) Maingay ex Prain 


+ 




W 




Sindora velutina Baker 






w 




Sindora wallichii Grah. ex Benth. 






CN 


1 


Spatholobus ferrugineus (Zoll. & Moritzi) Benth. 


+ 




c 




Spatholobus maingayi Prain ex King 




+ 






Spatholobus ridleyi Prain ex King 




+ 
















LENTIBULARIACEAE 










Utricularia aurea Lour. 








1 


Utricularia bifida L. 


+ 








Utricularia caerulea L. 


+ 








Utricularia gibba L. 


+ 


















LINACEAE 










Indorouchera griffithiana (Planch.) Hallier/*. 


+ 


+ 


N 














LOGANIACEAE 











Checklist of vascular plants 



193 



Species 


D 

K 


II 
rl 


r 


c 
a 


Fagraea acuminatissima Merr. 




+ 






Fagraea auriculata Jack 






XT 

IN 


1 


Fagraea fragrans Roxb. 


+ 






2 


tagraea racemosa Jack ex Wall. 


+ 


+ 


XT 

N 




tagraea rialeyi King & Gamble 




+ 






Nomsia maior Soler. 


+ 








Strychnos axillaris Colebr. 






L 




Strychnos ignatii Berg. 








2 


Strychnos maingayi C.B. Clarke 




















LOMAKIOFSIDALLAL 










Bolbitis appendiculata (Willd.) K. Iwatsuki 






T?T 

r 1 




Bolbitis heteroclita (C. Presl) Ching 






T? 

r 




Bolbitis singaporensis Holttum 






T7 

r 




Bolbitis sinuata (C. Presl) Hennipman 






t? 
r 




Teratophyllum aculeatum (Blume) Mett. ex Kuhn 


+ 




T? 

r 




Teratophyllum ludens (Fee) Holttum 


+ 




XT 

M 




leratopnyllum rotundifoliatum (R. Bonap.) Holttum 


+ 


















¥ r> A MTI I A f~*T? A 17 










Amylotheca duthieana (King) Danser 




+ 






Barathranthus axanthus (Korth.) Miq. 




+ 






Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Elytranthe albida (Blume) Blume 




+ 






Elytranthe arnottiana (Korth.) Miq. 




+ 






Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh. 


+ 


+ 






Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser 


+ 






2 












¥ X / /"^ i'A n T\1 A /"~<¥7 A ¥7 

LYCOrODiALLAL 










J J I • •£ ? • / T"> 1 \T 

Huperzia nummidaru folia (Blume) Jermy 




+ 






Huperzia pnlegmana (L.) Rotnm. 


+ 




F 




Huperzia squarrosa (O.rrost) Irevis. 






XT 

JN 




Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. 






F 


3 












MAGNOLIACEAE 










Magnolia candollii (Blume) H. Keng 


+ 


+ 


NT 





194 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Magnolia elegans (Blume) H. Keng 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Magnolia maingayi King 










Magnolia villosa (Miq.) H. Keng 




+ 
















MALPIGHIACEAE 










Aspidopterys concava (Wall.) A. Juss. 




+ 




1 


Hiptage sericea Hook./. 








1 












MALVACEAE 










Sida rhombifolia L. 


+ 


+ 






Urena lobata L. 




+ 




1 












MARANTACEAE 










Donax grandis (Miq.) K. Schum. 




+ 




3 


Phrynium parvum (Ridl.) Holttum 


+ 








Phrynium villosulum Miq. 




+ 






Stachyphrynium griffithii (Baker) K. Schum. 


+ 


+ 
















MARATTIACEAE 










Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm. 






F 














MELASTOMATACEAE 










Diplectria viminalis (Jack) Kuntze 






N 




Dissochaeta annulata Hook./, ex Triana 




+ 






Dissochaeta celebica Blume 


+ 






2 


Dissochaeta pallida (Jack) Blume 


+ 






2 


Dissochaeta punctulata Hook./ ex Triana 




+ 






Lijndenia laurina Zoll. & Moritzi 








2,4 


Macrolenes echimdata (Naudin) Bakh./ 








1 


Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. ex Blume) Blume 






N 




Melastoma malabathricum L. 


+ 






2 


Memecylon amplexicaule Roxb. 




+ 




4 


Memecylon caeruleum Jack 






W 


3 


Memecylon campanulatum C.B. Clarke 




+ 




4 


Memecylon edule Roxb. 


+ 


+ 






Memecylon excelsum Blume 




+ 







Checklist of vascular plants 



195 





D 
IV 


n 


P 
i 


c 


\A owi its} vi Tif^vi/iiiwi Vc i r\ 1 
IVlctTltCyiUrl J lufliiuni IxlUl. 


_u 

T 


+ 


IN 




\A /?wi I /~i vi rr si vs* in t/~ti /t c l-< 1 1 1 ry~\ 

IVlcfTlcCyiOfl gUrtlHiUlClZJ jdiuiiic 




+ 






A/1 O 111 or* \ } I /\\ 11 CT 1 i\\ r\ /1C 1 1 W1 r\ Q^h T 

IvlcnlcLyiUrl glUUUdUrrl DdKIl.y. 




+ 






J\A /iwi tir* \ • \ r\ vt li Isifiviiivn / r\\\ AV \A f~\t"i tvi 


+ 


T 






IvlcnicLyiUn YntguLtlYyllnl rUItdUU 


+ 


+ 






IVlcrrltLyiUrl rrllrlLlllj lUrUrtl 1V111J. 






c 


A 


IVItrflcCyiOrl (JltljUllUtll DIUIIlC 




T 






ivLtnlttyiurl pcinlLlililllirri JdLK 


+ 


T 






A/7 ni />s*\i I s*\vi n//n/?r/ , /JHf II l-i 1 1 v l/" \ k inn 

IVltrritCyiOn pilutSLztlS ^IdlKC^ JYlIlg 




+ 






P n s x v\\i n n v\ tvin rrwi ct vmtn 1 Klnmp \ R 1 1 1 m ^ 
i LlLfly 'Ctrllf III LUrlSiriLlU \Di\lU\C ) JDIUHIC 




+ 


M 

IN 




rcicnyctmnci mtiingux i \k,.d. v^idiKc^ j.r. ividxwcii 


+ 


+ 






ruguntitiititt ti piiiv cr iiieniu \jc\lk) diuiiic 




T 






i ItrrlLltlUlLl LUtrUltMcrlS JdLK 






1>I vv 




I let till nil / LI tttllllllUl JdLK 


+ 


+ 


LIN W 




Pt o vv) n yi A r/i ti ir\ovm il ntn ( K nrt n I l\yf P \Jqvqt" 

r itrriuriiu u mutt Luiiiia ^rvuim.^ ivi.r. iNdydi 


T 


T 






\ / 1 1-1 /> 1- 7 1/7 /-J /I f /i 1*/ 1 i^ f Hf/1 i-l M QllHltl 


+ 




T 
1 




Soncrilci moluccotw Roxb. 




+ 
















1 T It, Li 1 /\ ^ Hj /\ t, 










, 1 ( 1 1 / 1 1 / 1 /'; / /'; y / //lf/f | lr /^Vn 1 L-/ 1 1 1 1 ( i ( i »- 

figltllCl LllLlllllllLl \1\(JAV.) I Cllcgl. 




+ 






ctlnirt /? y cti 1 1 nt n 1 1 ¥ riTT \ \A/ I ^ i^ r> 

/igllllCl cXSlipUlClltl ^VJIlli.j W. llicUD. 


+ 


+ 






Aglflio Icptcinthci Miq. 




+ 




j 


/I f T I / 1 1 / 1 l/}JI/'/'iTlll\'ll/l K mfi 

/\gllllU IcULOptlyllll Jxlllg 


+ 








Aglciici incicroccirpci (Miq.) Panncll 




+ 






/j rtl rt 1 r% til Si 1 VI CTS1 \ ' / / 1 — 1 1 or'n 1 K inft 

/Agiciici HiCiingcix i ^nicrn j jxing 


+ 








/I rt] rt i rt in /i 1 si s> /' /) n / c x / D i /H l \ Do mm a| I 

/igltllil mLUtiLLcnsiS ^I\lUl.j rdniicll 


+ 


+ 






Aglnici odorcitissimci Blume 


+ 


+ 






Aglciici oligophyllo Miq. 




+ 






Aglaici nibiginosa (Hiern) Pannell 




+ 


IN 




Aglciici nifincrvis (Blume) Bentv. 




+ 


W 

w 


1 
J 


Aglciici siwiplicifolici (Bedd.) Harms 








J 


A (t l /j j /j e nortnr\ l li c ( a .1 1 ( i i Q V loin Rprinpf 
rYgllllU bptLlllUlllls ^iviiq.j O.O. Jdlll OC DcIlIlCl 








A 


Ag/fl/fl tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn. 




+ 






Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) R. Parker 




+ 


N 


1 


Chisocheton erythrocarpus Hiern 






W 




Chisocheton patens Blume 


+ 


+ 







196 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr. 


+ 






2 


Chisocheton sarawakanus (C. DC.) Harms. 


+ 








Dysoxylum acutangulum Miq. 




+ 






Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume 




+ 






Dysoxylum carolinae Mabb. 




+ 






Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern 


+ 


+ 


C 




Dysoxylum cyrtobotryum Miq. 




+ 




3 


Dysoxylum densiflorum (Blume) Miq. 


+ 






2 


Dysoxylum excelsum Blume 


+ 


+ 






Dysoxylum flavescens Hiern 


+ 


+ 






Pseudoclausena chrysogyne (Miq.) T.P. Clark 




+ 




4 


Sandoricum beccarianum Baill. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Sandoricum koetjape (Burm./.) Merr. 


+ 


+ 


W 














MELIOSMACEAE 










Meliosma lanceolata Blume 


+ 






2 


Meliosma pinnata (Roxb.) Maxim 






W 




Meliosma simplicifolia (Roxb.) Walp. 


+ 


















MENISPERMACEAE 










Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. 




+ 






Cyclea Idxiflora Miers 




+ 






Fibraured tinctorid Lour. 


+ 


+ 






Limdcid oblongd Hook./. & Thomson 








1 


Limdcid scdndens Lour. 


+ 


+ 






Stephdnid cdpitdtd (Blume) Spreng. 


+ 


+ 






Tinomiscium petioldre Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 


+ 


c 




Tinospora mdcrocdrpd Diels 


+ 


















MENYANTHACEAE 










Nymphoides indkd (L.) Kuntze 


+ 


















MONIMIACEAE 










Kibara coriaced (Blume) Tul. 


+ 








Mdtthded sdncta Blume 


+ 



















Checklist of vascular plants 



197 





R 


H 


P 


6 

k5 


MOR XC¥ W 










A rtnrnrnns nvnsnnnvlins lVTin 

ni lULllt ULIj Ul llcsUy fly IILIj 1VUU. 


-)- 








A rtnr nmi is nnnnri lVTin 
r\l lULUf LlUUUfl 1V11U. 


-). 


^_ 






A rtnrnrmi s plnstirns Rpinw py Rliimp 
ni iului yild cllldiiLiij rvciiiw. cx uiuinc 


_l_ 


_i- 






A rtnrnrnns TiilwirnrtPY R \A Tarrptt 
/it lULllt yild J lllvlLUt lex 1 .ivi. JdilCll 


^_ 


^_ 






/I rtnrnmi i s onmP7invnis XA/ull TtpphI 

/l/ lULUf yllj XUfflC^lUflllJ VV ail. CA 1 1LLUI. 




_f. 






/I rtrtrnmn s hismnns Tarrptt 

/l/ lUCUl UUd f lio y LUilo J ail til 




-L 




4 


/le/n/'/im/yc hr pvyi nn n n lVTin 
/if iului yiid r\,cifiuiiuu iviiu. 


_l_ 


^- 


NW 

1> VV 




A rtnrnrnns l/inrpifnliiis RnYn 
/it iului yiij luriLcijuiiiij i\.\jau. 


-)- 


-)- 


w 




Artnrnrnns Inum Initio 
/it IUCUI yilj lUWll IVlHg 


j. 


-L 






^4 rtnrnrnns vn mn on\u Kino 
/XilULUiyllb rrllilrlguyi rvillg 










.4 rtnrnrnn s vntiniis Trppnl 

/li lUCUt yiiJ fllllllllo 1 ICtUl. 


X 




N 




/I t*//irrti*n;/f rioinns Rliimp 
fit lULuf yiid i iKiiiiio uiuinc 




X 


rw 

V VV 




A rtnrnrnns srnrtprhimi Kino 
/it lucutyiio ocu i icci in in rvnig, 


-). 


-)_ 


NW 




Pirns nnvn it ntn Rliimp 

1 tCltJ UflfllllUlU IJIUlllt 




_L 






Pirns nni nrnrnn N/Tin 
i iLiio uyiucut yu iviiu. 


_)_ 


^_ 


N 




Pirns nnrnnti nrpn (rriiT 

l iLltJ Ullf UflllULCU VJ11I1. 




-L 






Pirns nnrntn \/Tin 


_)_ 


_j_ 






Pirns hinn pn n\il/ii lVTin 
i tciio uifit let ill y ts.li iviiu. 


_l_ 




N 




Pirns nrnrtpntn \A7 c» 1 1 py lVTin 

I ILllJ UlULlCUlU wan. C,l 1V11U. 


_L 


X 


N 




Pirns mi i) nrnrnn \A\r\ 
i iLitd luliiului yu 1VJ.1U. 








c 


Pirns rh nrtnrpn \A/all py l^ino 

l ILllo Lfllll lllLcll VV all. CX IVlllii 


T 


_l_ 

T 






nirns rnn snrmtn Rliimp 
/iCWo LUiloULlUlU D1U111C 


_L 
T 


T 


N 




Pirns n pi ns\irp i nrnpi" 
l tLltJ UClUoyLC \^U111C1 




T 






Pirns n Pltni A pn TqpL" 

1 tLttJ UcllUlllCU J aCrv. 


T 








Pirns rlnhin W/c> 1 1 py K^ino 
i lend uiiuiii vv an. ca rviiig 




_L 
T 


W 

VV 




Pirns PYrn\intn l^inrr 
riLllj tXLliVUlll Jxlllg 






N 




Pirns Ti stii Ins/i T<Pin\x/ py Rliimp 
riLLlc) J IdlUlUbu IvClllW. cX DluIllC 


_L 

T 


i 

T 


N 




Pirns ol nvi nniiTPYfi l \A/q1i py 1\/Tin I k inn 
riLUj giiitllllillltfU y VV all. tX IVllU.^ Jxlllg 


i 

T 


j_ 
T 






Pirns crlnrinsfi Rliimp 
riLLld giUuUjLl D1U111C 


+ 


i 

T 


N 




Pirns crvnssi il nvi ni si ps Rnrm r 

riLUs giUddUiLiiiUiu.t:d DUiiii.y. 


T 


+ 






Pirns nptpvnnlpnvn Rliimp 
i ilhj ncici uyiciu U U 1 UI 1 1 L 










Fiats kerkhovenii Valeton 


+ 


+ 






Ficus laevis Blume 


+ 






2 


Ficus lamponga Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Ficus microcarpa L.f. 








1,2 



198 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Ficus micro syce Ridl. 




+ 


N 


1 


Ficus obscura Blume 




+ 


N 




Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff. 




+ 


N 




Ficus pisocarpa Blume 


+ 






2 


Ficus recurva Blume 




+ 


N 




Ficus retusa L. 




+ 




3 


Ficus ruginervia Corner 




+ 






Ficus sagittata Vahl 


+ 




N 




Ficus schwarzii Koord. 




+ 






Ficus scortechinii King 


+ 


+ 






Ficus sinuata Thunb. 


+ 








Ficus subgelderi Corner 




+ 






Ficus sumatrana Miq. 




+ 






Ficus sundaica Blume 


+ 


+ 


N 




Ficus superba Miq. 








1 


Ficus trichocarpa Blume 


+ 




N 




Ficus variegata Blume 




+ 




1 


Ficus vasculosa Wall, ex Miq. 




+ 






Ficus villosa Blume 


+ 




N 




Ficus virens Aiton 




+ 






Ficus xylophylla Wall, ex Miq. 




+ 


N 




Parartocarpus bracteatus (King) Becc. 


+ 


+ 






Streblus elongatus (Miq.) Corner 


+ 


+ 


CNW 














MYRICACEAE 










Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. 


+ 






2 












MYRISTICACEAE 










Endocomia canarioides (King) W.J. de Wilde 




+ 






GymnacY anther a bancana (Miq.) J. Sinclair 


+ 


+ 


N 




Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook./. & Thomson) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Gymnacr anther a forbesii (King) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


W 




Horsfieldia brachiata (King) Warb. 






w 


4 


Horsfieldia crassifolia (Hook./. & Thomson) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Horsfieldia grandis (Hook./.) Warb. 




+ 


N 




Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb. 








2 



Checklist of vascular plants 



199 



Species 


D 
K 


u 
o 


p 

r 


c 


Horsfieldia polyspherula (Hook./, emend King) J. Sinclair 


+ 


+ 


IN 




Horsfieldia punctatifolia J. Sinclair 


+ 








Horsfieldia sucosa (King) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


IN 




Horsfieldia superba (Hook./. & Thomson) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


WW/ 

IN W 




Horsfieldia wallichii (Hook./. & Thomson) Warb. 


+ 


+ 






Knema communis J. Sinclair 


+ 


+ 






Knema conferta (King) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


NT 
IN 




Knema curtisii (King) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


VJ 

IN 




Knema furfuracea (Hook./. & Thomson) Warb. 


+ 








Knema glaucescens Jack 




+ 


IN 




Knema hookeriana (Wall, ex Hook./. & Thomson) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Knema intermedia (Blume) Warb. 


+ 


+ 


nww/ 
L-1N W 




Knema latericia Elmer 


+ 


+ 






Knema laurina (Blume) Warb. 


+ 






z 


Knema malayana Warb. 


+ 


+ 


M 
IN 




Knema patentinervia (J. Sinclair) W.J. de Wilde 








A 

4 


Myristica cinnamomea King 


+ 


+ 


L-JN W 




Myristica crassa King 




+ 




1 
3 


Myristica elliptica Hook./. & Thomson 


+ 


+ 


M 
IN 




Myristica iners Blume 




+ 


IN 




Myristica lowiana King 


+ 


+ 


M 

JN 




Myristica maingayi Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Myristica maxima Warb. 




+ 
















iVl I KMIM ALE At 










Ardisia color ata Roxb. 




+ 






Ardisia crassa C.B. Clarke 








A 

4 


Ardisia lanceolata Roxb. 




+ 






Ardisia miqueliana Scheff. 


+ 


+ 






Ardisia sessilis Scheff. 










Ardisia singaporensis Ridl. 


+ 








Ardisia teysmanniana Scheff. 




+ 


L- W 


1 

J 


Ardisia tuber culata Wall, ex A. DC. 




+ 


w 




Ardisia villosa Roxb. 


+ 








Embelia canescens Jack 


+ 


+ 






Embelia coriacea Wall, ex A. DC. 




+ 


N 





200 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Embelia dasythyrsa Miq. 




+ 






Embelia ribes Burm. 


+ 


+ 


C 




Grenacheria lampani (Scheff.) Mez 


+ 


+ 






Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Vill 


+ 


+ 


T 




Maesa ramentacea Wall, ex Roxb. 


+ 


+ 


NW 














MYRTACEAE 










Acmena acuminatissima (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry 


+ 


+ 


N 




Decaspermum parviflorum (Lam.) A.J. Scott 


+ 


+ 


N 




Eugenia 5/7.8 




+ 






Eugenia sp39 




+ 






Melaleuca cajuputi Powell 




+ 






Rhodamnia cinerea Jack 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium attenuation (Miq.) Merr. & L.M. Perry 




+ 






Syzygium borneense (Miq.) Miq. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Syzygium cerinum (M.R. Hend.) I.M. Turner 


+ 


+ 


N 




Syzygium chloranthum (Duthie) Merr. & L.M. Perry 


+ 


+ 


W 




Syzygium cinereum (Kurz) P. Chantaranothai & J. Parn. 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium claviflorum (Roxb.) Wall, ex A.M. Cowan & Cowan 








1 


Syzygium duthieanum (King) Masam. 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium filiforme (Wall, ex Duthie) P. Chantaranothai & 


+ 


+ 


W 




Syzygium flosculiferum (M.R. Hend.) Sreek. 








1 


Syzygium glaucum (King) P. Chantaranothai & J. Parn. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Syzygium gracile (Korth.) Amsh. 




+ 




1 


Syzygium grande (Wight) Walp. 


+ 


+ 


c 




Syzygium griffithii (Duthie) Merr. & L.M. Perry 








2 


Syzygium inophyllum DC. 




+ 




4 


Syzygium kunstleri (King) Bahadur & R.C. Gaur 






N 




Syzygium leptostemon (Korth.) Merr. & L.M. Perry 




+ 






Syzygium leucoxylum Korth. 








1 


Syzygium lineatum (DC.) Merr. & L.M. Perry 


+ 


+ 


CN 




Syzygium linoceroides (King) I.M. Turner 






W 


4 


Syzygium maingayi P. Chantaranothai & J. Parn. 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium muelleri (Miq.) Miq. 


+ 








Syzygium nemestrinum (M.R. Hend.) I.M. Turner 


+ 


+ 


N 





Checklist of vascular plants 



201 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Syzygium ngadimanianum (M.R. Hend.) I.M. Turner 


+ 


+ 


W 




Syzygium nigricans (King) Merr. & L.M. Perry 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium oblatum (Roxb.) Wall, ex A.M. Cowan & Cowan 




+ 






Syzygium pachyphyllum (Kurz) Merr. & L.M. Perry 


+ 


+ 


N 




Syzygium palembanicum Miq. 




+ 


W 


1 


Syzygium papillosum (Duthie) Merr. & L.M. Perry 


+ 


+ 


N 




Syzygium pauper (Ridl.) I.M. Turner 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium pendens (Duthie) I.M. Turner 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium pseudocrenulatum (M.R. Hend.) I.M. Turner 




+ 


N 




Syzygium pseudoformosum (King) Merr. & L.M. Perry 




+ 




3 


Syzygium pustulatum (Duthie) Merr. 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. & L.M. Perry 




+ 




4 


Syzygium pyrifolium (Blume) DC. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Syzygium ridleyi (King) P. Chantaranothai & J. Parn. 


+ 


+ 






Syzygium rugosum Korth. 




+ 


W 




Syzygium scortechinii (King) P. Chantaranothai & J. Parn. 




+ 






Syzygium singaporense (King) Airy Shaw 


+ 


+ 


N 




Syzygium skiophilum (Duthie) Airy Shaw 


+ 








Syzygium subdecussatum (Wall, ex Duthie) I.M. Turner 


+ 


+ 


W 




Syzygium syzygioides (Miq.) Merr. & L.M. Perry 




+ 




1 


Syzygium zeylanicum (L.) DC. 


+ 


+ 






Tristaniopsis merguensis (Griff.) Peter G. Wilson & J.T. Water 


+ 




W 




Tristaniopsis whiteana (Griff.) Peter G. Wilson & J.T. Water 




+ 
















HYDROCHARITACEAE 










Najas indica (Willd.) Cham. 


+ 








Najas malesiana W.J. de Wilde 


+ 


















NEPENTHACEAE 










Nepenthes ampullaria Jack 


+ 


+ 


N 




Nepenthes gracilis Korth. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Nepenthes hookerana Lindl. 




+ 




3 


Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack 


+ 




N 




Nepenthes trichocarpa Miq. 






T 















202 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


NYCTAGINACEAE 










Boerhavia diffusa L. 








1 












NYMPHAEACEAE 










Barclaya motleyi Hook./. 




+ 


N 


1 












OCHNACEAE 










Brackenridgea hookeri (Planch.) A. Gray 


+ 


+ 






Brackenridgea palustris Bartell. 




+ 






Campylospermum serratum (Gaertn.) Bittrich & M.C.E. Amaral 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Euthemis leucocarpa Jack 




+ 
















OLACACEAE 










Anacolosa frutescens (Blume) Blume 




+ 






Erythropalum scandens Blume 


+ 


+ 






Ochanostachys amentacea Mast. 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Scorodocarpus borneensis (Baill.) Becc. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Strombosia ceylanica Gardn. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Strombosia javanica Blume 


+ 


+ 
















OLEACEAE 










Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb. 




+ 


N 




Jasminum elongatum (Bergius) Willd. 




+ 
















OLEANDRACEAE 










Nephrolepis acutifolia (Desv.) H. Christ. 


+ 








Nephrolepis auriculata (L.) Trimen 


+ 


















ONAGRACEAE 










Ludwigia adscendens (L.) H. Hara 


+ 


+ 






Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell 


+ 








Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven 


+ 








Ludwigia prostrala Roxb. 








3 












OPILIACEAE 










Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr. 


+ 


+ 


C 





Checklist of vascular plants 



203 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Lepionurus sylvestris Blume 


+ 


















ORCHIDACEAE 










Adenoncos sumatrana J.J. Sm. 




+ 






a 111 1 • * ? XT O 

Agrostophyllum bicuspidatum J.J. Sm. 




+ 


N 




Agrostophyllum majus Hook./. 




+ 






Anoectochilus penicillatus Ridl. 




+ 


N 




Aphyllorchis pallida Blume 




+ 






Apostasia nuda R. Br. 




+ 






Appendicula cornuta Blume 




+ 






Appendicula lucida Ridl. 




+ 


N 




Appendicula uncata Ridl. 




+ 






>4 J" * 1" /T~\ TX \ TT 1 

Arundina graminifolia (D. Don) Hochr. 


+ 


+ 






Bromheadia aporoides Rchb./. 




+ 






7~l / ;• /*•/ * /T * 11 \ I J* 

Bromheadia jinlaysoniana (Lindl.) Miq. 


+ 


+ 






7~I/I 111 1 T ' J1 

Bulbophyllum macranthum Lindl. 


+ 




T 




nil in 1*7 i r* 

Bulbopnyllum macrochilum Rolie 




+ 






T~l J 1 1 / 1 I /T * 11 \ TTi 11 r 

Bulbopnyllum medusae (Lindl.) Rchb./. 




+ 






Bulbopnyllum membranaceum Teijsm. & Binn. 








1 


T\ 11 1 11 1'P 1* /T*1 \ T * 11 

Bulbopnyllum ovalifohum (Blume) Lindl. 




+ 






Bulbopnyllum patens King ex Hook./. 




+ 






T\ 11 111 * / v T*11 

Bulbopnyllum pileatum Lindl. 




+ 






nil 1 ii *T"i * * n t~\ • 

Bulbopnyllum purpurascens Teijsm. & Binn. 




+ 






Bulbophyllum sessile (J. Konig) J.J. Sm. 




+ 






Bulbopnyllum vaginatum (Lindl.) Rchb./. 


+ 








Calanthe pulchra (Blume) Lindl. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Cirrhopetalum concinnum Hook./. 








1 


Cirrhopetalum gusdorfii (J.J. Sm.) Garay & al. 


+ 








Claderia viridiflora Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Coelogyne cumingii Lindl. 








2 


Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.) Blume 




+ 






Cryptostyhs arachnites (Blume) Hassk. 




+ 






Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. 


+ 


+ 






Cystorchis variegata Blume 




+ 




1 


Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Dendrobium indivisum (Blume) Miq. 




+ 







204 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Dendrobium pulchellum Roxb. ex Lindl. 




+ 






Dendrobium setifolium Ridl. 




+ 






Dendrobium subulatum (Blume) Lindl. 




+ 






Didymoplexis pallens Griff. 




+ 




1 


Dilochia wallichii Lindl. 








1 


Dipodium scandens (Blume) J.J. Sm. 








1 


Eria pidchella Lindl. 




+ 






Eulophia graminea Lindl. 


+ 








Eidophia spectabUis (Dennst.) Suresh 




+ 


N 


1 


Flickingeria fimbriata (Blume) A.D. Hawkes 




+ 






Galeola nudifolia Lour. 






N 




Gastrodia javanica (Blume) Lindl. 




+ 




1 


Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume 








2 


Hetaeria nitida Ridl. 




+ 






Hetaeria obliqua Blume 




+ 






Hylophila mollis Lindl. 




+ 


N 


1 


Eecanorchis malaccensis Ridl. 


+ 


+ 






Eiparis ferruginea Lindl. 




+ 




1 


Liparis tricallosa Rent)./. 




+ 






Eiparis wrayi Hook./. 




+ 


N 




Malaxis latifolia Sm. 




+ 






Malaxis micrantha (Hook./.) Kuntze 




+ 






Microsaccus javensis Blume 




+ 






Nephelaphyllum pulchrum Blume 


+ 


+ 






Nervilia punctata (Blume) Makino 




+ 


N 




Neuwiedia griff ithii Rchb./. 




+ 






Neuwiedia veratrifolia Blume 




+ 






Oberonia ciliolata Hook./. 








2 


Oberonia dissitiflora Ridl. 




+ 






Oberonia stenophylla Ridl. 




+ 






Peristylus candidus J.J. Sm. 




+ 






Peristylus lacertiferus (Lindl.) J.J. Sm. 




+ 






Phaius tankervilleae (Banks ex L'Heritier) Blume 








1 


Plocoglottis gigantea (Hook./.) J.J. Sm. 


+ 


+ 






Plocoglottis javanica Blume 


+ 


+ 


N 




Plocoglottis lowii Rchb./. 








1 



Checklist of vascular plants 



205 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


I * f ' 111 T * 11 

Podochilus microphyllus Lindl. 




+ 






T~% d 1 1 a ' C I * /T* 11 \ T T O 

Pomatocalpa latifolium (Lindl.) J. J. Sm. 








1 


11' J /T\1 \ TT Ui. 

Pteroceras pallidum (Blume) Holttum 


+ 






2 


O a1 I A A ' I" ■ T~\ 1 

Spathoglottis plicata Blume 


+ 


+ 






Stereosandra javanica Blume 




+ 






rp • 111 C 1 ' P T T O 

laeniophyllum jilijorme J.J. Sm. 






N 




rj-i 111 I , T~i 1 

laeniophyllum obtusum Blume 


+ 




T 




Thnxspermum amplexicaule (Blume) Rchb./. 








1 


1 hrixspermum calceolus (Lindl.) Kcnb./. 




+ 






T'f * ' J 1 O 1 1 a. 

Thnxspermum ridleyanum Scnltr. 




+ 






T*I * * f 1 /TT 1 \ TT" 

I hrixspermum trichoglottis (Hook./.) Kuntze 


+ 


+ 


T 




T" 1 J . • ■ 1 • /TT 1 /» \ TT" 1 

Irichotosia gracilis (Hook./.) Kraenzl. 








2 


rf-r I , I / T 11 T * 11 \ T>^ 1 

Trichotosia velutina (Lodd ex Lindl.) Kraenzl. 






N 




Tropidia curculigoides Lindl. 




+ 






T 7 * It • /*/»• . f * • T* 11 /* 

Vanilla griffithu Kcnb./. 


+ 


+ 






T / J 11*1 / T"\ 1 \ T""* 1 

Vrydagzynea albida (Blume) Blume 




+ 






Vrydagzynea lancijolia Ridl. 




+ 






T 7 I a * a ' T"% ' 1 1 

Vrydagzynea tristnata Kidl. 




+ 






Zeuxine clandestina Blume 




+ 




1 












OXALIDACEAE 










Dapania racemosa Korth. 






N 




Sarcotheca griffithii (Planch, ex Hook./.) Hallier/. 


+ 


+ 






C* a1 1 / T~\ ' 11 \ . 1 

Sarcotheca laxa (Rial.) Kunth 


+ 


















PALMAE 










Calamus diepenhorstii Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Calamus insignis Griff. 


+ 


+ 






Calamus javensis Blume 








2,4 


Calamus laevigatus Mart. 




+ 




4 


Calamus lobbianus Becc. 


+ 


+ 






Calamus ornatus Blume 




+ 






Calamus oxleyanus Teijsm. & Binn. 


+ 


+ 






Calamus paspalanthus Becc. 




+ 






Calamus ridleyanus Becc. 




+ 






Caryota mitis Lour. 


+ 


+ 







206 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (J 997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Daemonorops angustifolia (Griff.) Mart. 


+ 


+ 






Daemonorops didymophylla Becc. 


+ 


+ 






Daemonorops geniculata (Griff.) Mart. 


+ 








Daemonorops grandis (Griff.) Mart. 


+ 


+ 






Daemonorops hystrix (Griff.) Mart. 


+ 


+ 






Daemonorops kunstleri Becc. 




+ 




1 


Daemonorops leptopus (Griff.) Mart. 


+ 


+ 






Daemonorops lewisiana (Griff.) Mart. 




+ 






Daemonorops longipes (Griff.) Mart. 


+ 


+ 






Daemonorops micracantha (Griff.) Becc. 




+ 




1 


Daemonorops periacantha Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Daemonorops sabut Becc. 




+ 




1 


Eleiodoxa conferta (Griff.) Burret 




+ 




1 


Iguanura wallichiana (Wall, ex Mart.) Hook./. 


+ 






2 


Korthalsia echinometra Becc. 


+ 


+ 






Korthalsia flagellaris Miq. 


+ 








Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff.) Mart. 




+ 






Korthalsia rigida Blume 




+ 






Korthalsia rostrata Blume 




+ 




4 


Korthalsia scortechinii Becc. 




+ 




1 


Licuala ferruginea Becc. 


+ 


+ 






Myrialepis paradoxa (Kurz) J. Dransf. 








1,2 


Nenga pumila (Mart.) H. Wendl. 


+ 




N 




Oncosperma horridum (Griff.) Scheff. 


+ 




N 




Orania sylvicola (Griff.) H.E. Moore 




+ 






Pinanga limosa Ridl. 




+ 






Pinanga malaiana (Mart.) Scheff. 


+ 






2 


Pinanga pectinata Becc. 








2 


Pinanga simplicifrons (Miq.) Becc. 








1 


Plectocomia elongata Mart, ex Blume 


+ 


+ 






Rhopaloblaste singaporensis (Becc.) Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


T 




Salacca affinis Griff. 




+ 
















PANDACEAE 










Galearia fulva (Tul.) Miq. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Galearia maingayi Hook./. 


+ 









Checklist of vascular plants 



207 





R 


H 


p 




MirrnHpsmis cn^pnviifnlin Planch 

1 VI / ULlCof fl Id K^Llo CLl/ 11 J \Jl LLI 1 lclllV-ll. 


-1- 


















PANDANACEAE 










Frpvrinptin nvipiistifnlin Rhimp 


-(- 


-). 


N 




Fvpvciviptin cnwfuKfl RiHl 

i f C yi-t/iCUu L-Lff I f LtoLl 1\1U1. 






N 




Frpvciwptin cnvupvi R Stonp 






N 




Frpvriwptin iinhrirntn Rhimp 

X f C y L IT t C l III If l IU 1 ItUIU LM U 1 1 1 C 


-(- 






2 


FrpvciviPtin invnviicn Rhimp 


+ 




N 




PnndnviiiK ntrncnvnn^ Onff 

X Lff tCC-Li/ ( IIJ LI 1/ lyi^LIf L/ LliJ V J 1 111. 


-)- 


-i- 


N 




Pnyidnnu^ houllpttii C^flrnprp 


-)- 


+ 






PfiwdfiviMS. knininp R C 1 Stonp 

i 14-1 ILltif l-Llo fXLlffllUC l~9 • V, .kJlUllC 






N 




Pnyidnnn^ lYioviothpcn Mart 


+ 








PnviflnviuK yjintlpvnnN^ SoIttk 

1 Li r I L* LI f 1 HiJ f / ll/llL y III Ml' kJv/Ull J 


-f 








PnyifinyiuK nnrvn^ Ridl 

X L*/ I L* Lff I Ui) L/Llt V Mi) IMUli 


-f 








PnndfwuK vcovtpchiviii Mart 

x Inlllunil.i Jl^lV/ 1 L L M If ill J.TXCIX I • 


-)- 








Pnvidfliius vvnnii Solms 




-i- 




1 












PARKFRIACFAF 










C^pvntoDtPvis thnlirtmidps (\ \ Rronpn 

C/LIIL/L/lC/l-iJ IflLtlf-L-lfL/ILiCiJ \ A—/ • / 1 V / 1 1 1 1 . 


-|- 


















PASSIFI ORACFAF 










AHpriin YYincYoiihvUfi fRInmp^ TCnorH 

JlLlCfllll i f ILIC/ L/L/f iy lilt lUlLilllV^/ IvVJ w 1 \X . 


-)- 




T 














PFNTAPHRAGlYf ATACFAF 










PpyitflnhyflPVYin plhntici iiyi PoiiI^pti 

X C i lllAjJ f If LtiLf f lit C lllU I IC LlA / 1 1 UUllOCll 






T 


3 












PHORMIACFAF 

J. J- J- W MX 1 ▼ 1 ■ im. I_j /X. mid 










F)i nviplln pnvifnlin (\ \ Y)C* 
x_y iLifitiiiA cfioifuiiLi \ \—d . i i_y , 


-). 




N 














PIPFRACFAF 










Pinpy rnviivii ivyi Rlnmp 

i IjJCf LUfllflLlfll LJ1LII1IL 


T 






Li 


Pinpr flnvimnrpiyintum d Y)C* 




+ 






Piper macropiper Pennant 


+ 


+ 


N 




Piper maingayi Hook./. 








2 


Piper muricatum Blume 


+ 






2 


Piper pachyphyllum Hook./. 








2 



208 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Piper pedicellosum Wall. 


+ 








Piper porphyrophyllum N.E. Br. 








2 


Piper sarmentosum Roxb. 








1 












PODOCARPACEAE 










Nageia wallichiana (Presl) Kuntze 






N 


1 


Podocarpus polystachyus R. Br. ex Endl. 


+ 


















POLYGALACEAE 










Salomonia cantoniensis Lour. 


+ 








Xanthophyllum affine Korth. ex Miq. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Xanthophyllum amoenum Chodat 


+ 


+ 






Xanthophyllum discolor Chodat 




+ 






Xanthophyllum ellipticum Korth. ex Miq. 


+ 


+ 


W 




Xanthophyllum eurhynchum Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook./, ex A.W. Benn. 


+ 


+ 






Xanthophyllum obscurum A.W. Benn. 


+ 


+ 






Xanthophyllum stipitatum A.W. Benn. 


+ 


+ 


W 




Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Blume) Dietr. 


+ 


+ 
















POLYGONACEAE 










Persicaria barbata (L.) H. Hara 


+ 


















POLYPODIACEAE 










Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J.J. Sm. 


+ 




N 




Lecanopteris sinuosa (Wall, ex Hook.) Copel. 


+ 








Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel. 




+ 






Phymatosorus nigrescens (Blume) Pic. Serm. 






F 




Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm./.) Pic. Serm. 








1 


Platy cerium coronarium (D. Konig ex O.F. Mull) Desv. 


+ 




FN 




Platy cerium ridleyi H. Christ 






F 




Pyrrosia longifolia (Burm.) C.V. Morton 


+ 








Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) M.G. Price 


+ 


















PONTEDERIACEAE 










Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms 


+ 









Checklist of vascular plants 



209 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) Kunth 


+ 


















PROTEACEAE 










Helicia excelsa (Roxb.) Blume 




+ 






Helicia petiolaris Benn. 


+ 








TT !• ■ 7 /T*» 1 \ T* T"\ 117' 11 

Helicia robusia (Roxb.) R. Br. ex Wall. 








2 












PSILOTACEAE 










Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. 








1 












PTERIDACEAE 










Pteris ensiformis Burm./. 










Pteris vittata L. 








1 












RHAMNACEAE 










Ventilago malaccensis Ridl. 




+ 


C 


1 


r—T f T J fl TT ' 11 TT 1/* 

Ziziphus calopnylla Wall, ex Hook./. 




+ 


W 


3 


Ziziphus elegans Wall. 




+ 


N 


3 


Ziziphus horsfieldii Miq. 




















RHIZOPHORACEAE 










Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Gynotroches axillaris Blume 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Pellacalyx axillaris Korth. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Pellacalyx saccardianus Scort. 


+ 


+ 


cw 














ROSACEAE 










Primus arbor ea (Blume) Kalkman 


+ 




N 




Primus grisea (Blume) Kalkman 




+ 


N 




Primus polystachya (Hook./.) Kalkman 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Rubus moluccanus L. 


+ 


+ 
















RUBIACEAE 










Aidia densiflora (Wall.) Masam. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Borreria laevicaulis (Miq.) Ridl. 


+ 








Canthium confertum Korth. 


+ 


+ 







210 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (J 997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Canthium glabnim Blume 


+ 


+ 






Canthiwn horridum Blume 


+ 


+ 






Canthium molle King & Gamble 




+ 






Chassalia chartacea Craib 


+ 








Chassalia atrvi flora (Wall.) Thw. 


+ 






2 


Chassalia pubescens Ridl. 








2 


Coelospermum truncation (Wall.) Baill. ex K. Schum. 




+ 




2 


Coptosapelta ghffithii Hook./. 




+ 






Coptosapelta parviflora Ridl. 








2 


Coptosapelta tomentosa (Blume) Valeton ex K. Heyne 








2 


Diplospora malaccensis Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


W 




Gaertnera grisea Hook./, ex C.B. Clarke 


+ 




C 




Gaertnera obesa Hook./, ex C.B. Clarke 


+ 








Gaertnera viminea Hook./, ex C.B. Clarke 


+ 






2 


Gardenia griffithii Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


c 




Gardenia tubifera Wall. 


+ 


+ 






Gardeniopsis longifolia Miq. 








2 


Geophila pilosa H. Pearson 




+ 






Gynochthodes coriacea Blume 




+ 




1 


Gynochthodes sublanceolata Miq. 


+ 


+ 






Hedyotis auricularia L. 


+ 






2 


Hedyotis capitellata Wall, ex G. Don 


+ 








Hedyotis herbacea L. 


+ 








Hedyotis philippinensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Merr. ex C.B. Rob. 


+ 


+ 






Hedyotis pinifolia Wall, ex G. Don 




+ 






Hydnophytum formicarum Jack 


+ 


+ 


NT 




/.Y6>ra concinna Hook./. 




+ 






/xora congesta Roxb. 


+ 


+ 


N 




/.vera javanica (Blume) DC. 


+ 


+ 






/xora lobbii King & Gamble 


+ 


+ 






/xora pendula Jack 


+ 


+ 






/xora umbellata Koord & Valeton 




+ 






Jackiopsis ornata (Wall.) Ridsdale 


+ 


+ 


N 




Lasianthus appressus Hook./ 


+ 








Lasianthus attenuatus Jack 


+ 








Lasianthus constrictus Wight 


+ 









Checklist of vascular plants 



211 





D 

IX 


H 


P 

tT 


6 

ij 


L^Llslunirius LyLiriULurpus JdLK 


T 








L^usluriirius utrislj Ulllls iVUCJ. 


_l_ 
T 








L^USluriiriUS tllipilLLlS VVlg,Ill 




^_ 




4 


L^usiiiriirius grijj unu vvigiii 


_L 




N 




L,UslLuliriUS tllultlglly I llUUK./. 




T 






L^llslLlI lit Ills pti lltitilsls rvlllg, (X VJdlllUlC 


_1_ 


_(_ 






L,US till llr lllb ilulcyl Ixlllj; <X vJdlllUlC 




_L 

T 


T 


1 
1 


L^UslUl III Ills sLUui lulls IS.111H, CY VJdlllUlC 


_1_ 
1 








/j vinvi th 1 1 c vtirti i) nri c Rlump 

L^llSlUlllllUS SUpUlUl IS LJ 1 LI 1 1 1 L 










L^UslUtllilUS lUttltfllUsus JJ1U111C 


_L 
1 








/ 1 1 r*inn on wiovi'irwnYxnron k inn 
L/ULinUcu ttltttlUiUtluLtu ISJIlii 




+ 






\Anriv\An riAlo\'i ^l^inrr f^nmrSlp^ T?iHl 
IVlUiltlUU tlulcyl ^ IVlllii Cx. vJdllll'lC / IMUl. 










AA nri n rl n rioirln K/fin 
IVlUi lilUU rlglUU IVlll^. 




_(. 






\Ar\riv\nn t jyyi nol 1 ntn 1 
IVlurillUU llftlUcllllltl L^. 










AAuwnovinn cjlnrwn x/Qnl 
Ivlilssuctlllll glllUlll V dill 




T 






\Aiiwnov\nn wiiitnnihc Hnnlr r 
lvl Ussuttlllll ftlulllUtlls OUUK./. 










A/7 7 y c vno j/i n pi n r 7 c Worm Yinyin W Q 1 1 1 
IvillssutlluUpsls UtLLllI llltlll Ddlll. 










AA \}f*0ti n vnnln\>nnn I W/qII T<iHI i i rQin 
lVlyLtllu illuluMlllu ^VVdll. c.l rxlUl.^ v^IdlU 










Ay7 \? yyyi om n i n tiihiOY/~irn 1 qpL' 

IVlyrrtltLUulll uiuet (Jsll JdLK 








1 
1 


\lnimlon nffifinnlic ^PiprrA #v Pit \ N/fprr /tr {""tSiin 

iv uiiLitu u 1 j il itiiiiis ^riciic c.l ru.^ lvicii. ex. v^iiuii 




T 


W 
vv 




lyilULlZLl SUUtUlll {IWllll. ) OlCUU. 








2 


i ) i~\ In /~iyyIt 1 t n c 1 n crn Yi/i Y0n n c IvitiI 
KjylllUt illl^u slUglipUt crisis IxlUl. 


T 


T 






f 7 v\ T/;r/i r ty n rr y mi 1 1 c c 1 111 n I \< \f\\ \ K \A/ Anft 

1 rilgrtlrlltsslrtlu \ t\lul.) rv.lvl. WUIl^, 




+ 


T 
1 




Ly.vVCc/Cj lUilgljluiLl ^i^dlll.^ 1. I dllldZ. 








1 
1 


/ Jvi 1 / 1 i'/ 1 c n z? Yi n ji cti n 11/1 1 It inn A ' ( T ■ 1 *-v-i . ^ \ I irv^nn 

L/AVCcrcj pctiutigicititi ^iMiiii cx vjdiiiuic^ iiivcny,. 








2 


LJXyCctOs sLutluctls ^DlUIIlt; ) 1 ir\ cliy,. 








Z.J) 


lucuci III jOcllCUl L,. 


+ 








Pcicdcria vcrticillcitn Blume 




+ 






Pcivettu wallichicino Steud. 


+ 






2 


Pertuscidinci curhvnchci (Miq.) Ridsddle 


+ 


+ 


W 

w 




Portercindio cinisophyllci (Jack ex Roxb.) Ridl. 


+ 


+ 


r\\/ 




Pri cin ntnm pyi \ olnhrn (^C ortrS ^ \Ia\f^\r\r\ 
1 1 IsiillllUiilti Is glLlUill ^JXUIUl.^ V dlClUIl 






T 
1 


A 
t 


Prismatomeris tetrandra (Roxb.) K. Schum. 






C 


1 


Psychotria cantleyi Ridl. 






T 




Psychotria griffithii Hook./. 




+ 




1 


Psychotria helferiana Kurz 


+ 


+ 







212 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Psychotria maingayi Hook./. 


+ 




N 




Psychotria malayana Jack 




+ 






Psychotria obovata Wall. 


+ 


+ 






Psychotria ovoidea Wall. 


+ 


+ 






Psychotria penangiana Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Psychotria ridleyi King & Gamble 








1,2 


Psychotria rostrata Blume 


+ 


+ 






Psychotria sarmentosa Blume 


+ 








Psychotria singapurensis (Ridl.) I.M. Turner 


+ 








Psydrax maingayi (Hook. /.) Bridson 








4 


Psydrax sp.10 


+ 








Psydrax sp. 11 


+ 








Rothmannia macrophylla (R. Br. ex Hook./) Bremek. 


+ 


+ 


NT 




Saprosma glomerulata King & Gamble 




+ 




1 


Tarenna adpressa (King) Merr. 






N 




Tarenna costata (Miq.) Merr. 


+ 


+ 






Tarenna fragrans (Nees) Koord. & Valeton 








1 


Tarenna mollis (Wall, ex Hook./.) B.L. Rob. 


+ 








Tarenna odorata (Roxb.) B.L. Rob. 


+ 






2 


Tarenna stellulata (Hook./.) Ridl. 


+ 








Timonius flavescens (Jack) Baker 




+ 


CN 




Timonius wallichianus (Korth.) Valeton 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Uncaria acida (W. Hunt.) Roxb. 






N 




Uncaria attenuata Korth. 








2 


Uncaria callophylla Blume ex Korth. 




+ 




3 


Uncaria cordata (Lour.) Merr. 


+ 


+ 






Uncaria lanosa Wall. 


+ 


+ 






Uncaria longiflora (Poir.) Merr. 


+ 


+ 






Uncaria roxbnrghiana Korth. 








2 


Urophyllum blumeanum (Wight) Hook./. 


+ 


+ 






Urophyllum glabrum Wall. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Urophyllum griffithianum (Wight) Hook./. 


+ 








Urophyllum hirsutum (Wight) Hook./ 


+ 


+ 






Urophyllum sp.2 


+ 


+ 






Urophyllum streptopodium Wall, ex Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


CN 















Checklist of vascular plants 



213 



Species 


D 


ii 

n 


p 

r 


c 


PITT A PIT AF 










Clausena excavata Burm./. 


+ 








Glycosvnis chlorospetrtia Spreng. 


+ 


+ 






Luvunga crassifolia Tanaka 


+ 








LViaciuvouenuvori poneri ^nooK.y.j i .u. ndiuey 




+ 






IVltllCOpt gluurll yDlUulc) L.KJ. rldriiey 


+ 


+ 


CXfJ 




ivieucope nooKtri i .o. ndruey 




+ 






ivieucope lunu-uriiitnuu ^vjdenn.j l.kj. ndruey 




+ 




1 
1 


Pavarnignya scandens (Griff.) Craib 




+ 


























Dendrotrophe varians (Blume) Micj. 


+ 


+ 






Scleropyrutn pentandniin (Dennst.) Mabb. 


+ 


+ 
















Q A PI\in A PF A F 
3 A Y 11 1 U A \^ Hi A Hi 










CuvdiospcvvnuTTi halicacabuvn L. 


+ 


+ 






Guioa pleuropteris (Blume) Radlk. 


+ 


+ 






Guioa pubescens (Zoll. & Moritzi) Radlk. 


+ 


+ 


c 




Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh. 








1 
1 


Lepisanthes senegalensis (Poir.) Leenh. 


+ 








Mischocarpus pentapetalus (Roxb.) Radlk. 








z 


Nepheliutri cuspidatiufi Blume 


+ 






L 


Nepheliuvn lappaceutn L. 


+ 


+ 


IN W 




Nepheliutn laurinum Blume 




+ 


IN W 




Nepheliuin vnaingayi Hiern 




+ 


w 




Nepheliuin rainboutan-ake (Labill.) Leenh. 




+ 




A 


Pometia pinnata J.R. Forst. 


+ 


+ 


IN W 




Trigonachras acuta (Hiern) Radlk. 




+ 




1 


Xevosperrnurn laevigatutn Radlk. 




+ 






XerospeYinuTTi nownhianutn (Blume) Blume 


+ 


+ 


r^wj 
LW 














SAPOTATF AF 










Chrysophyllum roxburghii G. Don 




+ 




1 


Madhuca kingiana (Brace ex King & Gamble) H.J. Lam 


+ 




cw 




Madhuca korthalsii (Pierre ex Burck) H.J. Lam 


+ 








Madhuca malaccensis (C.B. Clarke) H.J. Lam 


+ 


+ 







214 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Madhuca motleyana (de Vriese) J.F. Macbr. 


+ 




N 




Madhuca sericea (Miq.) H.J. Lam 


+ 


+ 






Palaquium gutta (Hook./.) Baill. 






CW 


3 


Palaquium hexandrum (Griff.) Baill. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Palaquium microphyllum King & Gamble 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Palaquium obovatum (Griff.) Engl. 


+ 


+ 


w 




Palaquium rostratum (Miq.) Burck 


+ 


+ 


N 




Palaquium semaram H.J. Lam 






w 




Palaquium xanthochymum (de Vriese) Pierre ex Burck 


+ 


+ 


N 




Payena lucida (G. Don) A. DC. 


+ 


+ 


C 




Payena maingayi C.B. Clarke 




+ 




4 


Payena obscura Burck 


+ 


+ 


w 




Pouteria maingayi (C.B. Clarke) Baehni 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Pouteria malaccensis (C.B. Clarke) Baehni 


+ 


+ 






Pouteria obovata (R. Br.) Baehni 


+ 


+ 






Sarcosperma paniculatum (King) Stapf & King 




+ 
















SCHISANDRACEAE 










Kadsura scandens Blume 




+ 




1 












SCHIZAEACEAE 










Lygodium circinnatum (Burm./.) Sw. 






F 


1 


Lygodium Ion gi folium (Willd.) Sw. 


+ 


+ 


F 




Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. 


+ 








Schizaea dichotoma (L.) Sw. 


+ 




FT 




Schizaea digitata (L.) Sw. 


+ 




F 














SCROPHULARIACEAE 










Adenosma javanica (Blume) Koord. 


+ 








Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. 








2 


Limnophila laxa Benth. 








2 


Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume 


+ 








Limnophila villosa Blume 


+ 








Lindernia Crustacea (L.) F. Muell. 


+ 








Lindernia elata (Benth.) Wettst. 


+ 








Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze 


+ 









Checklist of vascular plants 



215 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 












SELAGINELLACEAE 










Selaginella argentea (Wall, ex Hook. & Grev.) Spring 


+ 








Selaginella intermedia (Blume) Spring 


+ 








Selaginella willdenowii (Desv.) Baker 


+ 


















SIMAROUBACEAE 










Ailanthns integrifolia Lam. 








1 


Eurycoma longifolia Jack 


+ 




CW 














SMILACACEAE 










Smilax calophylla Wall, ex A. DC. 


+ 


+ 






Smilax leucophylla Blume 


+ 


+ 






Smilax myosotiflora A. DC. 






c 




Smilax setosa Miq. 


+ 


+ 
















STAPHYLEACEAE 










Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk. 


+ 






2 












STERCULIACEAE 










Byttneria maingayi Mast. 




+ 






Commersonia bartramia (L.) Merr. 


+ 


+ 






Heritiera borneensis (Merr.) Kosterm. 


+ 


+ 






Heritiera elata Ridl. 


+ 


+ 


NW 




Heritiera javanica (Blume) Kosterm. 


+ 








Heritiera simplici folia (Mast.) Kosterm. 


+ 


+ 


CW 




Melochia corchorifolia L. 


+ 








Pterocymbium tubulatum (Mast.) Pierre 




+ 




1 


Pterospermum javanicum Jungh. 




+ 


c 


3 


Scaphium linearicarpum (Mast.) Pierre 




+ 






Scaphium macropodum (Miq.) Beumee ex Heyne 


+ 


+ 


w 




Sterculia coccinea Jack 


+ 


+ 






Sterculia cordata Blume 


+ 






2 


Sterculia gilva Miq. 




+ 


N 




Sterculia macrophylla Vent. 


+ 




N 




Sterculia parviflora Roxb. 


+ 


+ 







216 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


p 


s 


Sterculia rubiginosa Vent. 


+ 


+ 


N 














STYRACACEAE 










Styrax benzoin Dryand. 


+ 


+ 
















SYMPLOCACEAE 










Symplocos adenophylla Wall, ex G. Don 


+ 








Symplocos bavvingtoniifolia Brand 




+ 


N 




Symplocos fasciculata Zoll. 


+ 


+ 






Symplocos odoratissima (Blume) Choisy & Zoll. 




+ 






Symplocos rubiginosa Wall, ex DC. 


+ 


+ 
















TACCACEAE 










Tciccci integvi folia Ker Gawl. 


+ 




N 














THEACEAE 










Adinandva acuminata Korth. 




+ 


W 




Adinandva duniosa Jack 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Adinandra integerrima T. Anderson ex Dyer 




+ 






Eurya acuminata DC. 


+ 








Govdonia multinevvis King 


+ 




w 




Gordonia penangensis Ridl. 




+ 






Govdonia singapoviana Wall, ex Ridl. 


+ 




cw 




Pyvenavia acuminata Planch. 


+ 


+ 






Temstrnemin hnncnnn Min 




+ 


w 




Ternstroemin nenanpinna Choisv 


+ 


+ 
















THELYPTFRIDACFAF 










ChristpIIfl dpiitntn fFor^k i RrnwrKPV & Tprmv 

/ I / lO l L till ULMIlllU 11 Ul OOIV. J 1J1 U VV llJv y V-X, J V- I 1 1 I V 










ChY)KtpUn unrnKiticn (\ \ T pv 










C^vclnvnruK ifitprruntuK fWillrl i T-T Tto 










Mesophlebion chylcunydophorutn (Rosenst. 6Jt C. Chr.) Holttum 






N 




Mesophlebion motleyanum (Hook.) Holttum 


+ 








Pronephrium triphyllum (Sw.) Holttum 


+ 








Sphaerostephanos heterocarpus (Blume) Holttum 






N 


1 













Checklist of vascular plants 



111 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


THYMELAEACEAE 










Aquilaria hirta Ridl. 






C 




Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Aquilaria microcarpa Baill. 




+ 






tnkleia malaccensis Grill. 


+ 


+ 






Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw 


+ 


+ 


N 




Gonystylus maingayi Hook./. 


+ 


+ 


C 




Linostoma pauciflorum Griff. 




+ 
















TILIACEAE 










Grewia laevigata Vahl 


+ 


+ 


N 




Microcos latifolia Burret 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Microcos globulifera (Mast.) Burret 




+ 






Microcos nirsuta (Kortn.) Burret 




+ 






Pentace triptera Mast. 


+ 


+ 


CNW 














TRIGONIACEAE 










Trigoniastrum hypoleucum Miq. 




+ 
















TRIURIDACEAE 










Sciaphila maculata Miers 




+ 






Sciaphila tenella Blume 




+ 
















ULMACEAE 










Gironniera hirta Ridl. 








1 


Gironniera nervosa Planch. 


+ 


+ 


cw 




Gironniera parvifolia Planch. 


+ 


+ 


CNW 




Gironniera subaequalis Planch. 


+ 


+ 






Trema cannabina Lour. 


+ 


+ ■ 






/rema tomentosa (Roxb.) Hara 


+ 


+ 
















UMBELLIFERAE 










Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. 


+ 


















VERBENACEAE 










Callicarpa longifolia Lam. 


+ 









218 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


s 


Clerodendrum deflexion Wall. 


+ 




N 




Clerodendrum Inevifolium Blume 


+ 




c 




Clerodendrum villosum Blume 


+ 




N 




Teijsmunniodendron coriciceum (C.B. Clarke) Kosterm. 


+ 




W 




Teijsmnnniodendron holophvllum (Baker) Kosterm. 










\ iw.x gcunosepulci Griff. 








4 


Vitex pinnotci L. 


+ 






2 


Vitex vestitn Wall, ex Schau. 


+ 






2 












VIOLACEAE 










Rinoreci cinguifera (Lour.) Kuntze 




+ 
















VISCACEAE 










Viscum cirticulutum Burm./. 




+ 






Viscum ovcili folium Wall, ex DC. 


+ 


+ 
















VITACEAE 










Amnplnrissus cmncimompn (Wall ^ Planch 

J. ±1 1 l Ls L- IKJ K, IJJ HJ tl/ l/( ti / / (ff / ILU I ¥ ¥ CI 11 . 1 A Itlll Vll. 








2 


Amnplncisvis plppnns fKurz^ Gainer) 




+ 






Amnplnciwis floccosn fRidl i O^lpt 








1 


Awinplncissus QYncili^ \ Planch 

i l/ZlL/LH/ti jjHj C / I t A- H U 1 Tl till. 1 X 1 Ll 1 1 \_ 1 1 . 




-|- 






Amnplnrissus nnlvstnchvn fWall ^ Planch 

i l//IL/Lll/tlJJUJ L/l/l V JlKLri f U I ¥ ¥ till • / -1 Itlll Vll. 




+ 






C nxvfltifl tnollissiwifl fWall i Crflcrnpn 

tl \ f Ll L I Ll //(l/ttlJJlJf tU III (ill. / VJ tl i^,llV yj * 


+ 




N 




Cflvrntifl novpiufnlin fWall T aw^on i Rurkill 

V- ' Ll \ i Ll I I Li ftf k t/r(K/UU \ ¥ T till • C\ J < tl VV O Wll I l~J til 1V111 










0\v//v hnstfltfl Min 

VtJJllJ /ItfOltitti 1TX1V4. 










Cissns nndnsn Rlnmc- 








3 


Ci'ssiis vpnpns T am 

VUJIIJ / J — . Hill. 










Cikshs mstrntn (\A\c\ \ Planch 

V^tJJltJ 1 LsJll (.till ^IVllVJ. 1 1 Idilwll. 








2 


Nnthnrisswi snirifprn ( Griff ^ T atiff 

j lt/I/ll/LlJJt[j Jf/itl/C / u I VJ 1 111. / 1 , Ci till 




+ 






Ptpri^nnthp'i prinnnAn (\l\\c\ \ Plpinrh 




-|- 






Ptpritnnthps nnlitn (AA'\n \ T aw^nn 

I /C / IjUI I ll (CJ yUlllLl ^IVllVJ.I 1^ CI V v .3 VJ 1 1 




-)- 






Tetrcistigmci luwsoni (King) Burkill ex A.W. Hill 








2 


Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alston ex Mabb. 




+ 
















VITTARIACEAE 










Vittaria elongata Sw. 








1 



Checklist of vascular plants 



219 



Species 


K 


H 


P 


S 


Vittaria ensijormis Sw. 


+ 




XT 

N 














WOODSIACLAL 










Diplazium crenatoserratum (Blume) I. Moore 




+ 
















v\/nm 4 r*T? k ¥? 

XYRIDACLAL 










Xyns paucijlora Willd. 




+ 
















ZlMGIBLKAChAh 










Alpinia concnigera unit. 








1 


/< f i - f f • T"» ' J1 

Amomum hastilabium Rial. 




+ 


N 




Amomum xantnopnlebium Baker 


+ 


+ 


N 




hlettariopsis curtisu Baker 




+ 




3 


Ethngera punicea (Roxb.) R.M.Sm. 




+ 






ill. l j.i »>r'_ 

Globba leucantna Miq. 


+ 


+ 


1 




Hornstedtia leonurus (J. Konig) Retz. 


+ 


+ 


N 




Hornstedtia scypnijera (J. Konig) Steud. 


+ 


+ 


XT 

N 




Plagiostachys lateralis Ridl. 




+ 






Plagiostachys mucida Holttum 




+ 






Scaphochlamys tenuis Holttum 




+ 






Zingiber griffithii Baker 


+ 








Zingiber puberulum Ridl. 


+ 


+ 







220 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Appendix 2. Exotic vascular plant species in the Nature Reserves. 

(R - records from field collections, published data from NRS, and published data 
during the period 1991-1997 from the "Additions to the Flora of Singapore" and 
"The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore" series published in the Gardens' Bulletin 
Singapore 44-49. 

H - herbarium specimens records in SING. 

P - publication records denoted as follows: C-Corlett (1990, 1991); F-Wee (1983, 
1984);N-Corner (1978);T-Chua etal. (1996),Tan etal (1995),Tan (1995, 1997); W- 
Wong (1987). 

S - unverified records denoted as follows: 1-observations from NParks staff and 
NRS unpublished checklists, 2-unpublished checklist of BTNR flora (Corlett, late 
80s), 2-collections from the Centre for Natural Product Research (CNPR) project 
and 4-collections from the CTFS project.) 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Acacia auriciilijormis A. Lunn. ex Bentn. 








1 


Acacia mangium Willd. 








1 


Adiantum latifolium Lam. 








1 


Ageratum conyzoides L. 


+ 








Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don 


+ 








Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw. 


+ 








Aniseia martinicensis (Jacq.) Choisy 


+ 








Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. 








2 


Areca catechu L. 


+ 








Artocarpits heterophyllus Lam. 


+ 


+ 






Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. 


+ 


+ 






Asclepias curassavica L. 




+ 






Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson subsp. 
micrantha (Nees) Ensermu 


+ 








Axonopus compressus (Swartz) P. Beauv. 








1 


Bambusa ?tulda Roxb. 


+ 




T 




Bauhinia ferruginea Roxb. 








1 


Callerya atropurpurea (Wall.) Schot 


+ 








Carina indica L. 


+ 








Cecropia peltata L. 


+ 








Centrosema plumieri (Turp. ex Pers.) Benth. 








1 


Centrosema pubescens Benth. 


+ 








Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene 




+ 






Chloris barbata Sw. 








1 



Checklist of vascular plants 



221 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Cleome aculeata L. 




+ 






Cleome rutidosperma DC. 


+ 


+ 






Clerodendrum paniculatum L. 


+ 








Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don 


+ 








Clitorea laurifolia Poir. 


+ 








Cocos nucifera L. 


+ 








Complaya trilobata (L.) Strother 








3 


Cordia cylindnstachya (Ruiz & rav.) Roem. & Schult. 


+ 








XT , 1 • T y-\ o 17* O 1 

Costas lucanusianus J. Braun & K. Schum. 


+ 








Lrassocepnalum crepiaioiaes (Benth.) S. Moore 


+ 


+ 






Dendrocalamus asper (Roem. & Schult.) Baker ex Heyne 


+ 




T 




Diodia ocymifoha (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Bremek. 


+ 








Dioscorea hispida Dennst. 








2 


Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax 


+ 








Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker uawl. 


+ 








Lrecntites nieracujolia (L.) Rat. ex DC. 


+ 








Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. 








3 


Ficws benjamina L. 








1 


F/ci« religiosa L. 








1 


Garcinia mangostana L. 


+ 


+ 






Gymnopetalum integrifolium (Roxb.) Kurz 








3 


Heliconia bihai L. 


+ 








Heliconia psittacorum L.f. 


+ 








Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Mull. Arg. 


+ 








Hymenaea courbaril L. 


+ 








Hyptis brevipes Poit. 


+ 








//ypfw capitata Jacq. 


+ 








Indigofera hirsuta L. 


+ 








Kyllinga polyphylla Willd. ex Kunth 




+ 






Lansium domesticum Correa 


+ 








Lantana camara L. 


+ 








Leucaena leucocepnala (Lam.) de Wit 








1 


Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau 


+ 








Mangifera indica L. 


+ 








Manihot esculenta Crantz 








1 


Manihot glaziovii Mull. Arg. 


+ 









222 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


K 


ri 


n 

r 




Mikania micvantha Kunth 


+ 








Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze 




+ 






Mimosa pigfa L. 


+ 








Mimosa pudica L. 








1 


Momordica charantia L. 


+ 


+ 






Morinda citrifolia L. 


+ 








Oxalis barrelieri L. 


+ 








Panicum maximum Jacq. 








i 
1 


Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) I.C. Nielsen 




+ 




I 


Passiflora foetida L. 


+ 








Passiflora laurifolia L. 


+ 








Passiflora suberosa L. 


+ 








Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. 








1 


Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth 








i 
1 


Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross 


+ 








Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach 


+ 








Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. 








i 
1 


Physalis minima L. 








i 
1 


Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. 








1 

1 


Pitywgramma calomelanos (L.) Link 








1 


Polygala panicidata L. 


+ 








Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. 








1 
1 


Portidaca oleracea L. 








i 
1 


Psidium guajava L. 


+ 








Quisqualis indica L. 




+ 






Ruellia tuberosa L. 


+ 








Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell 


+ 








Saraca cauliflora Baker 


+ 








Scopana aulas L. 








1 


Senna alata (L.) Roxb. 


+ 








Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin & Barneby 


+ 








S/V/a cordifolia L. 


+ 








Solanum torvum Sw. 


+ 








Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. 


+ 








Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl 


+ 








Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl 








3 



Checklist of vascular plants 



223 



Species 


R 


H 


P 


S 


Struchium sparganophorum Kuntze 


+ 








Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. 


+ 








Syngonium podophyllum Schott 


+ 








Thunbergia alata Boj. ex Sims 


+ 








Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. 








1 


Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb. 


+ 








Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Honda 


+ 


+ 






Tridax procumbens L. 








1 


Trimezia martinicensis (Jacq.) Herbert 


+ 








Typha angustifolia L. 








1 


Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott 








1 


Uncaria gambir (W. Hunt.) Roxb. 


+ 


+ 






Wikstroemia ridleyi Gamble 


+ 


+ 






Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm. 




+ 







Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens 7 Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 225-244. 



Bird Biodiversity in the Nature Reserves of Singapore 

K.S. LIM 

Bird Group, Nature Society (Singapore) 
601, Sims Drive, #04-04/05 
Pan-I Complex, Singapore 387382 



Abstract 

Forest clearance and associated disturbance since 1819 are chiefly responsible for the loss 
of 70 species from the forest habitat in Singapore. Of the remaining 207 species, 127 are 
resident of which only 26 are forest dependent. The rest include 72 migrants and 8 non- 
breeding visitors. A comprehensive survey of the central forests, the last of the terrestrial 
forests in Singapore, was conducted by members of the Nature Society (Singapore) Bird 
Group between July 1993 and June 1997, and increased the known species total for the 
area from 171 in 1989 to 207 by 1997. The 35 additions to the Nature Reserves list included 
one new to Singapore, Velvet-fronted Nuthatch, and rediscoveries of White-bellied 
Woodpecker, the first since 1988, Barred Eagle-owl, since 1925 and Yellow-eared 
Spiderhunter, since 1920. Of 19 key species, 14 were recorded during the survey of which 
four - Drongo Cuckoo, Blue-rumped Parrot, Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot and Chestnut- 
winged Babbler - were found to be widespread within the Central Catchment Nature 
Reserve. Four areas found to be of importance because of high species diversity and 
concentration of key species were the MacRitchie peninsula, the Mandai Track 15 peninsula, 
Nee Soon Swamp Forest and the hill primary forest at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. 
Conservation and protection of these areas and the control of poaching and illegal 
introduction of alien birds are the keys to the preservation of the current forest bird 
diversity and the prevention of further extinction. 



Introduction 

The central forests consist of two nature reserves in the centre of Singapore: 
the 2,675 ha Central Catchment Nature Reserve and the recently enlarged 
164 ha Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (National Parks Board, pers. comm.). 
These reserves constitute the last remnant of a rainforest habitat that once 
covered the island and are important as last refuges for many resident bird 
species. This shrinkage and associated disturbance, which began with the 
arrival of Stamford Raffles in 1819, resulted in the extinction of 70 resident 
species that included entire families, such as partridges, hornbills, trogons 
and broadbills (Lim, 1992, 1997). Other families, normally well represented 
in the forest habitats of the Sunda region, became very much reduced. 
These included bulbuls and babblers, with some reduced to just one 
representative species, e.g., barbets and malkohas (Lim, 1992, 1997). 



226 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (J 997) 



History 

The study of birds in Singapore began with Raffles who collected birds for 
the British Museum (Lim, 1997). Raffles was followed by Alfred Russel 
Wallace who collected in Singapore between 1854 and 1862, A.O. Hume 
(1879-1880), H.R. Kelham (1881—1882) and H.N. Ridley (1898—1901). 
There followed a lull after which the collecting tradition continued with 
the arrival of erstwhile curators of the Raffles Museum, F.N. Chasen in the 
1920s and 1930s and C.A. Gibson-Hill in the 1940s (Bucknill & Chasen, 
1927; Gibson-Hill, 1950). Gibson-Hill and his contemporary, R.J. Spittle, 
made the first life history studies of birds in Singapore during their World 
War II internment and were succeeded in 1968 by P. Ward who conducted 
the first avifaunal studies. However, it was not until the arrival of C.J. 
Hails in 1983 that the first systematic study of forest birds was carried out. 
His findings were published in 1987 (Hails & Jarvis, 1987; Hails, 1992). 
There were no subsequent studies until the National Parks Board's 
sponsored bird survey which began in 1993 with the participation of 
volunteers from the Nature Society (Singapore). 



Survey Objectives 

The Nature Society (Singapore) Bird Group commenced a study of the 
central forests in July 1993 at the invitation of the National Parks Board 
(NParks). The field survey took some 48 months to complete and members 
expended over 1,500 observer-hours during the study. The survey was 
done in four stages as follows: 



MacRitchie Catchment (MC) 
Seletar Catchment (SC) 
Peirce Catchment (PC) 
Bukit Timah (BT) 



July 1993 - June 1994 
July 1994 - June 1995 
July 1995 - June 1996 
July 1996 - June 1997 



The objectives of the survey were: 

1. to determine the status, diversity, density and population of birds in the 
Nature Reserves, 

2. to map the occurrence of key species (nationally threatened forest 
dependent species), 

3. to recommend methods of maintaining/improving current bird diversity, 
and 

4. to identify areas of high bird diversity. 



Bird biodiversity 



227 



Materials and Methods 

To facilitate a uniform and thorough coverage, the central forests were 
divided into four parts, each taking one year to complete. In turn, each 
part was further divided into five smaller sectors (Figure 1), each being 
supervised by an experienced birdwatcher with the aid of 1 — 5 assistants. 
The methods employed were as follows: 

Line transect counts 

Line transects were selected from existing trails within each area and 
designed to be representative of the vegetation type of each sector. The 
transects varied in length from 0.8 km to 2.3 km. 

Two types of transect counts were used: diurnal and nocturnal. 
Diurnal transect counts were carried out monthly, commencing at 0730 
hours and ending at approximately 0830 to 0930 hours, depending on the 
length of each transect and bird activity. Nocturnal transect counts were 
also made at less frequent intervals commencing at 1930 hours and ending 
at approximately 2030 to 2130 hours. 

Birds seen or heard during the transect counts were recorded using 
the 25-metre belt method and an estimation of the population and density 
derived using the methods recommended by Bibby et al. (1992). 

The formula used to calculate species density is D = Nk/L 

where D = density 

N = total number of birds counted 

k = unknown constant = [l-SQR(l-p)]/W 

[p=Nl/N where Nl is the total number of birds counted in the 

inner belt; W = belt width (m)] 
L = length of transect (m) 

This formula is based on the assumption that all birds occurring 
within the transect route are counted and that detectability (the k factor) 
decreases linearly with distance. 

Area counts 

Line transects are by design confined to a particular route and time. In 
order that bird diversity and distribution of each area be properly recorded, 
additional area counts were conducted by the area leaders either before or 



28 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




consisting of Sectors G, H, I, J & K. 

Peirce Catchment (PC) 
consisting of Sectors L, M, N, O & P. 



Bukit Tim ah (B T) 

Figure L Map showing sectors surveyed in the Nature Reserves. 



Bird biodiversity 



229 



after line transect counts or on a separate date. Data so obtained were 
recorded in designated field survey forms and submitted. 

Mapping 

Mapping of the ranges of key species was conducted for those recorded in 
transect and area counts on an area-by-area basis. The aim of this mapping 
study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of key species in 
each area so that these could be transferred to the NParks' Geographic 
Information System for future threatened species management and 
conservation purposes. 

Bird ringing 

Bird ringing using mist nets and rings belonging to NParks was carried out 
in order to study the movement and longevity of resident birds and the 
migration patterns of migrants. Nets were set up along existing trails in the 
early morning (by 0600 hours) and taken down at noon. 

Birds caught in the net were quickly ringed, measured, photographed 
and released near the site where they were caught. 

Results 

Annotated checklist of selected species 

The following is an annotated checklist of species that are nationally 
threatened, forest dependent (stenotopic) or key species. 

White-bellied Woodpecker (Dryocopus javensis) 

Large wood-boring insectivore, the only extant stenotopic picid, nationally 
threatened. Frequents canopy and mid-storey, particularly dead trees. 
Confined to the MacRitchie Catchment and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. 
No more than 2 individuals seen since 1993. 

Red-crowned Barbet (Megalaima rafflesii) 

Large frugivore, the only extant stenotopic barbet, nationally near- 
threatened. Frequents canopy and upper storey. Occurs only in the Central 
Catchment and Bukit Timah Nature Reserves. Breeding recorded. 

Blue-eared Kingfisher (Alcedo meninting) 

Small piscivorous kingfisher restricted to forest streams; nationally 



230 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



threatened. Confined to the Central Catchment Nature Reserve with regular 
sightings in the MacRitchie area. Breeding recorded in 1997. 

Drongo Cuckoo (Surniculus lugubris) 

Small insectivore favouring the canopy; nationally threatened. Occurs widely 
throughout Central Catchment and Bukit Timah Nature Reserves. Breeding 
recorded. Numbers are augmented by winter visitors between October 
and March. 

Chestnut-bellied Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus sumatranus) 
Large insectivore frequenting all levels from lower storey to canopy, the 
only extant malkoha; nationally near-threatened. Occurs in both reserves. 
Breeding recorded. 

Blue-rumped Parrot (Psittinus cyanurus) 

Small frugivore frequenting canopy; nationally threatened. Occurs in both 
reserves. Breeding not confirmed. 

Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot (Loriculus galgulus) 

Very small frugivore of the canopy; nationally threatened. Occurs in both 

reserves. Breeding not confirmed. 

Glossy Swiftlet (Collocalia esculenta) 

Very small aerial insectivore of the airspace above forests. Confined to the 
summit of Bukit Timah. Not recorded since 1990. Breeding not confirmed. 
Not recorded during the survey. 

Brown Hawk-owl (Ninox scutulata) 

Small insectivore/carnivore; nocturnal; forest stenotopic; common. 
Frequents the understorey. Occurs throughout the nature reserves. Breeding 
recorded. 

Malaysian Eared-nightjar (Eurostopodus temminckii) 
Medium-sized aerial insectivore; crepuscular; forest stenotopic; nationally 
threatened. Feeds over forest canopy and edges. Confined to Central 
Catchment. Breeding not confirmed. 

Crested Serpent-eagle (Spilornis cheela) 

Large raptor of reptiles and amphibians; forest stenotopic; nationally 
threatened. Feeds over canopy. Confined to Central Catchment Nature 
Reserve. Breeding recorded. 



Bird biodiversity 



231 



Asian Fairy-bluebird (Irena puella) 

Small frugivore of forest canopy; forest stenotopic; common. Occurs in 
both reserves. Breeding recorded. 

Greater Green Leafbird (Chloropsis sonnerati) 

Small frugivore of canopy; forest stenotopic; nationally threatened. Occurs 
in both reserves. Breeding not confirmed. 

Lesser Green Leafbird (Chloropsis cyanopogon) 

Small frugivore of canopy; forest stenotopic; nationally threatened. Occurs 
in both reserves. Breeding not confirmed. 

Lesser Cuckoo-shrike (Coracina fimbriata) 

Small insectivore of canopy and upper storey; forest stenotopic; nationally 
threatened. Confined to Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Not recorded during 
survey. Breeding not confirmed. 

Scarlet Minivet (Pericrocotus flammeus) 

Small insectivore of canopy; forest stenotopic; nationally threatened. 
Confined to Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Breeding recorded. 

Black-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus atriceps) 

Small frugivore of upper storey; forest stenotopic; nationally threatend. 
Confined to Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Breeding not confirmed. 

Cream-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus simplex) 

Small frugivore of mid and lower storeys; forest stenotopic; nationally 
near-threatened. Occurs in both reserves. Breeding recorded. 

Red-eyed Bulbul (Pycnonotus brunneus) 

Small frugivore of mid and lower storeys; forest stenotopic; nationally 
threatened. Occurs in both reserves. Breeding recorded. 

Buff-vented Bulbul (Iole olivacea) 

Small frugivore of middle and lower storeys; forest stenotopic; nationally 
threatened. Confined to Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Not recorded during 
the survey. Breeding not confirmed. 

Short-tailed Babbler (Malacocincla malaccensis) 

Small insectivore of forest floor and understorey; forest stenotopic; common. 
Occurs in both reserves. Breeding recorded. 



232 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (J 997) 



Moustached Babbler (Malacopteron magnirostre) 

Small insectivore of understorey; forest stenotopic; nationally threatened. 

Confined to Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Breeding recorded. 

Chestnut-winged Babbler (Stachyris erythroptera) 
Small insectivore of understorey (especially, resam Dicranopteris spp.) 
frequently seen with Striped Tit-babbler; forest stenotopic; nationally 
threatened. Occurs in both reserves but rare in Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve. Breeding recorded. 

Yellow-vented Flowerpecker (Dicaeum chrysor rheum) 
Very small frugivore/insectivore of understorey to canopy; forest stenotopic; 
nationally threatened. Occurs in both reserves but not recorded during the 
survey. Breeding recorded. 

Little Spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostris) 

Small insectivore/nectarivore of understorey; forest stenotopic; uncommon. 
Occurs in both reserves. Breeding recorded. 

Thick-billed Spiderhunter (Arachnothera crassirostris) 
Small insectivore/nectarivore of canopy; forest stenotopic; nationally 
threatened. Confined to Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Not recorded 
since 1989. Breeding not confirmed. 

Yellow-eared Spiderhunter (Arachnothera chrysogenys) 

Small insectivore/nectarivore of canopy; forest stenotopic; nationally 

threatened. Confined to Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Breeding not 

confirmed. 

The avifauna 

As a result of this survey, 207 species of birds are now known to occur in 
the Nature Reserves (Appendix 1). Although this is only 59% of the 
national total i.e., 350 (Lim & Gardner, 1997), the Nature Reserves are 
home to all 26 extant forest specialists, 40 (75%) of the nationally threatened 
species (Lim, 1992) and 2 globally threatened species (Collar et al, 1994). 
This is about 75 — 80% of the species total of lowland forests of similar 
size, such as Panti Forest Reserve, Johor and Pasoh Forest Reserve in 
Negri Sembilan, in Peninsular Malaysia (pers. obs.). The most important 
factor for this impoverishment is the loss of 70 resident species, which if 
added to the total, would be approximately 100%, in terms of number of 
species one would expect to record in a Peninsular Malaysian forest of 
similar size. However, one important difference is dominance of generalist 



Bird biodiversity 



233 



(eurytopic) species, 101 species (about 80%) of the resident species. In a 
mainland forest, the percentage of eurytopics would be about 25% (pers. 
obs.; Medway & Wells, 1976). Contributing factors are that Singapore is an 
island and many species are not able to cross the narrow Johor Straits and 
the history of land clearance, which created opportunities for open country 
species to invade forest niches left vacant by extirpated forest species. 

During the four-year survey, from July 1993 to June 1997, a total of 
175 species (85% of the species total), were recorded from both reserves. 
The Central Catchment Nature Reserve's bird list increased from 155 to 
185 species, an increase of 30 species or 19%. Of the grand total, 170 or 
92% were recorded during the survey, with 16 species not detected. Of the 
17 key species that had been observed in Central Catchment Nature 
Reserve, 13 (76%) were recorded during the survey (Table 1). Of the 35 
nationally threatened species observed in Central Catchment Nature 
Reserve, 25 (71%) were recorded. The bird list for Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve and its extension increased from 117 to 143, an increase of 26 
species or 22%. Of these, 114 were found during the survey, with 29 not 
detected. Of the 13 key species that had been observed in Bukit Timah 
Nature Reserve, 8 (62%) were recorded during the survey (Table 1). Of 
the 21 nationally threatened species previously observed in Bukit Timah 
Nature Reserve, 15 (71%) were recorded. 



Table L Distribution of key species in the Nature Reserves. 

(MC - MacRitchie Catchment, SC - Seletar Catchment, PC - Peirce Catchment, 
BT - Bukit Timah) 



No. 


Common Name 


MC 


SC 


PC 


BT 


1. 


White-bellied Woodpecker 


* 








2. 


Blue-eared Kingfisher 


* 








3. 


Drongo Cuckoo 






* 




4. 


Blue-rumped Parrot 


* 


* 


* 


* 


5. 


Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot 


* 


* 


* 


* 


6. 


Malaysian Eared-nightjar 




* 


* 




7. 


Glossy Swiftlet 










8. 


Crested Serpent-eagle 




* 






9. 


Greater Green Leafbird 








* 


10. 


Lesser Green Leafbird 


* 




* 


* 


11. 


Lesser Cuckoo-shrike 










12. 


Scarlet Minivet 








* 


13. 


Black-headed Bulbul 


* 


* 






14. 


Red-eyed Bulbul 


* 




* 


* 


15. 


Buff-vented Bulbul 










16. 


Moustached Babbler 


* 








17. 


Chestnut-winged Babbler 


* 


* 


* 




18. 


Yellow-vented Flowerpecker 










19. 


Thick-billed Spiderhunter 











234 



Ganl. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Bird status 

Of the 207 bird species recorded in the nature reserves, 127 (61%) are 
residents, 72 (35%) are migrants and 8 (4%) are non-breeding visitors. Of 
the total of 185 species recorded in the catchment, 120 (65%) are residents, 
65 (35%) are migrants with 1 (1%) non-breeding visitor. For Bukit Timah, 
its 143 species comprised 91 residents (64%), 47 (33%) migrants and 5 
(4%) non-breeding visitors. 

Key species 

Of the 19 key species, all but 5 species were recorded (Table 1). Of these 
five, the Glossy Swiftlet was last recorded in 1990, Lesser Cuckoo-shrike in 
1986, Buff-vented Bulbul in 1991, Yellow-vented Flowerpecker in 1990 
and Thick-billed Spiderhunter in 1989. All but the last-named species are 
confined to Bukit Timah. 

Of the 14 key species recorded, only 4 species - Drongo Cuckoo, 
Blue-rumped Parrot, Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot and Chestnut-winged 
Babbler - are relatively widespread and occur in all four areas. The 
remaining 12 species live a precarious existence, especially those which 
number less than 5 individuals and occur in a single area, e.g., White- 
bellied Woodpecker (MacRitchie) and Scarlet Minivet (Bukit Timah). 

New discoveries 

The survey added several species to the list of the Nature Reserves. 
Noteworthy amongst these were Large Hawk-cuckoo, Oriental Cuckoo, 
Red-legged Crake and Velvet-fronted Nuthatch. Stunning rediscoveries 
included White-bellied Woodpecker (first since 1988), Barred Eagle-owl 
(1925) and Yellow-eared Spiderhunter (1920). Most of the other additions 
were forest edge, parkland or open country species recorded within reserve 
boundaries, e.g., Lower Peirce, Bukit Timah extension. 

Other findings 

The globally threatened Straw-headed Bulbul appears to be invading from 
the Sembawang area, being recorded in sectors G, I, P, K and the Bukit 
Timah extension. The Black-headed Bulbul also occurs in both Chestnut 
Avenue sectors in addition to its known presence in MacRitchie. Another 
nationally threatened species, Crested Serpent-eagle is present in E, I, M, 
N and O. The little known Malaysian Eared-nightjar is also recorded in 
sectors H, I and P in addition to MacRitchie. Yet another locally threatened 



Bird biodiversity 



235 



species, Little Green-pigeon, has not been recorded in the central forests 
or anywhere else in Singapore since it was last seen in the Seletar Catchment 
in 1992. 

Breakdown by areas 

Based on the survey results, the bird inventory of the four forest areas is 
given below: 



Areas 


Species recorded 


Key species 


MacRitchie Catchment (MC) 


121 


13 


Seletar Catchment (SC) 


114 


8 


Peirce Catchment (PC) 


96 


7 


Bukit Timah (BT) 


114 


8 



Breakdown by sectors 

The following is a breakdown of the individual sectors and their species 
count (with numbers of key species in parenthesis): 



A - 49 (2) 


G-45 (1) 


M - 48 (4) 


B - 68 (9) 


H - 46 (4) 


N - 56 (3) 


C - 62 (5) 


I - 66 (4) 


O - 62 (4) 


D - 65 (8) 


J - 56 (2) 


P - 55 (3) 


E - 52 (2) 


K - 58 (2) 


BT - 111 (8) 


F-62 (1) 


L - 52 (5) 





High diversity - B, I, D, C, O, BT 

High key species - B, D, C, I, H, L, M, O, BT. 

High diversity and high key species - B, C, D, I, O, BT. 

From this simple comparison, it can be seen that areas of high bird diversity 
as well as high concentration of key species can be defined as follows: 

1. The MacRitchie peninsula comprising sectors B, C & D. 

2. The Mandai Track 15 peninsula comprising sector I. 

3. The Nee Soon Swamp Forest comprising sector O. 

4. Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. 



236 



Gurd. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Conclusions 

The survey has shown that while some forest dependent species are doing 
well, having both stable numbers and a wide distribution, virtually all key 
species exhibit signs of decline. The reasons for this decline are not known 
but are suspected to be related to the long-term effects of isolation, 
competition and inbreeding. 

Three primary core areas, Bukit Timah, the Sime-Shinto-Thomson 
peninsula in MacRitchie and Nee Soon Swamp Forest in Peirce. and a 
secondary one in the Mandai Track 15 area in Seletar, have been identified 
in the survey. The future of forest dependent, in particular key species, lies 
in the strict protection of these four sites. In addition, there is a need to 
ensure that bird populations of the three catchments are allowed to mingle 
to generate a healthy gene pool by linking intervening waterbodies with 
corridors and also by conserving adjacent sectors as protective buffers. 

The biggest threat to forest birds is unviable population levels for 
key species and isolation for forest dependent species. A secondary threat 
is forest clearance and disturbance as these factors result in habitat 
shrinkage, and the introduction of predators (e.g. mammals) and 
competitors (generalist birds). A third factor is the introduction of alien 
birds. 

Acknowledgments 

The writer would like to thank all participants of the Nature Reserves Bird 
Survey 1993-1997 and members of the Nature Society's Bird Group for 
help with the survey. Thanks are also extended to the National Parks 
Board for the invitation to participate in the survey as well as for logistic 
support. 

References 

Bibby, C.J., D.A. Hill & N.D. Burgess. 1992. Bird Census Techniques. 
Academic Press, London, UK. 

Bucknill. J.A.S. & F.N. Chasen. 1927. The Birds of Singapore Island. 
Government Printers, Singapore. 

Collar, N.J., M.J. Crosby & A.J. Sattersfield. 1994. Birds to Watch 2. BirdLife 
International. Cambridge, UK. 

Gibson-Hill. C.A. 1950. A checklist of the birds of Singapore Island. Bulletin 
of the Raffles Museum. 21: 132-183. 



Bird biodiversity 



237 



Hails, C.J. 1992. Improving the quality of life in Singapore by creating and 
conserving wildlife habitats. In: B.H. Chua (ed.). Public space: Design, 
Use and Management. Singapore University Press, pp. 138-158. 

Hails, C.J. & F. Jarvis. 1987. Birds of Singapore. Times Editions, Singapore. 

Lim, K.S. 1992. Vanishing Birds of Singapore. The Nature Society 
(Singapore). 

Lim, K.S. & D. Gardner. 1997. Birds: An Illustrated Field Guide to the 
Birds of Singapore. Sun Tree Publishing Limited, Singapore. 

Medway, Lord & D.R. Wells. 1976. The Birds of the Malay Peninsula, Vol 
5: Conclusion and Survey of Every Species. Witherby, London, UK. 



238 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Appendix 1. A Checklist of the Birds of the Nature Reserves of 
Singapore. 

(Status : R - Resident, M - Migrant, V - Non-breeding Visitor, I - Introduced, ? - 
Status Uncertain. 

Abundance Codes : 1 - Rare, 2 - Common, 3 - Abundant 
* - Key species. Species which are nationally threatened and forest dependent. 
Location : CCNR - Central Catchment Nature Reserve, BTNR - Bukit Timah 
Nature Reserve.) 

Part A : Species which are believed to be genuinely wild birds. 



No. Common Name 


Species 


Status 


i 

L. 


Blue-breasted Quail 


Coturnix chinensis 


Rl 


2. 


Lesser Whistling-Duck 


Dendrocygna javanica 


Rl 


i 
j. 


Cotton Pygmy-Goose 


Nettapus coromandelianus 


Rl 


4. 


Barred Buttonquail 


Turnix suscitator 


Rl 


D. 


Sunda Woodpecker 


Dendrocopus moluccensis 


R2 


6. 


Rufous Woodpecker 


Celeus brachyurus 


R2 


7. 


Tin ' j. t. ii" j wt j i -i- 

White-bellied Woodpecker* 


Dryocopus javensis 


Rl 


8. 


Banded Woodpecker 


Picus miniaceus 


R3 


9. 


T J UJ J T 

Laced Woodpecker 


Picus vittatus 


R2 


10. 


Common Flameback 


Dinopium javanense 


Rl 


11. 


Red-crowned Barbet 


Megalaima rafflesii 


R2 


12. 


Coppersmith Barbet 


Megalaima haemacephala 


Rl 


13. 


Dollarbird 


Euryslomus orienlalis 


R2 


14. 


Common Kingfisher 


Alcedo atthis 


M3 


15. 


Blue-eared Kingfisher* 


Alcedo meninting 


Rl 


16. 


Black-backed Kingfisher 


Ceyx erithacus 


Ml 


17. 


Stock-billed Kingfisher 


Pelargopsis capensis 


R2 


18. 


Ruddy Kingfisher 


Halcyon coromanda 


Ml 


19. 


White-throated Kingfisher 


Halcyon smyrnensis 


R3 


20. 


Black-capped Kingfisher 


Halcyon pileata 


M2 


21. 


Collared Kingfisher 


Todirhamphus chloris 


R2 


22. 


Blue-throated Bee-eater 


Merops viridis 


R3 


23. 


Blue-tailed Bee-eater 


Merops philippinus 


M3 


24. 


Chestnut-winged Cuckoo 


Clamator coromandus 


Ml 


25. 


Large Hawk-cuckoo 


Cuculus sparverioides 


Ml 


26. 


Hodgson's Hawk-cuckoo 


Cuculus fiigax 


Ml 


27. 


Indian Cuckoo 


Cuculus micropterus 


M2 


28. 


Oriental Cuckoo 


Cuculus orientalis 


Ml 



Nationally threatened. 



Confined to CCNR. 



Bird biodiversity 






239 


No. Common Name 


Species 


Status 


Remarks 


29. 


Banded Bay Cuckoo 


Cacomantis sonneratii 


R2 




30. 


Plaintive Cuckoo 


Cacomantis merulinus 


R2 




31. 


Rusty-breasted Cuckoo 


Cacomantis sepulcralis 


Rl 


Nationally threatened. 


32. 


Little Bronze-cuckoo 


Chrysococcyx minutillus 


Rl 




33. 


Violet Cuckoo 


Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchas R2 


Nationally threatened. 


34. 


Drongo Cuckoo* 


Surniculus lugubris 


R2 




35. 


Asian Koel 


Eudynamys scolopacea 


Rl 




36. 


Chestnut-bellied Malkoha 


Phaenicophaeus sumatranus 


R2 


Forest dependent. 


37. 


Greater Coucal 


Centropus sinensis 


R2 




38. 


Lesser Coucal 


Centropus bengalensis 


Rl 




39. 


Tanimbar Cockatoo 


Cacatua goffini 


IR1 




40. 


Blue-rumped Parrot* 


Psittinus cyanurus 


Rl 




41. 


T~_ 1 ITT' T"_ a 4- 

Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot* 


Loriculus galgulus 


Rl 




42. 


Rose-ringed Parakeet 


Psittacula krameri 


IR1 




43. 


nji _ j t. 1 _ 

Red-breasted Parakeet 


Psittacula alexandri 


IR1 




44. 


Long-tailed Parakeet 


Psittacula longicauda 


R3 




45. 


Glossy Swirtlet* 


Collocalia esculenta 


Rl 


Confined to BTNR. 


AC 

46. 


Black-nest Swirtlet 


Collocalia maxima 


R3 




/IT 

47. 


hdible-nest Swirtlet 


Collocalia fuciphaga 


R3 




AO 

4o. 


Silver-backed JNeedletail 


Hirundapus cochinchinensis 


Ml 




49. 


Ti 1 1 J XT J1 a. '1 

Brown-backed Needletail 


Hirundapus giganteus 


Ml 




jU. 


Asain Palmswift 


Cypsiurus balasiensis 


R2 




51. 


T -1 1 4. *1 1 C ' 

Fork-tailed Swilt 


Apus pacificus 


M2 




52. 


T T _ O Ti 

House Swilt 


Apus nipalensis 


R3 




53. 


urey-rumped Ireeswitt 


Hemiprocne longipennis 


R2 




54. 


Oriental Scops-owl 


Otus sunia 


Ml 




55. 


Collared Scops-owl 


Otus lempiji 


R3 




56. 


Barred Eagle-owl 


Ketupa ketupu 


VI 




57. 


n rr t-t 1 1 

Bully Fish-owl 


Ketupa ketupu 


Rl 


Nationally threatened. 


58. 


Spotted Wood-owl 


Strix seloputo 


Rl 


Nationally threatened. 


59. 


Brown Hawk-owl 


Ninox scutulata 


R3 


Forest dependent. 


60. 


Malaysian Eared-nightjar* 


Eurostopodus temminckii 


Rl 


Confined to CCNR. 


61. 


Grey Nightjar 


Caprimulgus indicus 


Ml 




62. 


Large-tailed Nightjar 


Caprimulgus macrurus 


R3 




63. 


Rock Pigeon 


Columba livia 


IR2 




64. 


Spotted Dove 


Streptopelia chinensis 


R2 





240 Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



No. Common Name 




*Stil til V 


TVvlllal K> 


65. 


Emerald Dove 


i yi nl p ph~\yi /7nc ivt ni pn 
y^ilUlLUprlLipd lillllLU 


R? 




66. 


Zebra Dove 


(Ipnnplin vtrintn 
ULUptllu oil lulu 


R1 




67. 


Little Green-pigeon 


Tromn ptlnv 
1 Fti Ufl UluX 


R1 
i\ i 


l>ldllUlldliy UllCdlCIlCU. 


68. 


Pink-necked Green-pigeon 


1 iLiuil Vtrnurld 


R3 

IN. J 




69. 


Thick-billed Green-pigeon 


Treron curvirostra 


R9 
i\Z 


iNauonauy inreateneo. 


70. 


Jambu Fruit-dove 


Ptilinnrtut inmhu 
i luuiupuo luiiiuu 


V1 

V 1 




71. 


Pied Imperial Pigeon 


Dunlin nirnlnv 
LJULlllU ULLUIUI 


V1 

V 1 




72. 


Red-legged Crake 


IxulUrlU JUdClulU 


R1 
rvl 


iMdiioiidiiy inredieneu. 


73. 


White-breasted Waterhen 


A wi ni lmvviiv nhnpyiipiiriiv 
lAU lulll V 1 1 lid JJflUZlllLUI Ltd 


R1 
rv i 




74. 


Pintail Snipe 


irnllinnon vtpnurn 

{JUlllllUgU dlLllllIU 


1VIZ. 




75. 


Common Sandpiper 


l ririgu iiypuitULUd 


IVlJ 




76. 


Common Greenshank 


Tyiyi on npniilnrin 
1 1 lilgu ilLUUllli III 


1V1Z 




77. 


Pheasant-tailed Jacana 


r~i \i nvnnfa nvi nvn i c pviiyiivoijv 

nyufupuudiufiuj Li iir iif 


M1 




78. 


Pacific Golden Plover 


1 lUVlullj JUlVu 


IVll 




79. 


Oriental Pratincole 


I .//; I' />/)/// 111 / 1 1 / 1 1 ] ' / 1 V 1 1 in 

KJlUicUlu nlululvUiuiTl 


Ml 




80. 


Little Tern 


\tpmn nlniTYftviv 
oltiilu ulUlj i Ufli 


R? 
rvz. 


Mcitir»ncill\/ tnrpQtpnprl 
iNdllUlldliy 1111 CdlCllCU. 


81. 


White-winged Tern 


ihh n nvn nv Ipiimntpriis 
y^ilUllUillUd ILULUyltflld 


1V1Z, 




82. 


Osprev 

r J 


Pnn n ipivt vt nl inpfi i c 
rUilillUll rlUllULlUj 


1V1Z 




83. 


Black Baza 


Avirpnn Ipiinhntp? 
/ll'ltCuU ILUpUUlLo 


M) 




84. 


Oriental Honey-buzzard 


Ppvyii? nti 1 p\yv\\)v\ pi i c 
LLlillb pillUiiiyrlLlld 


1V1Z 




85. 


Brahiminy Kite 


nuiiubiur iriuUd 


R^ 




86. 


White-bellied Fish-eagle 


rlfiliflpptiiv Ipurnpflvtpv 

l lUllUCClUJ ItltLUiCUolCI 


R3 




87. 


Grey-headed Fish-eagle 


JphtliM/inh n on lphthvnptnv 

lLiiiiiyupiiiigu iLiiiiiyuLiud 


R? 


i>i diiuiidiiy micdiciicu. 


88. 


Crested Serpent-eagle* 


\ml pivvn v pvtopln 
opilUlilld LllLLlU 


R 1 


PnnfinpH In TPNR 


89. 


Eastern Marsh-harrier 


Cirrus snilnyintus 

y^LILLld opilUllwlUo 


M1 




90. 


Himalayan Griffon 


vjypd iiiiiiuiuyLiidid 


VI 

V 1 




91. 


Crested Goshawk 


rxLLipilLi lilVirgllUlS 


R 1 


l>dllUIldliy UllCdlCIlCU. 


92. 


Chinese Goshawk 


ApPlVtltPY VPilpiPVIVIV 

rxLLipilLi bUlULildlo 


M1 

iVll 




93. 


Japanese Sparrowhawk 


A ppimfpv milnviv 
r\LLipilLf glllurld 


ivlJ 




94. 


Besra 


A ppimtPY \nvontiiv 
r\LLipilLl Vlt gulllo 


V1 

V 1 




95. 


Grpv-ffippH Rii77flrH 


HntnetiiY ivtfiipiiv 
DlllUMUl lillllLUd 


1V1 1 




96. 


Changeable Hawk-eagle 


Spizcietus cirrhatus 


KZ 


Nationally threatened. 


97. 


Black-thighed Falconet 


Microhierax fringillarius 


Rl 


Nationally threatened. 


98. 


Peregrine Falcon 


Falco peregrinus 


Ml 




99. 


Purple Heron 


Ardea purpurea 


R2 




100. 


Great Egret 


Casmerodius albus 


Ml 





Bird biodiversity 



241 



No. Common Name 


Species 


Status 


1 A1 

101. 


Lattle hgret 


Bubulcus ibis 


Ml 


1 AO 

10Z. 


Chinese Pond-heron 


Ardeola bacchus 


Ml 


103. 


Striated Heron 


Butorides striatus 


R3 


1 A/l 

1U4. 


Black-crowned Night-heron 


Nycticorax nycticorax 


Rl 


1 AC 

105. 


A It 1 XT' Li L „ 

Malayan Night-heron 


Gorsachius melanolophus 


Ml 


1 A£ 

106. 


Yellow bittern 


Ixobrychus sinensis 


Ml 


1 AO 
1U/. 


Schrenck s Bittern 


Ixobrychus eurhythmus 


Ml 


1 AO 

108. 


Cinnamon Bittern 


Ixobrychus cinnamomeus 


Rl 


1 ah 
109. 


T~)1_ _1_ T~) * 4.4. _ 

Black Bittern 


Ixobrychus flavicollis 


Ml 


1 1 A 
111). 


Hooded ritta 


Pitta sordida 


Ml 


111 
111. 


Blue-winged Pitta 


Pitta moluccensis 


Ml 


110 

11Z. 


Golden-bellied Gerygone 


Gerygone sulphurea 


Rl 


1 1 "3 

113. 


Asian Fairy-bluebird 


Irena puella 


R3 


1 1 A 

114. 


Greater Green Leafbird* 


Chloropsis sonnerati 


Rl 


1 1 c 

Hi). 


Lesser Green Leafbird* 


Chloropsis cyanopogon 


R2 


1 1 £ 
lit). 


Blue-winged Leafbird 


Chloropsis cochinchinensis 


R3 


1 1 o 

117. 


1 lger Shrike 


Lanius tigrinus 


M3 


1 1 Q 

llo. 


Brown Shrike 


Lanius cristatus 


M2 


1 1 A 
119. 


House Crow 


Corvus splendens 


Rl 


1 OA 

120. 


Large-billed Crow 


Corvus macrorhynchos 


R3 


101 
1Z1. 


Black-naped Oriole 


Oriolus chinensis 


R3 


1 00 

1ZZ. 


Lesser Cuckoo-shrike* 


Coracina fimbriata 


Rl 


1 OT 

123. 


TV _ 1 • 11 

ried lnller 


Lalage nigra 


R2 


10/1 

1Z4. 


Ashy Minivet 


Pericrocotus divaricatus 


M2 


1 oc 
IZj. 


Scarlet Minivet* 


Pericrocotus flammeus 


Rl 


1 0£ 

IZo. 


Pied Fantail 


Rhipidura javanica 


Rl 


1 00 

1Z/. 


Ashy Drongo 


Dicrurus leucophaeus 


Ml 


128. 


Crow-billed Drongo 


Dicrurus annectans 


M2 


129. 


Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus 


R3 


1 OA 

130. 


Asian Paradise-flycatcher 


Terpsiphone paradisi 


M2 


I3l. 


Japanese Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata 


Ml 


132. 


Common Iora 


Aegithina tiphia 


R2 


133. 


White-throated Rock-thrush 


Monticola gularis 


Ml 


134. 


Blue Rock-thrush 


Monticola solitarius 


Ml 


135. 


Orange-headed Thrush 


Zoothera citrina 


Ml 


136. 


Siberian Thrush 


Zoothera siberica 


Ml 



Confined to BTNR. 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



No. Common Name 


Species 


i j / . 


Eyebrowed Thrush 


Tardus obscurus 


1 38 
Ijo. 


Brown-chested Jungle-flycatcher Rhinomyias brunneata 


1 3Q 


uarK-sioeQ rivcaicner 


Musciccipci sibirica 


140 

i*+U. 


AVMdll DIUWU riVLalLllCl 


IVlUdLlLlipil iiuuuriLU 


Ill 
141. 


LCI 1 Ut;lllULlb .TlVLdlLIlCl 


AA ii srimrsn tovym envt on 
IVllldLlLUpil Jtl rUglrlcU 




Wllnw-nimnpH Plvmtrhpr 
iciiuw i umucu i ly^aidici 


rirpfluln 7 nnthnnvom 


143 


iNcuLissus rivcdicner 


Ficcdiilci narcissina 


144 


iviugiiiidKi riytdicner 


ilLzClUlU mllgllriUKl 


14S 
14J. 


D1UC dllU WllllC I IVCdlLllCl 


i vnnrmtiln rvnwnvuplnvin 
y^yUflUpUiU LyUilUirlZlUflU 


146 

140. 


oioeridn Blue i\ODin 


Luscinia cyanca 


147 


unenidi iviagpie-rooin 


Copsychus saularis 


14o. 


White-rumped Shama 


Copsychus malabaricus 


14Q 

147. 


Asian Glossy Starling 


Aplonis panayensis 


1 

1 jU. 


rurpie-oacKeu oiarung 


Sturnus sturninus 


lji. 


Lommon iviyna 


Acridothcres tristis 


1 JZ. 


Javan Myna 


Acridotheres javanicus 


1 ^3 


Hill Myna 


Gracida religiosa 


154. 


Velvet-fronted Nuthatch 


Sitta frontalis 


155. 


Barn Swallow 


Hirundo rustica 


156. 


Pacific Swallow 


Hirundo tahitica 


157. 


Red-rumped Swallow 


Hirundo daurica 


158. 


Asian House-martin 


Delichon dasypus 


159. 


Straw-headed Bulbul 


Pycnonotus zeylanicus 


1£0 
LOU. 


Black-headed Bulbur 


Pycnonotus atriceps 


1 61 
101. 


Black-crested Bulbul 


Pycnonotus melanicterus 


1 £") 

loz. 


Red-whiskered Bulbul 


Pycnonotus jocosus 


1 CI 

16.3. 


Yellow-vented Bulbul 


n a 

Pycnonotus goiavier 


1 A/l 
104. 


Olive-winged Bulbul 


Pycnonotus plumosus 


1 £C 

103. 


Cream-vented Bulbul 


Pycnonotus simplex 


166. 


Red-eyed Bulbul* 


Pycnonotus brunneus 


167. 


Buff-vented Bulbul* 


Iole olivacea 


168. 


Streaked Bulbul 


Ixos malaccensis 


169. 


Ashy Bulbul 


Hemixos flavala 


170. 


Yellow-bellied Prinia 


Prinia flaviventris 


171. 


Pallas's Warbler 


Locustella certhiola 



Status Remarks 

Ml 

Ml Globally threatened. 

M2 

M3 

Ml 

M3 

Ml 

Ml 

Ml 

M3 

Rl Nationally threatened. 

Rl Nationally threatened. 

R3 

M3 

R2 

R3 

R3 

VI 

M3 

R3 

M2 

Ml 

R2 Globally/nationally 
threatened. 

Rl Confined to CCNR. 

IR2 

IR2 

R3 

R3 

R2 Forest dependent. 
R2 

Rl Confined to BTNR. 

VI 

Ml 

Rl 

Ml 



Bird biodiversity 



243 



No. Common Name 


Species 


172. 


Common Tailorbird 


Orthotomus sutorius 


173. 


Dark-necked Tailorbird 


Orthotomus atrogularis 


174. 


Rufous-tailed Tailorbird 


Orthotomus sericeus 


175. 


Inornate Warbler 


Phylloscopus inornatus 


176. 


Arctic Warbler 


Phylloscopus borealis 


177. 


Eastern Crowned-warbler 


Phylloscopus coronatus 


1 no 

178. 


White-crested Laughingthrush Garrulax canorus 


1 HC\ 

1/9. 


Hwamei 


uarrulax canorus 


1 OA 

180. 


White-chested Babbler 


Trichastoma rostratum 


181. 


Abbott's Babbler 


Malacocincla abbotti 


182. 


Snort-tailed Babbler 


Malacocincla malaccensis 


183. 


Moustached Babbler* 


Malacopteron magnirostre 


184. 


Chestnut-winged Babbler* 


Stachyris erythroptera 


185. 


O A * 1 T * A 1 111 

Striped Tit-babbler 


Macronous gularis 


1 O^ 

186. 


TH '1 1 '11 1 T~<1 1 

Thick-billed Flowerpecker 


Dicaeum agile 


187. 


Yellow-vented Flowerpecker* 


Dicaeum chrysorrheum 


1 oo 

188. 


/~\ 1 1 1 * 1 T" , 1 1 

Orange-bellied Flowerpecker 


Dicaeum trigono stigma 


1 on 
189. 


Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker 


Dicaeum cruentatum 


190. 


Plain-throated Sunbird 


Anthreptes malacensis 


1 ni 
191. 


Purple-throated Sunbird 


Neactarinia sperata 


192. 


Olive-backed Sunbird 


Nectarinia jugularis 


193. 


Crimson Sunbird 


Aethopyga siparaja 


1 A /I 

194. 


Little Spiderhunter 


Arachnothera longirostris 


195. 


T^l 1 t '11 1 O * 1 1 v>. 

Thick-billed Spiderhunter* 


Arachnothera crassirostris 


1 n£ 
19o. 


Yellow-eared Spiderhunter 


Arachnothera chrysogenys 


19/. 


Eurasian Tree-sparrow 


Passer montanus 


1 AO 

198. 


Forest Wagtail 


Dendronanthus indicus 


1 no 
199. 


Yellow Wagtail 


Motcilla flava 


zuu. 


Grey Wagtail 


Motacilla cinerea 


201. 


Paddyfield Pipit 


Anthus rufulus 


202. 


Baya Weaver 


Ploceus philippinus 


203. 


White-rumped Munia 


Lonchura striata 


204. 


Javan Munia 


Lonchura leucogastroides 


205. 


Scaly-breasted Munia 


Lonchura punctulata 


206. 


Black-headed Munia 


Lonchura malacca 


207. 


White-headed Munia 


Lonchura maja 



Status Remarks 

Rl 

R3 

R2 

Ml 

M3 

M2 

IR1 

IR2 

Rl Nationally threatened. 
R2 

R3 Forest dependent. 

Rl Confined to CCNR. 

R2 

R3 

VI 

Rl 

R3 

R2 

R2 

R2 

Rl 

R3 

R3 Forest dependent. 

Rl Confined to CCNR. 

Rl Nationally threatened. 

Rl 

M2 

Ml 

Ml 

R2 

Rl 

Rl Nationally threatened. 

IR1 

R2 

Rl 

R2 



244 



Gard Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Part B: Species that are suspected to be escapees. 
No. Common Name 



i. 


Red Junglefowl 




Oriental Pied Hornbill 


3. 


Black Magpie 


4. 


Red Lory 


5. 


Black Hornbill 


6. 


Sooty-headed Bulbul 


7. 


Milky Stock 


8. 


Painted Stock 


9. 


Great Argus 


10. 


Australian Pelican 


11. 


.Azure -winged Magpie 


12 


Green Wood-hoopoe 


13. 


Grey Treepie 


14. 


Silver-eared Mesia 


15. 


Black-winged Starling 



Part C : Species which are of doubtful status, i.e., their origin cannot be ascertained. 

No. Common Name 

L. Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher 

2. Red-bearded Bee-eater 

3. Red-throated Barbet 

4. Mountain Imperial Pigeon 

5. Maroon Woodpecker 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 245-265. 



The Diversity and Conservation Status of Fishes 
in the Nature Reserves of Singapore 

PETER K.L. NG AND KELVIN K.P. LIM 

Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research 
Department of Biological Sciences 
National University of Singapore 
Kent Ridge, Singapore 119260 

Abstract 

An update on the taxonomy and conservation status of the 61 indigenous species of 
freshwater fishes now known from Singapore is provided. Of these, 26 species (43%) are 
extinct. Of the 35 extant species, 33 are known in the Nature Reserves and 21 appear to be 
restricted there. Of the 52 introduced species of fish in Singapore, 17 are present in the 
Nature Reserves. The conservation status of native fishes in the Nature Reserves is assessed 
and the survival of highly threatened species discussed. The significance of the Nature 
Reserves for freshwater fish conservation is highlighted. 

Introduction 

The freshwater fish fauna of Singapore is among the best studied in the 
region and has been the subject of many publications (Alfred, 1961, 1966; 
Johnson, 1973; Munro, 1990; Lim & P.K.L. Ng, 1990; P.K.L. Ng & Lim, 
1996). In the first major synopsis of the Singapore ichthyofauna, Alfred 
(1966) listed a total of 73 native and introduced species from Singapore of 
which 42 were still extant. Alfred (1968) subsequently listed 35 native 
species as extant and believed 19 were extinct. 

It was 22 years before the next appraisal was made by Lim & P.K.L. 
Ng (1990) in their guide to the freshwater fishes of Singapore. By then, 
several developments had taken place with direct implications on local 
freshwater fish conservation. Channa gachua, one of the species presumed 
extinct by Alfred (1968) was rediscovered (P.K.L. Ng & Lim, 1989), while 
two others, Channa melasoma and Pseudomystus rugosus [as Leiocassis cf. 
siamensis] were added to the Singapore ichthyofauna (P.K.L. Ng & Lim, 
1990; Munro, 1990). P.K.L. Ng & Lim (1996) subsequently reviewed what 
was known about the freshwater fish fauna of Singapore, listing 104 species 
of which 59 were regarded as native species, with 23 being extinct. 

Over the years, taxonomic revisions of several groups have also shown 
that some of the old records were misidentifications. From studies by P.K.L. 
Ng & Kottelat (1994), H.H. Ng & Lim (1995), Tan & P.K.L. Ng (1996) and 



246 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Siebert (1997), five species were added to Singapore's known fauna, viz. 
Bella lomi (specimens had been misidentified as B. pugnax), Ompok 
fumidus (misidentified as O. leiacanthus), Parakysis longirostris 
(misidentified as P. verrucosus), Rasbora paucisqualis (misidentified as R. 
bankanensis) and Puntius banksi (misidentified as P. binotatus). Of these, 
Belta tomi and Ompok fumidus are now regarded as extinct (P.K.L. Ng & 
Kottelat, 1994; Tan & P.K.L. Ng, 1996). 

A synopsis of the freshwater fish fauna in the Nature Reserves 
(Central Catchment and Bukit Timah Nature Reserves) of Singapore (Table 
1) is provided together with an annotated checklist for native and exotic 
species, both extant and recently extinct. General localities within the 
Central Catchment Nature Reserve (CCNR) and the Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve (BTNR) where each species is presently known to occur are 
provided. We also examine how the continued conservation of the remaining 
forest in the centre of the island (i.e., the Nature Reserves) is necessary for 
the long-term survival of most of the extant fauna. The emphasis is on 
species that complete their life cycle in fresh water. 



Table 1. Extant indigenous freshwater fish species of Singapore. 

(EN = Endangered, CO = Common, UN = Uncommon, FO = Forest waters, OP = 
Open waters, NSS = Nee Soon Swamp Forest, BTNR = Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve, NR = Nature Reserves (excluding NSS and BTNR), OA = Open rural 
areas, + = present, - = absent) 



No. 


Species 


Status 


Habitat 


NSS 


BTNR 


NR O 




Family CYPRINIDAE 












1. 


Boraras maculatus 


EN 


FO 






+ 


2. 


Cyclocheilichthys apogon 


EN 


FO 






+ 


3. 


Puntius banksi 


CO 


FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4. 


Puntius hexazona 


EN 


FO 


+ 






5. 


Puntius lateristriga 


EN 


FO 




. + 


+ 


6. 


Rasbora einthovenii 


CO 


FO 


+ 


+ 


+ + 


7. 


Rasbora elegans 


CO 


FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 


8. 


Rasbora heteromorpha 


EN 


FO 


+ 




+ 




Family BALITORIDAE 












9. 


Nemacheilus selangoricus 


EN 


FO 


+ 








Family COBITIDAE 












10. 


Pangio shelf or dii 


EN 


FO 


+ 








Family SILURIDAE 












11. 


Silurichthys hasselti 


EN 


FO 


+ 







Diversity and conservation status of fishes 



247 



No. 


Snecies 


Status 


Habitat 


NSS 


BTNR 


NR 


o 




Family CLARIIDAE 














12. 


Clarias batrachus 


CO 


OP 


- 




+ 


+ 


13. 


Clarias teijsmanni 


EN 


FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 






Family AKYSIDAE 














1 A 

14. 


Parakysis longirostris 




rU 


+ 










Family BAGRIDAE 














i s 


Mystus gulio 


CO 


OP 








T 


16. 


Pseudomystus rugosus 


EN 


FO 


+ 


- 


- 






Family APLOCHEILIDAE 














17. 


Aplocheilus panchax 


CO 


OP 


+ 






-|- 




Family ADRIANICHTHYIDAE 












18 


Oryzias javanicus 


CO 


OP 








-)- 




Family HEMIRAMPHIDAE 












1 Q 


Dermogenys pusilla 


CO 


OP/FO 




T 


i 

T 


1 

T 


20. 


Hemirhamphodon pogonognathus EN 


FO 






-J- 






Family NANDIDAE 
















Nandus nebulosns 


EN 


FO 




_L 

I 


_i_ 
i 






Family GOBIIDAE 
















Gobiopterus birtwistlei 


CO 


OP 






_l_ 

i 


_l_ 
T 


Z,J>. 


Oxyeleotris mar mo rat a 


CO 


OP/FO 




_1_ 

I 


_i_ 
T 


_i_ 
T 




Family ANABANTIDAE 














24. 


Anabas tesludineus 


CO 


OP/FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




Family OSPHRONEMIDAE 












25. 


Bctta imbellis 


UN 


OP/FO 






+ 


+ 


26. 


Betta pugnax 


CO 


FO 




4- 






27. 


Luciocephalus pulcher 


EN 


FO 


+ 








28. 


Trichogaster trichopterus 


CO 


OP 




+ 


+ 


+ 


29. 


Trichopsis vittata 


CO 


OP/FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




Family CHANNIDAE 














30. 


Channa gachua 


EN 


FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 




31. 


Channa lucius 


CO 


FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 




32. 


Channa melasoma 


EN 


FO 


+ 




+ 




33. 


Channa striata 


CO 


OP/FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




Family MASTACEMBELIDAE 












34. 


Macrognathus maculatus 


EN 


FO 


+ 









Family SYNBRANCHIDAE 

35. Monopterus albus CO 



OP/FO 



+ + 



+ + 



248 



Curd. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Unless otherwise stated, material has been examined of all species 
found in the Nature Reserves. These are deposited in the Zoological 
Reference Collection (ZRC) of the Raffles Museum of Biodiversity 
Research, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of 
Singapore. Much of the findings came from surveys conducted under the 
purview of the National Parks Board. However, recent surveys on the fish 
fauna of the Nature Reserves have not been exhaustive as some streams 
and reservoir inlets are difficult to access. Measurements are of the standard 
length (SL) unless otherwise stated. Taxonomic and ecological notes on 
each species already mentioned in Alfred (1966), Lim & P.K.L. Ng (1990) 
and P.K.L. Ng & Lim (1996) are not repeated. Systematic classification 
follows Nelson (1994) with some modifications. 

Annotated Checklist 
Extant Native Species in the Nature Reserves 

Order Cypriniformes 

Family Cyprinidae 

Boraras maculatus (Duncker) 

CCNR: streams and swamps in Sime Road forest and along southern shore 
of MacRitchie Reservoir. 

Cyclocheilichthys apogon (Valenciennes) 

CCNR: MacRitchie Reservoir, and streams in Sime Road forest. 

The probability of this species having been introduced many years ago 

cannot be ascertained as it is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. 

Puntius banksi Herre 

CCNR: common in streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest, Lower Peirce 
forest and Sime Road forest. BTNR: swamp along eastern boundary. 

Puntius hexazona Weber & de Beaufort 

CCNR: apparently restricted to the Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 

Puntius lateristriga (Valenciennes) 

CCNR: streams in the Sime Road and Lower Peirce forests. BTNR: swamp 
along eastern boundary. 



Diversity and conservation status of fishes 



249 



Rasbora einthovenii (Bleeker) 

CCNR: common in streams throughout area. BTNR: swamp along eastern 
boundary. 

Rasbora elegans Volz 

CCNR: common in streams throughout the area. BTNR: swamp along 
eastern boundary. 

Rasbora heteromorpha Duncker 

CCNR: streams in the Sime Road forest and Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 

Family Balitoridae 

Nemacheilus selangoricus Duncker 

CCNR: apparently restricted to streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 
Family Cobitidae 
Pangio shelfordii (Popta) 

CCNR: apparently restricted to streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 
The species name is mis-spelt as sheldfordii by P.K.L. Ng & Lim (1996: 

in). 

Order Siluriformes 

Family Siluridae 
Silurichthys hasseltii Bleeker 

CCNR: apparently restricted to streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 
The genus Silurichthys was recently revised by H.H. Ng & P.K.L. Ng (1998: 
302). 

Family Bagridae 
Pseudomystus rugosus (Regan) 

CCNR: known only from streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 
Identified as Pseudomystus cf. siamensis by P.K.L. Ng & Lim, (1996: 112, 
Fig. 2), the specimens appear to fit the descriptions for Pseudomystus 
rugosus best, but lack black markings on the caudal fin. Conspecific 
examples are also known from Pulau Bintan, the large Indonesian island 
off the southeastern coast of Singapore. 



250 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Family Akysidae 

Parakysis longirostris Ng & Lim 

CCNR: apparently confined to streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 
This species was recently described from Singapore (type locality) by H.H. 
Ng & Lim (1995). 

Family Clariidae 

CI arias batrachus (Linnaeus) 

CCNR: drainages along boundary and in exposed areas. BTNR: drainages 
along boundary. 

Clarias teijsmanni Bleeker 
CCNR: Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 

This species appears to be confined to shaded streams, while Clarias 
batrachus frequents exposed habitats. 

Order Cyprinodontiformes 

Family Aplocheilidae 
Aplocheilus panchax (Hamilton) 

CCNR: common in open bodies of water, especially the MacRitchie 
Reservoir and streams in the adjacent Sime Road forest and Seletar 
Reservoir Park. 

Order Beloniformes 

Family Hemiramphidae 
Dermogenys pusilla van Hasselt 

CCNR: MacRitchie Reservoir and adjacent streams in Sime Road forest. 
Also in streams in the Upper Seletar Reservoir Park and along Lorong 
Banir. 

The populations in the MacRitchie Reservoir and Sime Road forest are 
land-locked. 

Hemirhamphodon pogonognathus (Bleeker) 

CCNR: streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest and Sime Road forest. 



Diversity and conservation status of fishes 



251 



Order Perciformes 

Family Nandidae 
Nandus nebulosus (Gray) 

CCNR: streams in the Sime Road and Lower Peirce forests. BTNR: swamp 
along eastern boundary. 

Family Gobiidae 

The family Eleotrididae in which Oxyeleotns marmorata used to belong, 
has been included in the Gobiidae (see Hoese & Gill. 1993: Lim & Larson. 
1994). 

Gobiopterus birtwistlei (Herre) 
CCNR: Lower Peirce Reservoir. 

Although it is mainly found in brackish water of estuarine areas, this species 
appears to be able to breed under land-locked conditions as in the Tengeh 
Reservoir in the Western Catchment. 

Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker 

CCNR: common in the Upper Seletar and Lower Peirce Reservoirs, and 
their adjacent streams. 

Family Anabantidae 

Anabas testudineus (Bloch) 

CCNR: common in streams and swamps. 

Family Osphronemidae 

The families Belontiidae and Luciocephalidae are presently part of the 
Osphronemidae (Britz et aL, 1995). 

Betta im bell is Ladiges 

CCNR: streams in the Sime Road forest and along Lorong Banir. 
Betta pugnax (Cantor) 

CCNR: common in small streams and swamps throughout area. BTNR: 
swamp along eastern boundary. Jungle Fall Valley. 

This is the most common anabantoid in forest areas and is the only fish 
present in small streams in the interior of the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. 



252 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Luciocephalus pulcher (Gray) 

CCNR: appears to be restricted to streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 

Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas) 
CCNR: exposed water bodies. 

Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier) 

CCNR: common in exposed and weed-choked water bodies. BTNR: swamp 
along eastern boundary. 

Family Channidae 

Channa gachua (Hamilton) 

CCNR: small streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest and the Chestnut 
Drive area. 

The population from the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (Johnson. 1973: 110 
as Ophicephalus gachua) has not been seen in recent years. 

Channa lucius (Cuvier) 

CCNR: streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest and Sime Road forest, and 
Lower Peirce Reservoir. BTNR: swamp along eastern boundary. 

Channa melasoma (Bleeker) 

CCNR: small streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest and Lower Peirce 
Forest. 

Channa striata (Bloch) 
CCNR: common in water bodies. 

Order Synbranchiformes 

Family Synbranchidae 

Monopterus albus (Zuiew) 
CCNR: in streams and swamps. 

Family Mastacembelidae 

Macrognathus maculatus (Valenciennes) 

CCNR: appears to be restricted to streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest 
and adjacent areas. 



Diversity and conservation status of fishes 



253 



Recently Extinct Native Species 

Alfred (1966) has already discussed in some detail the freshwater fish 
species previously known from Singapore (Table 2). Some species, (e.g., 
Wallago leerii and Tor tambroides) which were supposed to have occurred 
in Singapore in the past but are now extinct, and whose presence in 
Singapore has been debated have been discussed by Johnson (1973) and 
Lim & P.K.L. Ng (1990). One species which Alfred (1966) listed as extinct 
has since been refound (Channel gachua, fide P.K.L. Ng & Lim, 1989). In 
addition, Channa melasoma and Pseudomystus rugosus (P.K.L. Ng & Lim. 
1990. 1992. respectively) are new records. 

Table 2. Extinct indigenous freshwater fish species. 

(FO = Forest waters. OP = Open waters. LRF = large river fauna. + = present. - 
= absent) 



No. Species Habitat LRF 





Family CYPRINID\F 






L 


Barbodes schwanenfeldii 


FO OP 


+ 


2. 


Discherodontus halei 


FO 


+ 


3. 


Hampala macrolepidota 


FO 


+ 


4. 


Labiobarbus festivus 


FO 


+ 


5. 


Osteochilus melanopleura 


FO 


+ 


6. 


Osteoch Has sp ill i t its 


FO 




7. 


Oxygaster anomalura 


FO 


+ 


8. 


Puntius dunckeri 


FO 




9. 


Rasbora cephalotaenia 


FO 




10. 


Rasbora paucisqualis 


FO/OP 




11. 


Tor tambroides 


FO 


+ 




Family COBITIDAE 






12. 


Pangio semicincta 


FO 






Family SILURIDAE 






13. 


Micronema micronema 


FO 


+ 


14. 


Ompok bimaculatus 


FO 


+ 


15. 


Ompok fumidus 


FO 




16. 


Wallago leerii 


FO 


+ 




Family CLARIIDAE 






17. 


Clarias meladerma 


FO 


+ 




Family SISORIIDAE 






18. 


Glyptothorax fa sea s 


FO 


+ 




Family BAGRIDAE 






19. 


Hen i ibagrus nemu rus 


FO 


+ 



254 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997, 



No. Species 



Habitat 



LRF 



20. 



Family PRISTOLEPIDAE 

Pristolepis fasciata 



FO 



Family GOBIIDAE 

21. Pseudogobiopsis oligactis 

22. Pseudogobiopsis siamensis 



OP/FO 
OP/FO 



Family OSPHRONEMIDAE 

23. Belontia hassehi FO 

24. Betta tomi FO 



Family MASTACEMBELIDAE 

25. Macrognarhus aculeatus FO 

26. Mastacembelus armatus FO 



P.K.L. Ng et al. (1994) subsequently published a selective list of 
Singapore freshwater fishes which they believed were under threat, listing 
18 as extinct and 17 as locally endangered species. Three species. Rasbora 
paucisqualis (as R. bankanensis). Pangio semicincta and Glyptothorax fuscus 
were listed as being probably extinct as there had been no recent records. 
All three are relatively common species in southern Malaysia where they 
are easily found in disturbed areas adjacent to forests. The failure to obtain 
these species in Singapore for so many years is a good indication that they 
are no longer extant. 

Alfred (1966, 1968) believed that one species originally described 
from Singapore, Hemibagrus elongatus, was extinct. Kottelat et al. (1998) 
believe this species is actually a Chinese and Vietnamese one. and should 
be excluded from the Singapore faunal list. 

Family Cyprinidae 

Rasbora paucisqualis Ahl 

Since its rediscovery by Alfred (1966: 17 as Rasbora bankanensis), it has 
not been seen again. 

Family Cobitidae 

Pangio semicincta (Fraser-Brunner) 

Earlier identified as Pangio kuhlii (Alfred, 1966; P.K.L. Ng & Lim. 1996: 
111) under which P. semicincta was synonymised (Kottelat & Lim. 1993) 



Diversity and conservation status of fishes 



255 



M. Kottelat (pers. comm.) now believes P. kuhlii is restricted to its type 
locality in Java. The forms on Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula (and Singapore) 
and Borneo are P. semicincta. This fish has not been encountered since 
1966 and we believe that it is locally extinct. 

Family Sisoridae 

Glyptothorax fuscus Fowler 

Previously referred to as Glyptothorax major by P.K.L. Ng & Lim (1996: 
112). However. G. major appears to be restricted to Borneo, and is a 
larger and more robust species. The local form should be called G. fuscus. 
a species described from southeastern Thailand (H.H. Ng. pers. comm.). 
There is an unconfirmed record of this fish in 1988 from a stream at 
Seletar Reservoir Park on the outskirts of Nee Soon Swamp Forest (Richard 
Yeong. pers. comm.). The specimen, however, was not retained. 

Family Gobiidae 

Pseudogobiopsis oligactis (Bleeker) 

We have not been able to find Pseudogobiopsis oligactis in recent surveys. 
All recent goby specimens collected from the Central Catchment Nature 
Reserve and other inland freshwaters by the authors and their colleagues 
have been the introduced Rhinogobius. 

Pseudogobiopsis siamensis (Fowler) 

There was only one record of this species from the Nee Soon Swamp 
Forest area. Both Pseudogobiopsis oligactis and P. siamensis were 
misidentified as Stigmatogobius poicilosoma by Alfred (1966). 

Introduced Taxa 

Fishes discussed under this section (Table 3) are present in the wild state 
through human intervention. They may be foreign species, which are native 
to South America or Africa, or even taxa that have been recorded as 
indigenous fauna in the past and presently regarded as extinct as they were 
not recorded by Alfred (1966) in his fairly thorough survey of the island's 
freshwater fish fauna. Their presence strongly indicates introduction by 
human means (e.g.. Hampala macrolepidota). The aquarium fish trade and 
the food fish trade are the main contributors to the alien fish diversity in 
Singapore. Many species have adapted well to conditions independent of 
human husbandry, and have established self-sustaining populations in the 



256 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



wild. However, their survival may not be long-term. For instance. 
Rasborinus lineatus. which was once common in Singapore and occurred in 
areas now under the Nature Reserves, appears to have died out (P.K.L. 
Ng & Lim. 1996). The species listed have either established thriving 
populations in the Nature Reserves, or have good potential of doing so as 
they are found in similar habitats and occur naturally in neighbouring 
areas. 

Table 3. List of known introduced species and their status in Singapore. 

(Status: CU = cultured. ES = escapee. FE = feral (established). NA = native. 
EX = extinct 

Use: AQ = aquarium fish. FF = food fish. IN = incidental (no use). PC = pest 
control) 

No. Species Status Use 



1. 
2. 



Family OSTEOGLOSSIDAE 

Scleropages formosus 
Osieoglossum bicirrhosum 



FE? 
ES 



AQ 
AQ 



Family NOTOPTERIDAE 



3. 



Chitala ornata * 



FE? 



AQ 



4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 

20. 

21. 

22. 

23. 

24. 



Family CYPRINIDAE 
Amblypharyngodon chulabornae 
Barbodes gonionotus 
Carasius auratus 
Cirrhinus molitorella 
Crenopharyngodon idella 
Cyprinus carpio 
Esomus metallicus 
Kampala macrolepidota 
Hypopthaln i ich thys mo I itrix 
Hypopthahnichthys nobilis 
Leptobarbus hoeveni 
Osteochilus hasselti 
Pwuiits binotatus 
Punrius conchonius 
Puntius partipentazona 
Punrius semifasciolarus 
Punrius rerrazona 
Rasbora boraperensis 
Rasbora gracilis 
Rasbora rrilineata 
Rasborinus linear us 



ES 

CU 

FE 

CU 

CU 

FE 

FE 

ES? 

CU 

CU 

CU 

FE? 

FE 

ES 

FE 

FE 

ES? 

FE 

ES 

ES 

EX 



AQ? 

FF 

FF 

FF 

FF 



AQ 

AQ? 

FF 

FF 

FF 

AQ? 

AQ? 

AQ 

AQ 

IN 

AQ 

AQ 

AQ 

AQ 

IN 



AQ FF 



Diversity and conservation status of fishes 



257 



No. Species 



Status 



Use 



Family CHARACIDAE 

25. Colossoma macropomum 

26. Paracheirodon innesi 



CU 
ES 



FF/AQ 
AO 



Family PANGASIIDAE 

27. Pangasius hypophthalmus CU 

Family PIMELODIDAE 

28. Phractocephalus hemioliopterus * ES 

Family CALLICHTHYIDAE 

29. Cory dor as aeneus ES 



FF/AQ 



AQ 



AQ 



30. 



31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 



Family LORICARIIDAE 

Liposarcus pardalis 

Family POECILIIDAE 

Poecilia reticulata 
Poecilia sphenops 
Poecilia latipinna 
Xiphophorus helleri 
Xiphophorus maculatits 
Gambusia holbrookii 



FE 



FE 

FE 

FE? 

ES 

FE? 

FE 



AQ 



AQ/PC 

AQ 

AQ 

AQ 

AQ 

AQ/PC 



37. 



Family AMBASSIDAE 

Parambassis siamensis 



FE 



AQ/IN 



Family CICHLIDAE 

38. Astronotus ocellatus 

39. Cichla ocellaris 

40. Oreochromis aureus 

41. Oreochromis mossambicus 

42. Oreochromis niloticus 

43. Thorichthys meeki 

44. Tilapia zillii 



ES 

FE? 

ES 

FE 

ES 

ES 

FE? 



AQ 

AQ 

FF 

FF 

FF 

AQ 

FF 



45. 



46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 



Family GOBIIDAE 
Rhinogobius giurinus 

Family OSPHRONEMIDAE 

Betta splendens 
Osphronemus goramy 
Sphaerich thys osph rom enoid es 
Trichogaster microlepis 
Trichogaster pectoralis 



FE 



ES 

FE 

ES 

FE? 

FE 



IN 



AQ 

FF 

AQ 

AQ 

FF 



258 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



No. Species Status Use 



Family CHANNIDAE 

51. Channa micropeltes CU/FE FF 

Family MASTACEMBELIDAE 

52. Macrognathus siamensis ES AQ 



* The Clown Knifefish, Chitala ornata, a native of Thailand, was reported from the 
Sungei Seletar Reservoir where some ten examples were obtained (but not kept) by 
rod and line in early 1998 (Tan Yit Wee, pers. comm.). There is a record of a 4 ft. 
(25 kg) Red-tailed Catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, native to tropical South 
America, fished off the Pandan River in 1996 (Lianhe Wanbao, 4 Aug. 1996: 4&8 
with photographs). Being popular aquarium fish that attain large eventual sizes, they 
may have been deliberately released when their owners could not cope. 

Single individuals of Puntius conchonius (Cyprinidae) and 
Macrognathus siamensis (Mastacembelidae) have been recorded from 
streams in the CCNR. Specimens of Chinese major carps, for example, 
Cyprinus carpio and Hypopthalmichthys nobilis, can sometimes be observed 
in the reservoirs. These exotic species are frequently imported as food or 
aquarium fish. Occasionally, individuals may be encountered in the wild 
state, having escaped from ponds and cages, or released as unwanted 
aquarium pets. However, there is no evidence of them having established 
self-sustaining populations in the wild. They are therefore not included in 
the list. 

Family Osteoglossidae 

Scleropages formosus (Miiller & Schlegel) 
CCNR: Lower Peirce and MacRitchie Reservoirs. 

Family Cyprinidae 

Hampala macrolepidota Kuhl & van Hasselt 

CCNR: Upper Peirce Reservoir (Robert Teo, pers. comm., in 1998). 

Although it was considered extinct in Singapore (Alfred, 1966), the present 

population seems most likely to be the result of deliberate introduction. 

As this is a common fish in streams and lakes throughout Peninsular 

Malaysia, it should adapt well to conditions in the Central Catchment 

reservoirs. 



Diversity and conservation status of fishes 



259 



Osteochilus hasselti (Valenciennes) 

CCNR: stream at Upper Seletar Reservoir Park. 

Puntius partipentazona Fowler 

CCNR: MacRitchie and Lower Peirce Reservoirs, and streams in Sime 
Road forest. BTNR: swamp along eastern boundary. 

Puntius semifasciolatus (Gunther) 

CCNR: stream in Sime Road forest, Lower Peirce Reservoir. 

Puntius tetrazona (Bleeker) 

CCNR: stream in Upper Seletar Reservoir Park. 

Rasbora borapetensis Smith 

CCNR: stream in Upper Seletar Reservoir Park. 

Family Loricariidae 

Liposarcus pardalis (Castelnau) 

CCNR: Lower Peirce and Upper Seletar Reservoirs. 

Family Poeciliidae 

Gambusia holbrookii (Girard) 
CCNR: Lower Peirce Reservoir. 

Poecilia reticulata Peters 

CCNR and BTNR: present in exposed water bodies along peripheral areas. 

Family Ambassidae 

Parambassis siamensis (Fowler) 

CCNR: Upper and Lower Peirce Reservoirs. 

Family Cichlidae 

Cichla ocellaris Bloch & Schneider 
CCNR: Lower Peirce Reservoir. 

Previously referred to as Cichla cf. monoculus (P.K.L. Ng & Lim, 1997: 
123). This popular game and aquarium fish originates from South America. 



260 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) 

CCNR: present in all reservoirs and adjacent drainages. 

Family Gobiidae 

Rhinogobius giurinus (Rutter) 

CCNR: Lower Peirce Reservoir, and a stream in the Upper Seletar 
Reservoir Park. 

This species is native to China and Japan. 

Family Osphronemidae 

Osphronemus goramy Lacepede 
CCNR: MacRitchie Reservoir. 

Trichogaster pectoralis (Regan) 
CCNR: Nee Soon Swamp Forest. 

Family Channidae 

Channa micropeltes (Cuvier) 
CCNR: present in all reservoirs. 

Conservation Status 

The state of knowledge of Singapore's freshwater biodiversity is generally 
regarded as excellent (Kottelat & Whitten, 1996). This knowledge, together 
with Singapore's small size, makes conservation easier than is the case in 
most Asian countries. Over the past two decades, the landscape of Singapore 
has changed very drastically, and the pressures on natural fresh waters 
have been great (P.K.L. Ng, 1991. 1994: P.K.L. Ng & Lam. 1995). Many 
native species reported by Alfred (1966) have since become rare or perhaps 
even extinct. P.K.L. Ng et al (1994) listed 18 extinct and 17 locally 
endangered species, and regarded three species as being possibly extinct. 
Moreover, the flourishing aquarium [which accounted for over S$80 million 
in 1994] (Ngiam, 1994; P.K.L. Ng & Tan, 1997) and food fish trade appear 
to have contributed more foreign species to the local fauna by way of 
deliberate or accidental introductions or escapees. 

The list of extant native fish species known from Singapore thus now 
stands at 35 (Table 1), whilst the number of extinct species is 26 (Table 2). 
That is. 43% of Singapore's known native fish fauna is now extinct. It is 



Diversity and conservation status of fishes 



261 



important to note that 21 of the 35 extant indigenous fish species (60%) 
are confined to waterways under forest cover. The five species that have 
recently become extinct (Rasbora paucisqualis, Pangio semicincta, 
Glyptothorax fuscus, Pseudogobiopsis oligactis and P. siamensis) were also 
collected mainly from the Nature Reserves. This strongly suggests that the 
loss of Singapore's forest over the last 150 years has contributed substantially 
to the loss of fish fauna on the island. 

It is pertinent to note here that many of the extinct species are 
actually large river species and there are doubts as to whether they were 
actually found in Singapore at all. Many of these records are old [pre- 
World War II] (Herre & Myers, 1937) and are unsubstantiated. Singapore 
never had large rivers that could support large and typically riverine species 
like Barbodes schwanenfeldii, Tor tambroides, Osteochilus melanopleura, 
Labiobarbus festivus, Kampala macrolepidota (Cyprinidae), Micronema 
micronema, Wallago leerii (Siluridae) and Hemibagrus nemurus (Bagridae), 
and there is every chance that the specimens on which the old records are 
based actually came from neighbouring Peninsular Malaysia. 

Of the extant species, 21 of the 35 species are present only in the 
Nature Reserves which illustrates the crucial importance of the Nature 
Reserves for the contiuned existence of these species (Table 1). More 
worrying is that the Nee Soon Swamp Forest has a disproportionately 
large number of native species, which are only known from or have their 
major populations there. Eight species (Puntius hexazona, Nemacheilus 
selangoricus, Pangio shelfordii, Silurichthys hasselti, Pseudomystus rugosus, 
Parakysis longirostris, Channa melasoma and Macrognathus maculatus) 
are only known from this area while another three species (Rasbora 
heteromorpha, Luciocephalus pulcher and Channa gachua) have their major 
populations in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest (P.K.L. Ng & Lim, 1992). As it 
now stands, with the Nee Soon Swamp Forest suffering from possible 
excess drainage etc., some species would likely become extinct over the 
next few decades. Prime candidates for extinction because of their 
apparently fastidious habitat requirements and current low populations 
would be Nemacheilus selangoricus, Pangio shelfordii, Silurichthys hasselti, 
Pseudomystus rugosus and Parakysis longirostris. The threats to the native 
freshwater fish are thus particularly serious as all of them are primary 
freshwater species and most are very stenotopic in their habitat 
requirements. 

About 52 introduced species have been recorded in Singapore's 
freshwaters, 17 of which have established feral populations here (Table 3). 
This is a substantial number, considering that Singapore's extant indigenous 
freshwater fish fauna is only 35 species. Despite the large proportion of 
introduced fauna, it has not been shown that they have caused substantial 



262 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



reduction in population size or the extinction of any native species (P.K.L. 
Ng ex aL, 1993). 

Acknowledgements 

Many colleagues have assisted in documenting the present records over 
the years. Thanks are especially due to Richard Yeong, Joseph Tan, Ng 
Hock Ping, George Tay, C. M. Yang, Yeo Keng Loo, Lua Hui Keng, 
Daphne Chung, Tommy Tan, Ng Heok Hee, Tan Heok Hui, Tan Swee 
Hee, Oliver Chia, Darren Yeo, Adrian Ou, Tay Joe Boy, Tan Yit Wee, 
Tay Hui Cheng, Serena Teo, Robert Teo, Cheryl Chia and R. Subharaj. 
We have received a substantial amount of help and guidance from Maurice 
Kottelat and Tyson Roberts on many aspects on fish taxonomy, and for 
this, we are most grateful. Eric Alfred was responsible for providing the 
original impetus for this paper and the many discusions and informal 
conversations we have had proved most helpful in enabling it to come 
together. Permission by the National Parks Board to carry out studies in 
the Nature Reserves is much appreciated. 

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15: 1-19. 

Alfred, E.R. 1966. The fresh-water fishes of Singapore. Zoologische 
Verhandelingen, Leiden. 78: 1-68, 8 plates. 

Alfred, E.R. 1968. Rare and endangered freshwater fishes of Malaya and 
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Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in Tropical South-east 
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Britz, R., M. Kokoscha & R. Riehl. 1995. The anabantoid genera Ctenops, 
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Herre, A.W.C.T. & G.S. Myers. 1937. A contribution to the ichthyology of 
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Hoese, D. F. & A. C. Gill, 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of eleotridid 



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Johnson, D.S. 1973. Freshwater life. In: S.H. Chuang (e<±). Animal Life 
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Kottelat, M. & K.K.P. Lim. 1993. A review of the eel-loaches of the genus 
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Kottelat, M. & T. Whitten. 1996. Freshwater Biodiversity in Asia with Special 
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Kottelat, M., H.H. Ng & P.K.L. Ng, 1998. Notes on the identity of 
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Bulletin of Zoology. 46: 565-572. 

Lim, K.K.P. 1995. Fishes. In: S.C. Chin, R.T. Corlett, Y.C. Wee & S.Y. 
Geh (eds.). Rain Forest in the City: Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, 
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Lim, K.K.P. & H.K. Larson. 1994. A preliminary checklist of the gobiid 
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Lim, K.K.P. & P.K.L. Ng. 1990. A Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of 
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Munro, A.D. 1990. The freshwater fishes of Singapore. In: L.M. Chou & 
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Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, xvii + pp. 600. 
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Ng, P.K.L. 1991. Native Southeast Asian freshwater fishes. Conservation 
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Ng, P.K.L. & M. Kottelat. 1994. Revision of the Betta waseri species group 
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Ng, P.K.L. & T.J. Lam. 1995. The conservation of biodiversity in Singapore: 
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Ng, P.K.L. & K.K.P. Lim. 1989. Rediscovery of the Dwarf Snakehead, 
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Ng, P.K.L. & K.K.P. Lim. 1990. The Black Snakehead, Channa melasoma 
(Bleeker, 1851) (Channidae): first record from Singapore. Raffles Bulletin 
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Freshwater Swamp Forest of Singapore. Aquatic Conservation: Marine 
and Freshwater Ecosystems. 2: 255-266. 

Ng, P.K.L.& K.K.P. Lim. 1996. The freshwater fishes of Singapore. Journal 
of the Singapore National Academy of Science. 22-24: 109-124, figs. 1-6, 
1 table. 

Ng, P.K.L. & H.H. Tan. 1997. Freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia: potential 
for the aquarium fish trade and conservation issues. Aquatic Science and 
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Ng, P.K.L, L.M. Chou & T.J. Lam. 1993. The status and impact of 
introduced freshwater animals in Singapore. Biological Conservation. 
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Ng, P.K.L., J. Low & K.K.P. Lim. 1994. Fish. In: P.K.L. Ng & Y.C. Wee 
(eds.). The Singapore Red Data Book. Threatened Plants and Animals of 
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Siebert, D.R. 1997. The identities of Rasbora paucisqualis Ahl in 
Schreitmiiller, 1935, and Rasbora bankanensis (Bleeker, 1853), with the 
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Tan, T.H.T. & P.K.L. Ng. 1996. Blackwater catfishes of the Ompok 
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Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 267-272. 



The Conservation Status of Freshwater Prawns and Crabs 
in Singapore with Emphasis on the Nature Reserves 

PETER K.L. NG 

Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research 
Department of Biological Sciences 
National University of Singapore 
Kent Ridge, Singapore 119260 

Abstract 

The freshwater prawn and crab fauna of Singapore are well studied, and 23 species have 
been reported. Seven species of freshwater crabs are present, of which three species. 
Parathelphusa reticulata (Parathelphusidae). Irmengardia johnsoni (Parathelphusidae), and 
Johora singaporensis (Potamidae) are endemic to Singapore. Sixteen species of freshwater 
prawns are known, but two species, Macrobrachium scabriculum and M. rosenbergii 
(Palaemonidae) are now believed to be extinct. Eight species had originally been described 
from Singapore. The possibility of species entering the catchment area through the import 
of raw water into Singapore from Malaysia is discussed. 

Introduction 

The freshwater decapod prawns and crabs (Decapoda, Crustacea) of 
Singapore have been studied intensely over the last 30 years, and are well 
known by any standard (Ng, 1990). In a recent appraisal of the state of 
freshwater biodiversity in Asia, Singapore was singled out as one country 
in which its freshwater fauna was very well known and studied in depth 
(Kottelat & Whitten, 1996). 

The present paper is intended to review and provide a synopsis of 
the extant and extinct freshwater decapod crustacean fauna of Singapore 
with particular- reference to the Nature Reserves. It will also examine how 
the continued conservation of the remaining forests in the centre of the 
island (i.e., the Nature Reserves) is critical for the long-term survival of 
the majority of the extant decapod crustacean fauna. 

State of the Prawn Fauna 

The freshwater prawn and crab fauna of Singapore were recently reviewed 
by Ng (1990), who recognised 24 species, of which 22 were regarded as 
indigenous. Since then, three new species have been added to the fauna. 
Choy and Ng (1991) described Caridina temasek, a species that was only 



268 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



identified as Caridina sp. by Ng (1990). Ou and Yeo (1995) showed that 
specimens which had been identified as Macrobrachium pilimanus by 
Johnson (1961a) and Ng (1990) were actually new to science and named it 
M. platycheles. Most recently, Yeo and Ng (1997) added Potamalpheops 
amnicus, the first record of a freshwater snapping prawn (Alpheidae) from 
Singapore. A total of 23 native species of freshwater decapod crustaceans 
are thus now known from Singapore (Tables 1, 2). 

Table 1. Extant Native Freshwater Decapod Crustaceans. 

(EN = Endangered, CO = Common, FO = Forest waters, OP = Open waters, NSS 
- Nee Soon Swamp Forest, BTNR = Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, NR = Nature 
Reserves (excluding NSS & BTNR), OA = Open areas, + = present, - - absent) 





Species 


Status 


Habitat 




RTNR 








Family POTAMIDAE 














1. 


Johora singaporensis 


EN 


FO 


- 


+ 


- 


- 




Family PARATHELPHUSIDAE 












Z. 


Parathelphusa maculata 


CO 


1 \ J! \J 1 


+ 




+ 


+ 


■2 
J. 


Parathelphusa reticulata 


EN 


FO 
I \J 


+ 








A 

4. 


Irmengardia johnsoni 


EN 


FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 






Family GRAPSIDAE 














5. 


Varuna yui 


CO 


OP 


- 


- 


- 


+ 


0. 


Geosesarma peraccae 


EN 


I V ) 


+ 


+ 


+ 




7. 


Geosesarma nemesis 


EN 


FO 




+ 








Family PALAEMONIDAE 














8. 


Macrobrachium malayanum 


CO 


FO 


+ 


+ 


+ 




9. 


Macrobrachium platycheles 


EN 


FO 


+ 








10. 


Macrobrachium trompii 


EN 


FO 


+ 




+ 




11. 


Macrobrachium sintangense 


CO 


OP/FO 






+ 


+ 


12. 


Macrobrachium neglectum 


EN 


FO 


+ 








13. 


Macrobrachium idae 


EN 


OP 


+ 




+ 




14. 


Macrobrachium equidens 


CO 


OP 








+ 




Family ATYIDAE 














15. 


Caridina temasek 


EN 


FO 






+ 




16. 


Caridina gracilirostris 


EN 


FO/OP 


+ 








17. 


Caridina propinqua 


CO 


FO/OP 






+ 


+ 


18. 


Caridina simoni peninsularis 


EN 


FO/OP 






+ 


+ 


19. 


Caridina tonkinensis 


EN 


FO/OP 






+ 


+ 


20. 


Caridina weberi sumatrensis 


EN 


FO/OP 






+ 


+ 




Family ALPHEIDAE 














21. 


Potamalpheops amnicus 


EN 


FO 






+ 





Conservation status of freshwater prawns and crabs 



269 



Two of the species (both palaemonids) are now regarded as extinct 
(Table 2), representing about 9% of the total known native fauna. 
Macrobrachium scabriculum has not been reported since early this century 
and must be regarded as extinct (Johnson, 1961a). The specimens on which 
this record was based were recently re-examined and their identity was 
confirmed (Y. Cai, pers. comm.). The extinction of the well known Giant 
Prawn or Udang Galah, M. rosenbergii, is a more recent phenomenon, as 
juveniles were still seen as late as 1985 in the streams draining into Nee 
Soon (Ng, 1990). This area is now very disturbed, with the lower stretches 
highly polluted. No individuals have, however, been seen or recorded since, 
and the species is now regarded as extinct. Both these species have small 
eggs and pelagic larvae that develop in estuarine and coastal areas, with 
the young prawns having to swim upstream to their adult habitats. Pollution, 
concretisation and changes in almost all estuarine areas in Singapore mean 
that the survival of these species is doubtful. The same problems are also 
faced by two other species, Macrobrachium neglectum and M. idae. Both 
species were still relatively common in the early 1980s in streams outside 
the Nee Soon Swamp Forest, but they have become very rare in recent 
years. Both species have small eggs and pelagic larvae that must develop 
downstream. The loss and/or modification of downstream habitats have 
apparently contributed to their population decrease, and both species are 
likely to become extinct in the near future, regardless of how much of our 
forests are conserved. 



Table 2. Extinct Freshwater Decapod Crustaceans of Singapore. 

(FO = Forest waters, OP = Open waters, LRF = large river fauna, + = present, 
- = absent) 



Species 


Habitat 


LRF 


Family PALAEMONIDAE 






1. Macrobrachium scabriculum 


OP/FO 




2. Macrobrachium rosenbergii 


OP/FO 


+ 



For the three atyid shrimps, Caridina simoni peninsularis, C. 
tonkinensis and C. weberi sumatrensis, none has been collected from 
Singapore waters since the reports by Johnson (1961a, b) and they might 
no longer be extant. If they are present, they should be regarded as highly 
endangered. All three are freshwater species that have their larval 
development linked to estuarine areas as well. 



270 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Of the extant shrimp species, most of the endangered species have 
direct or semi-abbreviated larval developments, that is, they can complete 
their development within the waters of the catchment area. Of these, the 
two most vulnerable species are Macrobrachium platycheles and M. trompii. 
Macrobrachium platycheles is known only from the forested, faster flowing 
streams in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest, whilst M. trompii only occurs in 
the more acidic waters of the same swamp. 

State of the Crab Fauna 

Of the freshwater crabs, Varuna yui is a eurytopic species that is essentially 
a marine crab that can live in freshwater. Of the true freshwater crabs (i.e., 
species that have semi- to completely abbreviated larval development), all 
species are threatened to various degrees by ongoing and potential habitat 
loss. 

Of the six extant wholly freshwater species, three (Parathelphusa 
maculata, Geosesarma peraccae and G. nemesis) are also common in 
Peninsular Malaysia, with P. maculata and G. peraccae still relatively 
common in Singapore in some areas at the edge of the catchment area. 
Three species, /. johnsoni, P. reticulata and /. singaporensis, are endemic 
to Singapore (Ng, 1988, 1989). Studies of neighbouring areas (e.g., southern 
Malaysia and Riau Archipelago) have revealed allied but clearly different 
species that strongly support the consensus that these three species are 
true Singapore endemics. 

The most vulnerable of these three is P. reticulata, which is known 
only from a small patch of swamp in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest (Ng & 
Lim, 1992). Johora singaporensis is known only from Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve and a small stream at the edge of the catchment area (near Bukit 
Batok Nature Park). The main population is in Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve, where it is now threatened by the gradual drying up of the streams 
there (Ng, 1995). Although no freshwater crab species is yet known to 
have become extinct in Singapore, P. reticulata and /. singaporensis are the 
most likely candidates in the decades ahead due to their stenotopic habitat 
requirements and restricted ranges. 

Note on Introductions 

There are some problems with a few species that are now still regarded as 
native. The shrimps Caridina temasek and Potamalpheops amnicus are 
known only from one stretch of Sime Road in the Central Catchment 
Nature Reserve, an area in which raw, untreated water from Johor is 



Conservation status of freshwater prawns and crabs 



271 



regularly pumped in to supplement the water stock in the reservoirs. It is 
possible that these two shrimps may have entered Singapore this way. It is 
pertinent to note that both shrimps are small species (up to 10 mm in 
length) and the adults or young could have easily crossed the filters normally 
placed in water pipes. The two shrimps had not been listed in any of the 
earlier works on Singapore shrimps by Johnson (1960, 1961a, b), and both 
species can be common in parts of western Johor (Yeo & Ng, 1997), from 
where much of Singapore's water comes. 

There is as yet, however, no compelling evidence that the two species 
are definitely not part of Singapore's original fauna, as the habitats for 
both taxa are not very specific. In addition, P. amnicus is a very difficult 
species to collect by normal methods as it is not only very small (and 
therefore easily mistaken for the young of other common prawns) but it 
also lives deep in burrows in eroded banks (Yeo & Ng, 1997). This species 
could thus have been missed by earlier workers. For the moment, it seems 
best to regard them as part of Singapore's extant native fauna. 

With regards to introduced crustacean species in Singapore, there 
appears to be no obvious problems for the native fauna at present. This is 
probably due to the fact that the majority of the extant native species are 
forest inhabitants living in softer and more acidic waters, while successful 
introductions have mainly been more open-country and hard water species 
(Ng et aL, 1993). 

References 

Choy, S.C. & P.K.L. Ng. 1991. A new species of freshwater atyid shrimp, 
Caridina temasek (Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae) from Singapore. Raffles 
Bulletin of Zoology. 39: 265-277. 

Johnson, D.S. 1960. Sub-specific and infra-specific variation in some 
freshwater prawns of the Indo-Pacific region. Proceedings of the 
Centenary and bicentenary Congress of Biology, Singapore, pp. 170-181. 

Johnson, D.S. 1961a. A synopsis of the Decapoda Caridea and Stenopodidea 
of Singapore, with notes on their distribution and a key to the genera of 
Caridea occuring in Malayan waters. Bulletin of the National Museum, 
Singapore. 30: 44-79. 

Johnson, D.S. 1961b. Notes on the freshwater Crustacea of Malaya. I. The 
Atyidae. Bulletin of the National Museum, Singapore. 26: 120-153. 

Kottelat, M. & A.J. Whitten. 1996. Freshwater Biodiversity in Asia with 
special reference to Fish. World Bank Technical Paper No. 343. pp. 59. 



272 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Ng, P.K.L. 1988. The Freshwater Crabs of Peninsular Malaysia and 
Singapore. Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore. 

Ng, P.K.L. 1989. Endemic freshwater crabs in Singapore: discovery, 
speciation and conservation. Singapore Institute of Biology Bulletin. 
13: 45-51. 

Ng, P.K.L. 1990. The freshwater crabs and prawns of Singapore. In: L.M. 
Chou & P.K.L. Ng (eds.). Essays in Zoology. Department of Zoology, 
National University of Singapore, pp. 189-204. 

Ng, P.K.L. 1995. Freshwater decapod crustaceans. In: S.C. Chin, R.T. 
Corlett, Y.C. Wee & S.Y. Geh (eds.). Rain Forest in the City: Bukit 
Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. Suppl. 
3: 151-157. 

Ng, P.K.L. & K.K.P. Lim. 1992. The conservation status of the Nee Soon 
Freshwater Swamp Forest of Singapore. Aquatic Conservation: Marine 
and Freshwater Ecosystems. 2: 255-266. 

Ng, P.K.L, L.M. Chou & T.J. Lam. 1993. The status and impact of 
introduced freshwater animals in Singapore. Biological Conservation. 
64: 19-24. 

Ou, A.C.T. & D.C.J. Yeo. 1995. A new species of freshwater prawn, 
Macrobrachium platycheles (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) from 
Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 43: 299- 
308. 

Yeo, D.C.J. & P.K.L. Ng. 1997. The alpheid shrimp genus Potamalpheops 
Powell, 1979 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Southeast 
Asia, with descriptions of three new species. Journal of Natural History. 
31: 163-190. 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 273-296. 



Butterfly Biodiversity in Singapore with Particular 
Reference to the Central Catchment Nature Reserve 

S.K. KHEW 1 AND STEVEN S.H. NEO 2 

! 103, Tai Keng Gardens, Singapore 535384 
2 Blk 16, Simei Street 1, #05-13, Melville Park, Singapore 529942 

Abstract 

A total of 381 butterfly species have now been recorded in Singapore of which 18 are new 
records since 1990. Of this total, 236 species (62%) were recorded during the present 
survey. All except 8 (3%) of these occur within the Nature Reserves and 148 (63%) were 
recorded only within the Nature Reserves. A total of 74 species (31%) within the Reserves 
were considered very rare. 

Introduction 

The study of butterflies by amateurs is not new, and indeed, it is through 
the observations of these dedicated individuals that much important data 
have been accumulated over the years. The information on butterfly 
biodiversity in Singapore is, at most, sketchy. Most of the documentation 
of the species occurred done during the post-war years until the late 1960s. 
From our literature research, two references stand out: W.A. Fleming's 
Butterflies of West Malaysia and Singapore (1991) and Steven Corbet and 
Maurice Pendlebury's Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula (1992). Although 
the latest editions of the two reference books were published in the early 
1990s, most of the updates referred only to the Peninsular Malaysia. 
Collating data from these reference books, the last known total species 
count for Singapore Island was 363 (Corbet & Pendlebury, 1992). 

Only recently has a concerted effort been made to study and establish 
the status of butterfly biodiversity in Singapore. This paper presents our 
observations and findings with particular reference to the Central Catchment 
Nature Reserve. With continued support from the National Parks Board 
there is an opportunity to undertake a long-term butterfly biodiversity 
survey in Singapore so that the knowledge of the status of species of 
butterflies will increase and a greater understanding of these beautiful 
creatures will be established. 

Methods 

Field surveys were conducted from 1990 to 1997 in and around various 



274 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



areas in Singapore. In particular, many of the surveys were concentrated 
within and around the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. For the surveys, 
we used a simple method of selecting sites based on available information 
of known or marked routes. Field surveys were based on visual identification 
but where necessary, specimens were captured for closer inspection and 
subsequently released, or were kept in a reference collection. Where 
possible, the number of individuals was noted, and other observations like 
male/female or special activities were also documented. However, it should 
be noted that for two of the families, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae, there 
are limitations to field identification, and even in a set reference collection, 
the correct identification of certain species may be difficult. Whilst all 
attempts have been made to identify the species correctly, it is hoped that 
the data from future surveys and scientific studies will provide opportunities 
for counterchecking and confirmation. 

Results and Discussion 

To establish a reference database on the butterfly biodiversity in Singapore, 
a comprehensive checklist of the species observed during the last seven 
years has been compiled (Table 1). Of the 363 species previously known 
species in Singapore, a total of 218 (or 60%) was accounted for. A further 
18 new records were observed, making a total of 236 extant species 
(Appendix 1). Not all species were located within the Central Catchment 
Nature Reserves. 

Summary Analysis by Family 

About 60% of the species previously identified as existing in Singapore 
can still be found. Many of the larger and showy species are still evident, 
although some species are extremely rare with only a few individuals 
observed. The family Papilionidae (Plate la-f) is currently represented by 
13 species in Singapore. It can be safely concluded that two species, Malayan 
Birdwing Troides amphrysus ruficollis and Great Blue Mime Chilasa 
paradoxa aenigma, recorded earlier have since become extinct. A surprising 
find is Blue Helen Papilio prexaspes prexaspes. It is highly unlikely that 
the earlier authors missed such a large butterfly. We can only speculate 
that the species has migrated south from Peninsular Malaysia and has 
since established a small colony. 

The family Pieridae seems to have suffered a significant drop in 
biodiversity over the years. Only 15 out of the original 23 species still 
survive in Singapore. However, the Eurema species, particularly, Common 



Butterfly biodiversity 275 



Table 1. Survey of Butterfly Biodiversity - Species Count. 



Family 


Subfamily 


Literature 
Records 
(A) 


Sighted 
during 
survey 
period 
(B) 


%of 
Original 


New 
Records 
(L» 


Extant 
no. of 
species 
(B + D) 


Total 
recorded 

tor 
Singapore 
(A + D) 


Papilionidae 


Papilioninae 


14 


12 


85.7 


1 


13 


15 


Pieridae 


Pierinae 


11 


6 


54.5 





6 


11 




Coliadinae 


12 


9 


75.0 





9 


12 


Nymphalidae 


Danainae 


18 


13 


72.2 





13 


18 




Satyrinae 


17 


16 


94.1 


1 


17 


18 




Morphinae 


7 


5 


71.4 





5 


7 




Nymphalinae 


51 


37 


72.5 


4 


41 


55 




Charaxinae 


5 


2 


40.0 





2 


5 


Lycaenidae 


Riodininae 


6 


3 


50.0 





3 


6 




Poritiinae 


3 


2 


66.7 





2 


3 




Miletinae 


13 


6 


46.2 





6 


13 




Curetinae 


5 


2 


40.0 





2 


5 




Lycaeninae 


132 


64 


48.5 


5 


69 


137 


Hesperiidae 


Coeliadinae 


10 


8 


80.0 





8 


10 




Pyrginae 


8 


6 


75.0 


3 


9 


11 




Hesperiinae 


51 


27 


52.9 


4 


31 


55 


TOTAL 




363 


218 


58.6 


18 


236 


381 



Grass Yellow Eurema hecabe contubernalis enjoys the distinction of being 
the most common butterfly in Singapore and can often be found in 
abundance. 

The family Nymphalidae is represented by 5 subfamilies in Singapore. 
A total of 13 species of the subfamily Danainae (Plate 2a-b) can still be 
found in Singapore. Most of these species can often be found swarming 
around flowering trees, e.g., Syzygium spp. (Myrtaceae) in the Nature 
Reserves. One species, Plain Tiger Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Plate 
2b) is decidedly local and can be found only in a few suburban locations. 
The subfamily Satyrinae (Plate 2c, d) records a healthy 94% of the original 
species known to exist in Singapore. Furthermore, one new record 
Mycalesis perseoides perseoides has been added to the Singapore checklist. 
Of notable interest is Elymnias penanga penanga, which still survives but 
only on Pulau Ubin. Most of the species in this subfamily feed on grasses, 



276 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



bamboo, palms and other monocotyledons. Five of the original seven of 
the subfamily Morphinae still exist in Singapore, although most are forest 
butterflies that have become quite rare. As many of the species are attracted 
to fruit bait, it would be interesting to conduct bait trap experiments to 
establish the density of these species. Dark Blue Jungle Glory Thaumantis 
klugius lucipor is one of the most beautiful butterflies in the region, 
comparable to the Morpho of South America. The life history of the 
species is still unknown, although we suspect that it feeds on rattan or 
another palm. The subfamily Nymphalinae (Plate 3a-c) records a total of 
37 of the original 51 species that existed in Singapore. The majority of the 
species can be found in the nature reserves. It is interesting to note that we 
have observed four new records, Lace Sergeant Athyma pravara helma, 
Plain Lacewing Cethosia penthesilia methypsea, Neptis harita harita and 
Lexias dirtea merguia (Plate 3c) for Singapore. One species, Neptis harita 
harita is restricted in distribution, and can only be found in the Mandai 
area. It is likely that this species migrated from Malaysia in recent years 
and the colony in Singapore is highly dependent on a hitherto unknown 
food plant somewhere in the northern part of Singapore. Only two of the 
original five species of the subfamily Charaxinae (Plate 3d) have been 
observed in Singapore recently. Both species are rather rare and are not 
often seen. Although the Blue Nawab Polyura schreiber tisamenus, is known 
to feed on leaves of the common rambutan, it has become extremely rare, 
as the food plant has seen a significant loss in popularity as a garden fruit 
tree in recent years, and also there have been severe changes in its favoured 
habitat. 

The family Lycaenidae (Plates 4a-d, 5a-c) includes the largest number 
of species in both Malaysia and Singapore. Of the originally recorded 159 
species, we have observed only 77 to date. However, many of the species 
in this family are difficult to identify with certainty, particularly in the 
genera Arhopala, Jamides, Allotinus and Nacaduba. Further intensive 
research and field collection would probably yield a greater number of 
species that have not been recorded in recent years. 

Finally, the family Hesperiidae (Plate 5d-e), with 41 of the original 
69 species found in Singapore, may also yield more species when more 
collecting data are available. It is interesting to note that we have discovered 
a total of seven new records for Singapore - the highest number of new 
records amongst the five butterfly families in Singapore. 

Some Observations on Singapore Butterflies and Their Host Plants 

The interrelation between butterflies and their caterpillar host plants cannot 



Butterfly biodiversity 



277 



be understated. Many species depend solely on one particular species of 
plant and will obviously become extinct, if the host plant is no longer 
available. 

Interestingly, the adaptation of certain species is remarkable, in that 
due to some evolutionary process, these species have been found to feed 
on other plants. One such case is the species Common Faun Faunis canens 
arcesilas. From established literature (Corbet & Pendlebury, 1992), this 
species was reported to feed on a species of wild banana (Musa sp.). 
However, we have discovered that the species in Singapore feeds on Fish 
Tail Palm (Caryota mitis, Arecaceae). 

Another species, The Common Tit Hypolycaena erylus teatus (Plate 
5c), was known to feed on Vangueria spinosa (Rubiaceae) and 
Cinnamomum verum (Lauraceae), (Corbet & Pendlebury, 1992). However, 
we made a startling find here in Singapore, when we discovered the 
caterpillars of this species, feeding on Javanese Ixora (Ixora javanica, 
Rubiaceae), planted at the road shoulder along busy Victoria Street in 
downtown Singapore! 

Eurema species, on the other hand, have been found on several 
types of Leguminosae such as Cassia, Acacia, Caesalpinia and Albizia. The 
species' versatility in their host plants seem to explain why they are often 
abundant in many areas in Singapore. It is interesting to note that the 
species Common Grass Yellow Eurema hecabe contubernalis, does not 
seem to have any preference for large- or small-leafed plants. We have 
seen a female of the species lay her eggs on both Peacock Flower 
{Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Leguminosae) and Seven Golden Candlesticks 
(Cassia alata, Leguminosae) planted in adjacent pots. The caterpillars were 
bred to adulthood with no apparent difference or distinction in size or 
colouration. 

Orange Emigrant Catopsilia scylla scylla appears to be confined to 
urban areas where its host plant, Cassia biflora, is grown as a roadside 
tree. It is not unusual to find the butterfly, which is fast on the wing, 
darting between the rush hour traffic along Shenton Way. We have not 
encountered this species in the Nature Reserves. 

Some Observations on Habitats and Feeding Preferences of 
Singapore Butterflies 

Many butterflies species that we recorded during the surveys were observed 
whilst feeding. Favourite flowering bushes of many species of butterflies 
are Prickly Lantana (Lantana camara, Verbenaceae), Singapore 
Rhododendron (Melastoma malabathricum, Melastomataceae), Common 



278 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Asystasia (Asy stasia gangetica spp. micrantha, Acanthaceae), Mile-a-Minute 
(Mikania micrantha, Compositae) and Common Snakeweed (Stachytarpheta 
indica, Verbenaceae). Occasionally, we encountered a flowering tree in 
the Nature Reserves, which was literally swarmed with butterflies. Some 
of the Syzygium species when in full bloom are particularly attractive to 
butterflies. Species of the families Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae 
are attracted to roadside seepages and damp muddy banks where they 
imbibe the liquid nutrients from the ground. 

Many species are also attracted to rotting fruit like pineapple, papaya 
and banana and certain species of butterflies feed on rotting fruits of figs 
(Ficus spp.) on the forest floor. Of particular interest is the Dark Blue 
Jungle Glory Thaumantis klugius lucipor, one of the most beautiful species 
of the Morphinae subfamily, which is reported to avoid fruit bait (Corbet 
& Pendlebury, 1992). However, we have observed an individual female of 
this species feeding on the rotting berries on the forest floor. This suggests 
that it can be captured with a bait trap, provided that its preferred menu is 
offered. 

Several species of the subfamily Danainae are attracted to dried 
plants of Indian Heliotrope {Heliotr opium indicum, Boraginaceae). 

Conclusions 

Although the biodiversity of butterflies in Singapore may be considered 
fair, a number of species observed were represented by only a single 
specimen. There is cause for more effort on the conservation of remaining 
nature reserves in Singapore to maintain what is left of the flora on which 
the butterflies depend on for survival. As studies on identifying the host 
plants for the different species of butterflies is far from complete, it is 
necessary to conserve as much plant biodiversity in the Nature Reserves as 
possible. 

For the known host plants, it would be useful to identify possible 
locations where these species may be planted without danger of being 
sprayed with pesticides and other chemicals that are harmful to the 
caterpillars and egg-laying females. Whilst the Nature Reserves would be 
the obvious choice for establishing these plants, urban and suburban areas 
may also be considered. Some examples of roadside trees e.g., Cassia fistula, 
Cassia biflora, Cerbera odollam (Apocynaceae) and others are already 
supporting certain species in the public housing areas. "Butterfly gardens" 
could be incorporated into school ecogardens, government-owned premises 
such as bin centres, power substations and other utility buildings - where 
the plants could be cultivated and left to be eaten by the caterpillars without 



Butterfly biodiversity 



279 



too much concern for the aesthetic appearance of the plants themselves. 
Even a small area of the Singapore Botanical Gardens could be set aside 
to cultivate insecticide-free host plants. 

If the cultivation of host plants is more widespread, there will also 
need to be adequate flowering plants to support the adult butterflies. In 
this case, there is less concern about where these flowering plants could be 
grown. In fact, our parks and green areas are ideal for planting Ixora, 
Lantana camara, and other nectar-rich flowering plants that the adult 
butterflies depend on for sustenance. 

There is also scope for a pilot study on the re-introduction of some 
of the more spectacular species of butterflies that have become extinct in 
Singapore. For example, we could import the pupae of the u birdwing" 
species Malayan Birdwing Troides amphrysus ruficollis and release the 
adult butterflies in areas where its food plant Dutchman's Pipe Aristolochia 
tagala, is cultivated and monitor the survival rate of the species. As the 
host plant is indigenous, it does no threat to Singapore's flora. However, 
care must be taken to ensure that the re-introduction will not be at the 
expense of existing species of butterflies which share the same host plant. 

There is still much to learn and do, and we hope that this paper will 
help in a small way to increase the knowledge of our butterflies and to 
help preserve them for Singapore's future generations. 

Acknowledgements 

We wish to thank the National Parks Board, in particular Dr Lena Chan 
and Ms Sharon Chan and their staff for their encouragement and support 
in the butterfly surveys and for making constructive suggestions in our 
pursuit of knowledge of these beautiful insects. We would also like to 
thank the following members of the Butterfly Watching and Research 
Group of the Nature Society (Singapore), Ms Andrea Hoffmann, Mr Gan 
Cheong Weei, Miss Sabrina Tan, Mr Koh Keow Chai, Mr Simon Chan and 
Mr Andrew Tay for their assistance in collecting data in the field. 

References 

Corbet, A.S. & H.M. Pendlebury. 1992. The Butterflies of the Malay 
Peninsula. Revised by J.N. Eliot. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, 
Malaysia. Forth edition. 

Fleming, W.A. 1991. Butterflies of West Malaysia and Singapore. Longman 
Malaysia Sdn Bhd., Malaysia. Second edition. 



280 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Foo, T.S. 1985. A Guide to the Wildflowers of Singapore. Singapore Science 
Centre, Singapore. 

Neo, S.S.H. 1996. A Guide to Common Butterflies of Singapore. Singapore 
Science Centre, Singapore. 

Polunin, I. 1987. Plants and Flowers of Singapore. Times Editions, 
Singapore. 



Butterfly biodiversity 



281 



Appendix 1. Checklist of Butterflies in Singapore. 

Legend for Status 

Very Rare - An average of 1-5 individuals observed per year 

Rare - An average of 6-20 individuals observed per year 

Common - An average of 21-50 individuals observed per year 

Very Common - An average of 51 or more individuals observed per year 

Legend for Habitat 

1. Not present in the Nature Reserves 

2. Present in the Reserves and other Locations Outside the Nature Reserves 

3. Present Only in the Nature Reserves 

4. Largely Confined to the Reserves with an Occasional Record Outside the 
Nature Reserves 

No. Species Common Name Status Habitat 



Family PAPILIONIDAE — Subfamily PAPILIONINAE 



1. 


Chilasa clytia clytia 


Common Mime 


Rare 


2 


2. 


Graphium agamemnon agamemnon 


Tailed Green Jay 


Common 


2 


3. 


Graphium evemon eventus 




Very Common 


4 


4. 


Graphium sarpedon luctatius 


Common Bluebottle 


Very Common 


4 


5. 


Pachliopta aristolochiae asteris 


Common Rose 


Rare 


2 


6. 


Papilio demoleus malayanus 


Lime Butterfly 


Very Common 


2 


7. 


Papilio demolion demolion 


Banded Swallowtail 


Rare 


2 


8. 


Papilio iswara iswara 


Great Helen 


Rare 


3 


9. 


Papilio memnon agenor 


Great Mormon 


Common 


2 


10. 


Papilio polytes romulus 


Common Mormon 


Very Common 


2 


11. 


Papilio prexaspes prexaspes 


Blue Helen 


Very Rare 


3 


12. 


Pathysa antiphates itamputi 


Five Bar Swordtail 


Rare 


3 


13. 


Troides Helena cerberus 


Common Birdwing 


Rare 


2 




Chilasa paradoxa aenigma 


Great Blue Mime 


Extinct 






Troides amphrysus ruficollis 


Malayan Birdwing 


Extinct 






Family PIERIDAE — Subfamily PIERINAE 






14. 


Appias libythea olferna 


Striped Albatross 


Very Common 


2 


15. 


Appias lyncida vasava* 1 


Chocolate Albatross 


Very Rare 


2 


16. 


Delias hyparete metarete 


Painted Jezebel 


Very Common 


2 


17. 


Delias pasithoe parthenope* 2 




Very Rare 


1 


18. 


Leptosia nina malayana 


Psyche 


Rare 


2 


19. 


Pieris canidia malayica 


Cabbage White 


Common 


1 




Appias new figulna 


Orange Albatross 


Extinct 






Cepora iudith malaya 


Orange Gull 


Extinct 






Delias singhapura singhapura 




Extinct 






Pareronia Valeria lutescens 


Wanderer 


Extinct 






Saletara liberia distanti 


Malayan Albatross 


Extinct 





282 Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



No. Species Common Name Status Habitat 



Family PIERIDAE — Subfamily COLIADINAE 



20. 


Catopsilia pomona pomona 


Common Emigrant 


Very Common 


2 


21. 


Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe 


Mottled Emigrant 


Rare 


2 


22. 


Catopsilia scylla scylla 


Orange Emigrant 


Common 


1 


23. 


Eurema andersonii andersonii 


- 


Rare 


3 


24. 


Eurema blanda snelleni 


Three Spot Grass 


Very Common 


2 






Yellow 








n.uitmu necaue lotiiiiueniiiiis 


^UIIIIIIUII OldbS 


vciy v^uiiiiiiuii 


9 






Yellow 






26. 


Eurema sari sodalis 


Chocolate Grass 


Very Common 


2 






Yellow 






27. 


Eurema simulatrix tecmessa 




Very Common 


2 


28. 


Gandaca harina distanti 


Tree Yellow 


Common 


3 




Dercas verhuelli herodorus 




Extinct 






Eurema ada iona 




Extinct 






Eurema brigitta senna 




Extinct 






Family NYMPHALIDAE — Subfamily DANAINAE 






29. 


Danaus chrysippus chrysippus* 3 


Plain Tiger 


Very Rare 


2 


30. 


Danaus genutia genutia 


Common Tiger 


Common 


2 


31. 


Danaus melanippus hegesippus 


Black Veined Tiger 


Rare 


2 


32. 


Euploea camaralzeman malayica* 4 


Malayan Crow 


Very Rare 


3 


33. 


Euploea crameri bremeri 


Spotted Black Crow 


Rare 


4 


34. 


Euploea eyndhovii gardineri 


Striped Black Crow 


Rare 


3 


35. 


Euploea midamus singapura 


Spotted Blue Crow 


Rare 


4 


36. 


Euploea mulciber mulciber 


Striped Blue Crow 


Common 


2 


37. 


Euploea phaenareta castelnaui 


King Crow 


Common 


2 


38. 


Euploea radamanrhus radamanthus 


Magpie Crow 


Common 


4 


39. 


Idea stolli logani 


Common Tree 


Common 


3 






Nymph 






40. 


Ideopsis vulgaris macrina 


Blue Glassy Tiger 


Very Common 


2 


41. 


Parantica agleoides agleoides 


Dark Glassy Tiger 


Very Common 


2 




Euploea eunice lencogonis 


Blue Branded King 


Common 


3 






Crow 








Euploea tulliolus ledereri 


Dwarf Crow 


Extinct 






Idea leuconoe chersonesia 


White Tree Nymph 


Extinct 






Ideopsis gaura perakana 


Lesser WoodNymph 


Extinct 






Parantica aspasia aspasia 


Yellow Glassy Tiger 


Extinct 






Family NYMPHALIDAE — Subfamily SATYRINAE 






42. 


Elymnias hypermnestra agina 


Common Palmfly 


Very Common 


2 


43. 


Elymnias panthera panthera 


Tawny Palmfly 


Rare 


3 


44. 


Elymnias penanga penanga* 5 




Very Rare 


1 


45. 


Lethe europa malaya 


Bamboo Tree Brown 


Very Rare 


3 


46. 


Melanitis leda leda 


Common Evening 


Rare 


2 



Brown 



Butterfly biodiversity 283 



No. Species 


Common Name 


Status 


Habitat 


47. 


Mycalesis fusca fusca 


Malayan Bush 


Rare 


3 






Brown 






48. 


Myccilesis mineus macromalayana 


Dark Brand Bush 


Very Common 


2 






Brown 






49. 


Mycalesis orseis nautilus 


Purple Bush Brown 


Rare 


3 


50. 


Mycalesis perseoides perseoides 


_ 


Rare 


2 


51. 


Mycalesis pevseus cepheus 


_ 


Common 


2 


52. 


Mycalesis visala phamis 




Rare 


3 


53. 


Orsotriaena medus cinerea 


Nigger 


Very Common 


2 


54. 


Ypthima baldus newboldi 


Common Five Ring 


Common 


2 


55. 


Ypthima fasciata torone* 6 




Very Rare 


3 


56. 


Ypthima horsfieldi humei* 7 




Very Rare 


3 


57. 


Ypthima huebneri 


Common Four Ring 


Very Common 


4 


58. 


Ypthima pandocus corticaria 


Common Three 


Very Common 


2 






Ring 








Elymnias esaca esaca 




Extinct 






Family NYMPHALIDAE — Subfamily MORPHINAE 






59. 


Amathusia phidippus phidippus 


Palm King 


Rare 


4 


60. 


Discophora sondaica despoliata* 8 




Very Rare 


3 


61. 


Faunis canens arcesilas 


Common Faun 


Common 


3 


62. 


Thaumantis klugius lucipor 


Dark Blue Jungle 


Very Rare 


3 






Glory 






63. 


Zeuxidia amethystus amethystus 


Saturn 


Common 


3 




Thaumantis noureddin noureddin 


Dark Jungle Glory 


Extinct 






Zeuxidia doubledayi doubledayi 




Extinct 






Family NYMPHALIDAE — Subfamily NYMPHALINAE 






64. 


Athyma asura idita 




Very Rare 


3 


65. 


Athyma kanwa kanwa 




Very Rare 


3 


66. 


Athyma nefte subrata 


Colour Sergeant 


Rare 


3 


67. 


Athyma pravara helma 


Lance Sergeant 


Very Rare 


3 


68. 


Athyma reta moorei 




Very Rare 


3 


69. 


Cethosia hypsea hypsina 


Malay Lacewing 


Very Common 


4 


70. 


Cethosia penthesilia methypsea*** 


Plain Lacewing 


Very Rare 


2 


71. 


Chersonesia peraka peraka* 10 




Very Rare 


3 


72. 


Cirrochroa orissa orissa 


Banded Yeoman 


Very Rare 


3 


73. 


Cupha erymanthis lotis 


Rustic 


Rare 


3 


74. 


Eulaceura osteria kumana 




Very Common 


3 


75. 


Euripus nyctelius euploeoides 


Courtesan 


Rare 


3 


76. 


Euthalia aconthea gurda 


Baron 


Very Rare 


2 


77. 


Euthalia adonia pinwilli 




Very Rare 


3 


78. 


Euthalia monina monina 


Malay Baron 


Common 


3 


79. 


Hypolimnas anomala anomala 


Malayan Eggfly 


Very Common 


2 


80. 


Hypolimnas bolina bolina 


Great Eggfly 


Very Common 


4 


81. 


Hypolimnas misippus misippus* 11 




Very Rare 


3 



284 



No. Species 



Common Name 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 

Status Habitat 



82. 


Junonia almana javana 


Peacock Pansy 


Rare 


2 


83. 


Junonia atlites atlites 


Grey Pansy 


Rare 


2 


84. 


Junonia hedonia ida 


Chocolate Pansy 


Very Common 


2 


85. 


Junonia orithya wallacei 


Blue Pansy 


Common 


2 


86. 


Lasippa heliodore dorelia 


- 


Rare 


3 


87. 


Lasippa tiga siaka 


Burmese Lascar 


Common 


3 


88. 


Lebadea martha parked 


Knight 


Rare 


4 


89. 


Lexias canescens pardalina 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


90. 


Lexias dirtea merguia 




Rare 


3 


91. 


Lexias pardalis dirteana 


Archduke 


Very Common 


3 


92. 


Moduza procris milonia 


Commander 


Very Common 


3 


93. 


Neptis harita harita* 12 


- 


Rare 


3 


94. 


Neptis hylas papaja 


Common Sailor 


Rare 


4 


95. 


Neptis leucoporos cresina 


- 


Very Common 


3 


96. 


Pandita sinope sinope 


- 


Rare 


3 


97. 


Pantoporia hordonia 


Common Lascar 


Rare 


3 


98. 


Pantoporia paraka paraka 


- 


Rare 


3 


99. 


Phaedyma columella singa 


Short Banded Sailor 


Common 


2 


100. 


Phalantha phalantha phalantha 


Leopard 


Common 


2 


101. 


Tanaecia iapis puseda 


Horsfield's Baron 


Common 


3 


102. 


Tanaecia pelea pelea 


Malay Viscount 


Very Common 


4 


103. 


Terinos terpander robertsia 


Royal Assyrian 


Rare 


3 


104. 


Vindula dejone erotella 


Cruiser 


Very Common 


3 




Ariadne ariadne ariadne 


Angled Castor 


Extinct 






Athyma perius perius 


Common Sergeant 


Extinct 






Bassarona teuta goodrichi 


Banded Marquis 


Extinct 






Chersonesia rahria rahria 


Wavy Maplet 


Extinct 






Dophla evelina compta 


- 


Extinct 






Euthalia djata rubidifascia 


■ 


Extinct 






Euthalia merta merta 




Extinct 






Neptis miah batara 




Extinct 






Pantoporia aurelia aurelia 




Extinct 






Pantoporia dindinga 




Extinct 






Pantoporia sandaka sandaka 




Extinct 






Parthenos sylvia lilacinus 


Clipper 


Extinct 






Tanaecia godartii puloa 


Malay Count 


Extinct 






Vagrans egista macromalayana 


Vagrant 


Extinct 






Family NYMPHALIDAE — Subfamily CHARAXINAE 






105. 


Polyura hebe plautus 




Rare 


3 


106. 


Polyura schreiber tisamenus 


Blue Nawab 


Very Rare 


3 




Char axes bernadus crepax 


Tawny Rajah 


Extinct 






Polyura moori moori 




Extinct 






Prothoe franck uniformis 




Extinct 





107. 



Family LYCAENIDAE — Subfamily RIODININAE 

Abisara geza niya - Rare 



3 



Butterfly biodiversity 



285 



No. Species 



Common Name 



Status 



Habitat 



108. 
109. 



110. 
111. 



112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 



118. 
119. 



Abisara savitri savitri 
Laxita thuisto thuisto 
Abisara saturata kausambioides 
Taxila haquinus haquinus 
Zemeros flegyas albipunctatus 



Lesser Harlequin 
Malayan Plum Judy 
Harlequin 
Punchinello 



Family LYCAENIDAE — Subfamily PORITIINAE 
Poritia philota philota 

Poritia sumatrae sumatrae Sumatran Gem 

Simiskina phalia potina Blue Brilliant 

Family LYCAENIDAE — Subfamily MILETINAE 



Allotinus unicolor unicolor 
Logania marmorata damis 
Miletus biggsii biggsii 
Miletus gopara gopara 
Miletus symethus petronius* l} 
Spalgis epius epius 
Allotinus davidis 
Allotinus horsfieldi nessus 
Allotinus strigatus malayanus 
Allotinus substrigosus substrigosus 
Allotinus subviolaceus alkamah 
Liphyra brassolis abbreviata 
Miletus gaesa gaesa 



Lesser Darkie 



Bigg's Brownie 



The Moth Butterfly 



Subfamily CURETINAE 

Malayan Sunbeam 



Family LYCAENIDAE 
Curetis santana malayica 
Curetis saronis sumatrana* u 
Curetis bulis stigmata 
Curetis regit la 
Curetis sperthis sperthis 



Family LYCAENIDAE — Subfamily LYCAENINAE 



120. Acytolepis puspa Iambi 

121. Anthene emolus goberus 

122. Anthene lycaenina miya 

123. Arhopala abseus abseus 

124. Arhopala aedias agnis 

125. Arhopala ammon ammon 

126. Arhopala amphimuta amphimuta 

127. Arhopala antimuta antimuta 

128. Arhopala athada athada 

129. Arhopala atosia malayana 



Common Hedge 
Blue 

Ciliate Blue 



Large Metallic Oak 
Blue 



Tailed Disc Oak 
Blue 



Rare 

Rare 

Extinct 

Extinct 

Extinct 



Very Rare 

Rare 

Extinct 



Rare 

Rare 

Common 

Rare 

Rare 

Very Rare 

Extinct 

Extinct 

Extinct 

Extinct 

Extinct 

Extinct 

Extinct 



Common 
Very Rare 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 



Common 

Rare 
Rare 
Rare 
Rare 

Very Rare 
Very Rare 
Rare 
Rare 

Very Rare 



286 



No. Species 



Common Name 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 

Status Habitat 



130. 


Arhopala aurea 


- 


Rare 


3 


131. 


Arhopala epimuta epiala 


- 


Rare 


3 




A rhnnnln mninr mninr 






J 


133. 


Arhopala myrzala lammas 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


134. 


Arhopala pseudocentaurus nakula 


- 


Rare 


2 


135. 


Arhopala pseudomuta pseudomuta 


Raffles' Oak Blue 


Rare 


3 


136. 


Arhopala trogon* 15 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


137. 


Caleta elna elvira 


Elbowed Pierrot 


Rare 


3 


138. 


Castalius rosimon rosimon* 16 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


139. 


Catochrysops panormus exiguus* 11 


Silver Forget-Me- 
Not 


Very Rare 


1 


140. 


Catochrysops strabo strabo 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


141. 


Cheritra freja friggia 


Common Imperial 


Very Rare 


3 


142. 


Chilades pandava pandava 


Cycad Blue 


Common 


2 


143. 


Deudorix epijarbas cinnabarus 


Cornelian 


Rare 


3 


144. 


Drupadia ravindra moorei 


Common Posy 


Common 


3 


145. 


Drupadia rufotaenia rufotaenia m 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


146. 


Drupadia theda thesmia 


Dark Posy 


Very Rare 


3 


147. 


Eooxylides tharis distanti 


Branded Imperial 


Very Common 


3 


148. 


Euchrypsos cnejus cnejus 


Gram Blue 


Common 


3 


149. 


Everes lacturnus rileyi 


Indian Cupid 


Very Rare 


1 


150. 


Flos anniella anniella 


.- 


Very Rare 


3 


151. 


Flos apidanus saturatus 


- 


Rare 


3 


152. 


Flos diardi capeta 


- 


Rare 


3 


153. 


Flos fulgida singhapura 


- 


Rare 


3 


154. 


Horaga syrinx maenala* 19 


- 


Very Rare 


4 


155. 


Hypolycaena erylus teatus 


Common Tit 


Common 


4 


156. 


Hypolycaena thecloides thecloides 


- 


Very Rare 


4 


157. 


Ionolyce helicon merguiana 


Pointed Line Blue 


Common 


3 


158. 


Iraota distanti distanti*™ 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


159. 


Iraota rochana boswelliana 


- 


Very Rare 


4 


160. 


Jacoona anasuja anasuja* 21 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


161. 


Jamides bochus nabonassar* 22 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


162. 


Jamides caeruleus caeruleus 


Sky Blue 


Rare 


3 


163. 


Jamides celeno aelianus 


Common Caerulean 


Common 


4 


164. 


Lampides boeticus 


Pea Blue 


Rare 


3 


165. 


Loxura atymnus fuconius 


Yamfly 


Rare 


3 


166. 


Megisba malaya sikkima 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


167. 


Nacaduba berenice icena 


Rounded 6-Line 


Rare 


3 






Blue 






168. 


Nacaduba beroe neon 




Rare 


3 


169. 


Neocheritra amrita amrita 


Grand Imperial 


Very Rare 


3 


170. 


Neopithecops zalmora zalmora 




Very Rare 


3 


171. 


Prosotas nora superdates 




Common 


4 


172. 


Rapala dieneces dieneces* 23 




Very Rare 


3 


173. 


Rapala domitia domitia 




Rare 


3 


174. 


Rapala iarbus iarbus 


Common Red Flash 


Rare 


3 



Butterfly biodiversity 

No. Species 



Common Name Status 



287 



Habitat 



175. Rapala manea chozeba 


- 


Very Rare 


3 


176. Rapala suffusa barthema 




Very Rare 


3 


111. Rapala varuna orseis 




Rare 


3 


178. Remelana jangala travana* 24 


Chocolate Royal 


Very Rare 


3 


179. Semanga superba deliciosa 




Rare 


3 


180. Sinthusa nakasa amba 




Rare 


3 


181. Spindasis lohita senama 


Long Banded 
Silverline 


Very Rare 


3 


182. Spindasis syama terana 


Club/Black-Banded 
Silverline 


Very Rare 


3 


183. Surendra vivarna amisena 


Acacia Blue 


Rare 


3 


184. Tajuria cippus maxentius 


Peacock Royal 


Rare 


4 


185. Virachola kessuma deliochus* 25 




Very Rare 


3 


186. Zeltus amasa maximinianus 


Fluffy Tit 


Rare 


3 


187. Zizina otis lampa 


Lesser Grass Blue 


Very Common 


2 


188. Zizula hylax pygmaea 


_ 


Rare 


1 


Ancema blanka blanka 


_ 


Extinct 




Arhopala achelous achelous 


_ 


Extinct 




Arhopala agrata agrata 


de Niceville's Dull 
Oakblue 


Extinct 




Arhopala alitaeus pardenas 


_ 


Extinct 




Arhopala allata pandora 


_ 


Extinct 




Arhopala ariel 


_ 


Extinct 




Arhopala avathina avathina 


_ 


Extinct 




Arhopala bar ami penanga 


_ 


Extinct 




Arhopala corinda acestes 




Extinct 




Arhopala delta 




Extinct 




Arhopala democritus lycaenaria 




Extinct 




Arhopala eumolphus maxwelli 


Green Oakblue 


Extinct 




Arhopala fulla intaca 




Extinct 




Arhopala hypomuta hypomuta 




Extinct 




Arhopala inornata inornata 




Extinct 




Arhopala lurida 




Extinct 




Arhopala metamuta metamuta 




Extinct 




Arhopala milleri 




Extinct 




Arhopala moorei busa 




Extinct 




Arhopala muta maranda 




Extinct 




Arhopala normani 




Extinct 




Arhopala phanda phanda 




Extinct 




Arhopala silhetensis adorea 




Extinct 




Arhopala sublustris ridleyi 




Extinct 




Arhopala wildeyana wildeyana 




Extinct 




Bindahara phocides phocides 




Extinct 




Bullis buto cowani 




Extinct 




Catapaecilma major emas 




Extinct 




Deudorix elioti 




Extinct 




Deudorix staudingeri 




Extinct 





288 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



No. Species 



Common Name 



Status 



Habitat 



Drina cowani 
Eliotia jalindra burbona 
Horaga albimacula malaya 
Horaga chalcedonyx malaya 
Horaga onyx sardonyx 
Iraota timoleon wickii 
Jamides abdid abdid 
Jamides alecto ageladas 
Jamides elpis pseudelpis 
Jamides philatus subditus 
Jamides pura pura 
Manto hypoleuca terana 
Mantoides gama gama 
Nacaduba augusta kerriana 
Nacaduba calauria malayica 
Nacaduba hermus swatipa 
Nacaduba kurava nemana 
Nacaduba pactolus odon 
Nacaduba pavana singapura 
Nacaduba pendleburyi pendleburyi 
Nacaduba russelli 
Nacaduba sanaya elioti 
Nacaduba subperusia lysa 
Pratapa deva relata 
Pratapa icetoides calculis 
Prosotas dubiosa lumpura 
Pseudotajuria donatana donatana 
Purlisa gigantea gigantea 
Rapala abnormis abnormis 
Rapala cowani 
Rapala damona 
Rapala pheretima sequeira 
Tajuria deudorix ingeni 
Tajuria dominus dominus 
Tajuria mantra mantra 
Una usta usta 

Virachola subguttata malaya 
Zizeeria karsandra 



White Royal 



Singleton 

Dark Grass Blue 



Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 
Extinct 



189. 
190. 
191. 
192. 
193. 
194. 
195. 



Family HESPERIIDAE — Subfamily COELIADINAE 

Badamia exclamationis 
Bibasis etelka* 26 
Bibasis harisa consobrina 
Hasora badra badra 
Hasora chromus chromus 
Hasora schoenherr chuza* 21 
Hasora taminatus malayana 



Orange Awlet 
Common Awl 

Yellow Banded Awl 



Very Rare 
Very Rare 
Very Rare 
Rare 

Very Rare 
Very Rare 
Rare 



Butterfly biodiversity 

No. Species 



Common Name Status 



289 



Habitat 



196. 


Hasora vitta vitta 


Plain Banded Awl 


Rare 


3 




Choaspes subcaudatus crawfurdi 




Extinct 






Hasora lizetta 




Extinct 






Family HESPERIIDAE — Subfamily PYRGINAE 






197. 


Gerosis Umax dirae* 2 * 




Very Rare 


3 


198. 


Gerosis phisara phisara* 29 




Very Rare 


3 


199. 


Odina hieroglyphica ortina 




Very Rare 


3 


200. 


Odontoptilum angulation angulation* 30 




Very Rare 


3 


201. 


Tagiades calligana 




Rare 


3 


202. 


Tagiades gana gana 


Large Snow Flat 


Rare 


3 


203. 


Tagiades japetus atticus 


Common Snow Flat 


Rare 


3 


204. 


Tagiades ultra 




Very Rare 


3 


205. 


Tapena thwaitesi bornea* 31 




Very Rare 


3 




Celaenorrhinus asmara asmara 




Extinct 






Gerosis tristis 




Extinct 






Family HESPERIIDAE — Subfamily HESPERIINAE 






206. 


Ampittia dioscorides camertes* 32 


Bush Hopper 


Rare 


3 


207. 


Ancistroides nigrita maura 


Chocolate Demon 


Rare 


3 


208. 


Caltoris cormasa 




Rare 


3 


209. 


Caltoris philippina philippina 




Common 


3 


210. 


Eetion elia 




Rare 


3 


211. 


Erionota acroleuca apicalis* 33 




Very Rare 


3 


212. 


Erionota thrax thrax 


Banana Skipper 


Rare 


4 


213. 


Erionota torus 




Rare 


4 


214. 


Gangara thyrsis thyrsis* 34 


Giant Redeye 


Very Rare 


3 


215. 


Halpe ormenes vilasina 




Very Rare 


3 


216. 


Hidari irava 


Coconut Skipper 


Rare 


4 


217. 


Hyarotis adrastus praba 




Very Rare 


3 


218. 


lambrix salsala salsala 


Chestnut Bob 


Rare 


3 


219. 


lambrix stellifer 


Starry Bob 


Very Rare 


3 


220. 


Matapa aria 


Common Redeye 


Very Rare 


3 


221. 


Notocrypta paralysos varians 


Banded Demon 


Rare 


3 


222. 


Oriens gola pseudolus 


Common Dartlet 


Very Rare 


3 


223. 


Pelopidas mathias mathias 


Small Branded Swift 


Common 


4 


224. 


Plastingia naga 




Rare 


3 


225. 


Plastingia pellonia* 35 




Very Rare 


3 


226. 


Polytremis lubricans lubricans 


Contiguous Swift 


Common 


4 


227. 


Potanthus omaha omaha 


Lesser Dart 


Common 


4 


228. 


Pyroneura latoia latoia 


Yellow Veined Lancer Common 


3 


229. 


Quedara monteithi monteithi* 36 




Very Rare 


3 


230. 


Suastus every x every x* 31 




Very Rare 


3 


231. 


Suastus gremius gremius 




Rare 


2 


232. 


Taractrocera ardonia lamia 




Very Rare 


3 


233. 


Telicota besta bina 




Common 


4 


234. 


Udaspes folus 


Grass Demon 


Rare 


2 



290 



Gard. Bull Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


Common Name 


Status 


Unkana ambasa batara 


Hoary Palmer 


Very Rare 


Zela zenon* 2 * 


- 


Very Rare 


Astictopterus jama jama 


Forest Hopper 


Extinct 


Baoris farri farri 


- 


Extinct 


Baoris oceia 


Paintbrush Swift 


Extinct 


Borbo cinnara 


Formosan Swift 


Extinct 


Caltoris malaya 


- 


Extinct 


Cephrenes acalle niasicus 


- 


Extinct 


Gangara lebadea lebadea 


- 


Extinct 


Idmon distanti 


- 


Extinct 


Idmon obliquans obliquans 


Small Red Bob 


Extinct 


Notocrypta clavata clavata 


- 


Extinct 


Parnara bada bada 


- 


Extinct 


Pelopidas agna agna 


- 


Extinct 


Pemara pugnans pugnans 


Pugnacious Lancer 


Extinct 


Potanthus confiicius dushta 


- 


Extinct 


Potanthus heraerus serina 


- 


Extinct 


Potanthus juno juno 


- 


Extinct 


Potanthus trachala tytleri 


- 


Extinct 


Psolos fuligo fuligo 


The Coon 


Extinct 


Telicota augias augias 


Palm Dart 


Extinct 


Telicota colon stinga 




Extinct 


Zela cowani 




Extinct 


Zographetus doxus 




Extinct 


Zographetus ogygia ogygia 




Extinct 


Zographetus rama 




Extinct 



Habitat 



235. 
236. 



Compiled by Khew Sin Khoon, 1 September 1998. 

• New records for Singapore are printed in bold. 

• Species identified in the genus Arhopala are tentative and subject to further verification. 

• The extinct species have either not been seen in recent years or are believed to be extinct. 
However, it is still possible that some of these may turn up in continuing surveys. 

1 Very seasonal. No physical records taken in recent years. 

2 Record verified by a single physical specimen taken in the Mandai area. 

3 Very local in distribution. Found mainly in the Sembawang area. 

4 Species recorded by a single physical specimen taken at Nee Soon Pipeline. 

5 Very local in distribution. Observed only on Pulau Ubin. 

6 Species recorded by a single photographed specimen at Night Safari Zoo. 

7 Species recorded by a single physical specimen taken in Lower Peirce Reservoir area. 

8 Species recorded in early 90s. None observed in recent years. 

y Not seen in recent years, except for one physical specimen taken on the Gangsa Track. 
Chestnut Ave. 

10 Two unconfirmed sightings at Upper Seletar Reservoir Park. 

11 Not seen in recent years, except one physical specimen taken in the Mandai area. 



Butterfly biodiversity 



291 



12 Very localised distribution in the Mandai area. 

13 All specimens taken on the Gangsa Track, Chestnut Ave. 

14 Very local in distribution. Records mainly from Sungei Buloh Nature Park. 

15 Species recorded from a single physical specimen taken on the Island Club Track. 

16 Species recorded from a single physical specimen taken in the MacRitchie area. 

17 Species recorded from two physical specimens taken at Pulau Ubin and Khatib Bongsu. 

18 Species recorded from a single physical specimen taken on the Island Club Track. 
iy Three unconfirmed sightings in Feb 98. No physical specimens taken. 



20 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


in the MacRitchie area. 


21 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


in the Mandai area. 


22 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


on the Gangsa Track. 


23 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


on the Gangsa Track. 


24 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


in the Upper Seletar Reservoir Park. 


25 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


on the Gangsa Track. 


26 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


at Nee Soon Pipeline. 


27 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


on the Island Club Track. 


28 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


on the Island Club Track. 


29 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


at Upper Peirce Reservoir. 


30 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


at Nee Soon Pipeline. 


31 


Species 


recorded 


from 


a single 


physical 


specimen 


taken 


in the Sime Road area. 



32 Very local. Found only on the Water's Edge Path, Chestnut Ave area. 

33 Species recorded from a single physical specimen taken in the Upper Seletar Reservoir Park. 

34 Unconfirmed observation on the Island Club Track. 

35 Species recorded from a single physical specimen taken at Nee Soon Pipeline. 

36 Species recorded from two physical specimens taken in the Upper Seletar Reservoir Park. 

37 Species recorded from a single physical specimen taken at Upper Peirce Reservoir. 

38 Species recorded by a single physical specimen taken in the Upper Seletar Reservoir Park. 



292 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




Plate L Family Papilionidae. a. The Great Mormon (Papilio memnon agenor) female form- 
esperi is the commonest of the four forms found in Singapore, b. The Common Mormon 
(Papilio polytes romulus) - recently hatched males drying their wings, c. The Banded 
Swallowtail (Papilio demolion demolion) is a threatened species, d. The Common Birdwing 
(Troides helena cerberus), being very dependent on its caterpillar host plant, Aristolochia tagala, 
is extremely vulnerable to extinction. e.The Five Bar Swordtail (Pathysa antiphates itamputi) 
is a relatively rare and forest-dependent species, f. The Tailed Green Jay (Graphium 
agamemnon agamemnon) can be found in the reserves and housing estates. 



Butterfly biodiversity 



293 




Plate 2. Family Nymphalidae — Subfamily Danainae (a — b) and Subfamily Satyrinae (c — d). 

a. The Common Tree Nymph (Idea stolli logani) is a forest-dependent species which floats 
among tree tops. b. The Plain Tiger (Danaus chrysippus chrysippus) is extremely rare and 
sightings are limited to northen part of the island, c. The Tawny Palmfly (Elymnias panthera 
panthera) is a forest-dependent species which feeds on palms, d. The Malayan Bush Brown 
(Mycalesis fusca fusca) is a forest-dependent species which is usually seen singly amongst 
low-growing shrubs and grasses. 



294 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




Plate 3. Family Nymphalidae — Subfamily Nymphalinae (a — c) and Subfamily Charaxinae 
(d). a. This rare Athyma asura idita is a forest-dependent species. b.This extremely rare Euthalia 
adonia pinwilli is most often seen on the western banks of the Upper Peirce Reservoir, c. 
Lexias dirtea merguia is a rare forest-dependent species, d. Polyura hebe plautus, a subspecies 
thought to occur only in Singapore, and southern Johore. 



Butterfly biodiversity 



295 





Plate 4. Family Lycaenidae — Subfamily Riodininae (a — b) and Subfamily Lycaeninae (c — 

d). a. Abisara geza niya is a rare forest-dependent species, b. The Lesser Harlequin (Laxita 
thuisto thuisto) is a rare forest-dependent species, c. Arhopala abseus abseus is more common 
here than in Malaysia. d.The forest-dependent Common Posy (Drupadia ravindra moorei) is 
found throughout the Nature Reserves. 



296 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (J 997) 




Plate 5d Khew Sin Khoon Plate 5e Knew Sin Khoon 



Plate 5. Family Lycaenidae — Subfamily Lycaeninae (a — c), Family Hesperiidae — Subfamily 
Pyrginae (d) and Subfamily Coeliadinae (e). a. The Common Tit - Caterpillar stage, b. The 
Common Tit - Pupa stage, c. The Common Tit (Hypolycaena erylus teatus).d. Tagiades calligana, 
a forest-dependent species which is usually seen singly, e. The rare Orange Awlet (Bibasis 
harisa consobrina) is bred on Arthrophyllum diver sifolium found in the Nature Reserves. 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 297-312. 



Stick and Leaf Insect (Phasmida: Insecta) Biodiversity in 
the Nature Reserves of Singapore 

FRANCIS SEOW-CHOEN 

Department of Colorectal Surgery 

Singapore General Hospital 
Outram Road, Singapore 169608 

Abstract 

Forty-one species of phasmids found in Singapore extant as well as extinct are listed and 
aspects of their conservation discussed. Eleven species are still relatively common and are 
widely distributed especially within the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Eleven species 
exist in only very isolated pockets within the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. One 
species has been found only in the Punggol area. A further ten species are very rare and in 
almost a decade of studying these insects only one or two specimens have been found in 
Singapore. An additional eight species have not been seen or recorded for at least 30 years 
and are best described as extinct in Singapore. 

Introduction 

Stick and Leaf Insects (order Phasmida) are common but little known 
insects of tropical and subtropical forests. Indeed, South-East Asia has a 
large number of species. Most if not all species have an uncanny ability to 
"disappear" into their surroundings by mimicking sticks and leaves thus 
earning them their names Phasmida and Spectres, both meaning 'ghost- 
like'. Phasmids are food plant specific and all species refuse to eat unless 
the plants offered are acceptable to that particular species. Most species 
will take only a few species of naturally occurring plants. Similar species 
may eat similar plants while species from different genera eat totally 
different plants. In the wild, phasmids are usually located on or near their 
food plants. This may, therefore, make phasmids a good indicator of forest 
health. A wide variety of phasmids is an indicator of the presence of a 
wide variety of plant species. 

The order Phasmida is divided into three suborders and six families. 
The suborder Timematodea consists of one family of small insects with 
three segmented tarsi and is found only in North and Central America. All 
other phasmids are therefore divided into one of the other two suborders. 
The suborder Areolatae consists of insects where the middle and hind 
tibiae have a sunken triangular region or areola on the underside of the 
apices. The suborder Anareolatae is made up of insects without this sunken 
areola. The suborder Areolatae consists of the families Bacillidae, 



298 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Pseudophasmatidae and the Phyllidae. The suborder Anareolatae consists 
of the families Heteronemiidae and the Phasmatidae. 

History and Methods 

Prior to the present survey, reports of phasmids from Singapore were 
scanty and limited to occasional and infrequent accounts (Westwood, 1859; 
Brunner & Redtenbacher, 1906-08; Ridley, 1894). During the course of 
this survey, several reports were published including new records and new 
species (Seow-Choen, 1993a-e, 1995a-d, 1996a-b, 1997a-b; Seow-Choen & 
Brock, 1996; Seow-Choen et aL, 1994a-d; Seow-Choen et aL, 1994e; Tay & 
Seow-Choen, 1996, Seow-Choen & Seow-En, 1994; Seow-Choen et aL, 
1996 & Brock, 1995) 

Details of records from Singapore were based on field observations 
by the author, friends and colleagues as well as extensive searches of the 
literature and examination of museum collections. The author started 
working on Singapore phasmids in 1990. Full details on synonyms and 
museum records may be found in Brock (1999). Field work consisted mainly 
of meticulous searching after dark of bushes along paths within the Nature 
Reserves. These insects are nocturnal and daytime searching is futile. Night- 
time searching with a powerful hand torch gives the best results. Searches 
are normally made from ground to a level of about 3 m from ground level. 
Searches higher up were not made as capture of insects at such levels 
would have been impossible. It is possible that many insects that are 
considered rare are present at the top of the canopy but these are impossible 
to assess at the present time by the current methods employed by the 
author. Torch lighting obviously allows only for capture of individual insects 
one at a time and is time consuming and labour intensive. 

Phasmid ecology, including food plants and aspects of their life cycle, 
was also investigated as the author is successful in rearing many of the 
local species. 

Results 

The Phasmida classification of Bradley and Galil (1977) lists three suborders, 
six families and 17 subfamilies. In our survey of Singapore forests, we 
have found representatives from two suborders, five families and six 
subfamilies (Table 1). Altogether 41 species have been found or been 
recorded in the past from Singapore. In the course of our research into 
Singapore's Phasmids, 18 new records for Singapore were established, 
numerous synonyms cleared up and three undescribed species found. Two 



Stick and leaf insect biodiversity 



299 



species (Abrosoma xiuyuae and Asceles singapura) have since been 
described. One species is still undescribed and could possibly represent a 
new genus. 

Table L Checklist of Phasmids in Singapore and their status. 

(C=common, 1= isolated pockets, R= rare, E=extinct) 



No. Species Status 



Suborder AREOLATAE 

Family BACILLIDAE — Subfamily HETEROPTERYGINAE 

1. Datames oileus (Westwood) 1859 C 

2. Datames mouhotii (Bates) 1865 I 

3. Heteropteryx dilatata (Parkinson) 1798 E 

4. Planispectrum bengalensis (Redtenbacher)1906 R 

Family PSEUDOPHASMATIDAE — Subfanily 
ASCHIPHASMATINAE 

5. Abrosoma xiuyuae Brock & Seow-Choen 1999 C 

6. Presbistus peleus (Gray) 1835 C 

7. Presbistus flavicornis (de Haan 1842) E 

Family PHYLLIDAE 

8. Phy Ilium bioculatum Gray 1832 R 

9. Phyllium siccifolium (Linnaeus) 1758 R 

Suborder ANAREOLATAE 

Family HETERONEMIIDAE — Subfamily NECROSCIINAE 

10. Acacus sarawacus (Westwood) 1859 I 

11. Asceles malaccae (Saussure)1868 C 

12. Asceles larunda (Westwood) 1859 C 

13. Asceles singapura Seow-Choen & Brock 1999 I 

14. Calvisia sangarius (Westwood) 1859 E 

15. Diacanthoidea diacanthos (de Haan) 1842 R 

16. Diesbachia tamyris (westwood) 1859 I 

17. Gargantuoidea phaetusa(Westwood) 1859 E 

18. Gargantuoidea triumphalis Redtenbacher 1908 R 

19. Lopaphus brachypterus (de Haan) 1842 R 

20. Lopaphus iolas (Westwood) 1859 I 

21. Marmessoidea rosea (Fabricius) 1793 E 

22. Necroscia punctata (Gray) 1835 I 

23. Necroscia affinis (Gray) 1835 C 

24. Necroscia roseipennis Audinet-Serville 1838 C 

25. Necroscia westwoodi Kirby 1904 I 

26. Necroscia inflata (Redtenbacher) 1908 C 

27. Phaenopharos struthioneus (Westwood) 1859 E 

28. Sipyloidea sipylus (Westwood) 1859 I 

29. Sipyloidea meneptolemus (Westwood) 1859 R 



300 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



No. 


Species 


Status 


30. 


Sosibia esacus (Westwood) 1859 


I 


31. 


Sosibia solida Redtenbacher 1908 


I 


32. 


Baculofr actum insignis (Brunner von Wattenwyl) 1907 


R 


33. 


Undescribed species 


R 




Family HETERONEMIIDAE — Subfamily LONCHODINAE 




34. 


Carausius nodosus (de Haan) 1842 


I 


^ 

jj. 


Lonchodes brevipes Gray 1835 




36. 


Lonchodes geniculatus Gray 1835 


c 


37. 


Prisomera malaya (Stal) 1875 


c 




Family HETERONEMIIDAE — Subfamily HETERONEMIINAE 




38. 


Bactricia ridleyi Kirby 1904 


E 




Family PHASMATIDAE — Subfamily PHASMATINAE 




39. 


Baculum nematodes (de Haan) 1842 


I 


40. 


Eury enema versirubra (Audinet-Serville) 1838 


E 


41. 


Phobaeticus serratipes (Gray) 1835 


R 



All the living phasmids located by the author were found in the 
Central Catchment Nature Reserve and its surrounding fringe areas such 
as the forest within the Singapore Island Country Club locality. The full 
list of phasmid food plants is not discussed here as it has been published 
(Tay & Seow-Choen, 1996). 

Eleven species are still relatively common and are widely distributed 
especially in the Central Nature Reserve Areas. These are Datames oileus 
(Plate la), Presbistus peleus, Abrosoma xiuyuae, Asceles malaccae, A. 
larunda (Plate lb), Necroscia affinis (Plate lc-e), N. roseipennis (Plate 2a- 
b), N. inflata, Lonchodes brevipes (Plate 2c), L. geniculatus (Plate 2d) and 
Prisomera malaya. All these species are common because their food plants 
are very common within the Nature Reserves. 

Datames oileus is a small ground or low-lying species that feeds mainly 
on Curculigo spp. (Hydrophyllaceae), palms, and various species of aroids. 
This species is therefore widely distributed in the Nature Reserve and is 
especially common in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the trail leading 
from Singapore Island Country Club to MacRitchie Reservoir (S-M trail). 
Prebistus peleus feeds only on Leea indica (Leeaceae), a very common 
shrub within the Nature Reserves and its fringes, A. xiuyuae is widespread 
and its feeding marks are found on every Pternandra echinata 
(Melastomataceae) that I have encountered. Strangely this phasmid was 
undescribed before this survey began. Asceles malaccae and A. larunda are 
very common flying insects that feed mainly on the various Macaranga 
species. These are common along the S-M trail as well as in Upper Pierce 



Stick and leaf insect biodiversity 



301 



Reservoir Park. Necroscia affinis and N. roseipennis are also commonly 
seen. These very pretty insects are beautifully coloured. Necroscia affinis 
occurs in various shades of green, yellow, brown and even red, all with 
yellow spots. Necroscia roseipennis possesses bright rose coloured wings. 
They feed on Cinnamomum iners (Lauraceae) and N. roseipennis may also 
be found on Gomphandra quadrifida (Icacinaceae). Necroscia roseipennis 
and N. affinis are common at the S-M trail, and may also be found along 
Rifle Range Road trail. Unfortunately these insects have not spread to 
roadside cinammon trees as the dryness and heat make the sides of highways 
and roads very unsuitable for these insects for which high humidity is 
essential for their survival. Necroscia inflata is another very common insect 
found on the various Uncaria species and on Mussaenda glabra in the 
Nature Reserves. It is very common at Rifle Range Road, Upper Pierce 
Road and along the S-M trail. Lonchodes brevipes, L. geniculatus and P. 
malaya are also widespread species within the Nature Reserves. Of these 
three species, L. geniculatus is perhaps the most common, especially along 
the S-M Trail. It feeds on a wide variety of plants, including various Uncaria 
species, Ilex macrophylla (Aquifoliaceae) and Psychotria rostrata 
(Rubiaceae). Prisomera malaya feeds on various low-growing ferns and it 
is also commonly encountered along the S-M trail and on Bukit Timah 
Hill. Lonchodes brevipes feeds on these plants as well as Grewia acuminata 
(Tiliaceae) and introduced species such as Acacia auriculiformis 
(Leguminosae) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvaceae). It is widespread 
but not as commonly seen as the other two species just mentioned. 
Lonchodes brevipes was found on Pulau Ubin as well as in Labrador Park. 

Unfortunately, 11 species exist in only very isolated pockets within 
the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. These are Datames mouhotii, 
Acacus sarawacus (Plate 3a-b), Asceles singapura (Plate 3c-d), Diesbachia 
tamyris, Lopaphus iolas (Plate 3e), Necroscia punctata (Plate 4a-b), N 
westwoodi, Sosibia esacus, S. solida (Plate 4c), Carausius nodosus (Plate 
4d) and Baculum nematodes (Plate 4e). Although D. mouhotii feeds on the 
same plants as D. oileus, it is found only in a small patch of forest in Upper 
Seletar Reservoir Park. The reason it has not spread like D. oileus is not 
immediately obvious. Perhaps it is because the species is less prolific or 
hardy as it is probably a parthenogenetic species. No male has ever been 
found. Acacus sarawacus exists only in one spot along the S-M trail. It is a 
very difficult species to keep alive in captivity and requires high humidity 
at all times. It feeds on Lithocarpus ewyckii in the wild and Psidium guajava 
when in captivity. Asceles singapura also feeds on Macaranga, especially 
Macaranga gigantea, but its range seems to be confined to Upper Pierce 
and the S-M trail. Diesbachia tamyris and C. nodosus are found in the 
same general area in MacRitchie Reservoir on the trail to the Shinto Shrine. 



302 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Carausius nodosus is always found on Rourea mimosoides (Connaraceae) 
along this trail. The wild food plant of D. tamyris is not known. Lopaphus 
iolas is only found near the freshwater swamp forest area within the Nature 
Reserves, although it feeds on a wide variety of plants. Necroscia punctata 
and N. westwoodi may be found on Bukit Timah Hill and occasionally 
along the S-M trail. The former feeds on Cinnamomum iners (Lauraceae) 
and the latter on Psychotria malayana (Rubiaceae). Again the reason for 
the isolation of N. punctata is not obvious as Cinnamomum iners is a 
common tree. Necroscia punctata may also be found along the Upper 
Pierce Road. Sosibia esacus and S. solida are both limited to areas where 
their food plant grows. Sosibia esacus may be found along Upper Pierce 
Road, and Bukit Timah Hill whereas S. solida is found along the S-M trail. 
Sosibia esacus feeds on Salacia macrophylla and Ixonanthes reticulata. The 
food plant of S. solida is still unidentified. Baculofractum nematodes is a 
very long species in the female reaching up to 190 mm. It was found on 
Grewia acuminata (Tiliaceae) along Upper Pierce Road and near the 
freshwater swamp forest area. 

Sipyloidea sipylus has been found only in the Punggol area feeding 
on cultivated guava. It had not been encountered within the Nature 
Reserves. 

A further ten species are very rare and in almost a decade of studying 
these insects, only one or two specimens have been found in Singapore. 
These are Planispectrum bengalensis, Phyllium bioculatum, P. siccifolium 
(Plate 5a), Diacanthoidea diacanthos (Plate 5b), Gargantuoidea triumphalis, 
Lopaphus brachypterus (Plate 5c-d), Sipyloidea meneptolemus, 
Baculofractum insignis (Plate 6a), Phobaeticus serratipes and an undescribed 
species of Necrosciinae (Plate 6b). Planispectrum bengalensis is very tiny 
and is ground dwelling and this may explain its rarity. Phyllium species are 
very difficult to find as they are tree top dwellers. The winged phasmids; 
D. diacanthos, G. triumphalis, L. brachypterus, S. meneptolemus and B. 
insignis are very specialised feeders and this may explain their rarity. The 
female B. insignis is not winged but is a very fussy feeder nonetheless. 
Phobaeticus serratipes is a very common insect in West Malaysia and feeds 
on a wide variety of plants including Mangifera indica, Macaranga spp., 
Uncaria spp. and many others, which explains its frequency. In Singapore, 
however, it is very rare inspite of the presence of its food plants. Perhaps 
its long length has to do with its rarity as it may make the insect more 
readily detectable by both human and animal predators. The longest female 
on record measured 555 mm from tip of front claw to tip of the hind claw. 
The undescribed species is currently being researched but its rarity may 
make work on this species very difficult. 

An additional eight species have not been seen or recorded for at 



Stick and leaf insect biodiversity 



303 



least 30 years and are best described as extinct in Singapore. These are 
Heteropteryx dilatata, Presbistus flavicornis, Calvisia sangarius (Plate 6c), 
Gargantuiodea phaetusa, Marmessoidea rosea, Phaenopharos sthruthioneus 
(Plate 6d), Bactricia ridleyi and Eurycnema versirubra. Heteropteryx dilatata 
and E. versirubra are large impressive species and may have been destroyed 
by farmers clearing land in the early days. These insects were also kept in 
the past by Malays and Chinese as their droppings were used for a variety 
of ailments including diarrhoea and as an aphrodisiac. Perhaps they were 
overcollected for this purpose. The other insects are probably all very 
specialised feeders and occurred only in isolated pockets where their food 
plants were found. Entire populations may have been destroyed when the 
original forest was cleared. Bactricia ridleyi is known only from the holotypic 
specimen found by H.N. Ridley in the Singapore Botanic Gardens. 

Discussion 

Singapore has only about 2675 ha of forest left which includes reservoir 
areas in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve as well as 164 ha of forest 
at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (National Parks Board, pers. comm.). A 
well thought-out and planned conservation programme for these forested 
areas is of utmost importance, if Singapore's remaining flora and fauna are 
to survive. 

Phasmids are phytophagous and indeed very particular about the 
species of leaves they eat. Many species of phasmids will only feed on a 
very few species of plants. Destruction of these plants will therefore result 
in the elimination of food plant dependent insect species. Many species, 
which have particularly specific food plant requirements, are therefore 
either extinct, at serious risk of extinction or occur only in very isolated 
pockets where these plants may be found. In primary rain forests, many 
hundreds of species of plants are found and an individual of a particular 
species may be widely separated from the next. Destruction of our natural 
forest trees is an important cause of the disappearance of some of our 
indigenous stick-insect species as when forests are cleared stick-insect food 
plant are lost. The resulting effect is that the stick-insect species dependent 
on these food plants are eliminated and are not to be found at the cleared 
sites anymore. 

The continual encroachment of man into the fringes of forested areas 
also has had very negative effects on our insect populations. The building 
of houses near the Nature Reserves poses a very serious problem. Many of 
the flying insect species including phasmids are attracted to light and many 
are therefore eliminated in this manner. This threat is far more damaging 



304 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



than collection by insect enthusiasts. Lights from street lamps and houses 
probably attract and result in the death of far more insects than all insect 
enthusiasts can collect in their combined life times. 

Combined with the building of roads and houses adjacent to the 
forests is mankind's general dislike for insects and his rampant use of 
insecticides, pesticides and herbicides. Phasmids are very sensitive insects 
and will not tolerate any amount of insect poison with the result that 
indiscriminate spraying of pesticides had eliminated most of Singapore's 
phytophagus insects. 

References 

Bradley, J.C. & B.S. Galil. 1977. The taxonomic arrangement of the 
Phasmatodea, with keys to the subfamilies and tribes. Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington. 79: 176-208. 

Brock, P.D. 1995. Catalogue of stick and leaf-insects (Insecta: Phasmida) 
associated with Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Malayan Nature 
Journal. 49: 83-102. 

Brock, P.D. 1999. Stick-insects of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. 
Malaysian Nature Society. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Brunner, V.W. & J. Redtenbacher. 1906-8. Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden. 
Leipzig. Engelmann Verlag. 

Ridley, R.N. 1894. Stick-insects destroying orchids. Journal of the Straits 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 26: 204. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1993a. The dangers of using head torches in the tropics. 
The Phasmid Study Group. 56: 6. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1993b. Colour of newly hatched Phyllium. The Phasmid 
Study Group. 56: 7. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1993c. Datames oileus and bramble. The Phasmid Study 
Group. 56: 7. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1993d. Guava and stick- and leaf-insects. The Phasmid 
Study Group. 58: 9-10. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1993e. A stick insect year in Singapore. The Phasmid 
Study Group. 58: 9-10. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1995a. Walking leaves. Nature Watch. 3: 16-19. 



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305 



Seow-Choen, F. 1995b. The longest insect in the world. Malayan Naturalist. 
48: 12. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1995c. Two more gynandromorphs of the Malayan Jungle 
Nymph, Heteropteryx dilatata (Phasmida) with notes on captive 
behaviour. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. 54: 49-51. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1995d. The stick insect Datames oileus (Westwood) 1859 
(Phasmida). Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. 54: 239. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1996a. Reproductive behaviour in stick insects. Insect and 
Invertebrate World. 1: 23-25. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1996b. Leaf insects of Peninsular Malaysia. Nature 
Malays iana. 21: 68-73. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1997a. Stick insects. Malaysian Naturalist. 51: 32-33. 

Seow-Choen, F. 1997b. A Guide to the Stick and Leaf Insects of Singapore. 
Singapore Science Centre. 

Seow-Choen, F. & Brock, P.D. 1996. A rare stick insect from Singapore, 
Lopaphus brachypterus (de Haan) 1842 with description of the male 
and egg. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. 55: 79-82. 

Seow-Choen, F. & I. Seow-En. 1994. Nature's mimics. Nature Malaysiana. 
19: 89-96. 

Seow-Choen, F., P.D. Brock & I. Seow-En. 1994a. The stick-insects of 
Singapore. Singapore Scientists. 70: 10-14. 

Seow-Choen, F., P.D. Brock & I. Seow-En. 1994b. Notes on the stick- 
insect Prisomera malaya (Stal) (Phasmida) in Singapore with a description 
of the male and egg. Malayan Nature Journal. 48: 59-65. 

Seow-Choen, F., P.D. Brock & I. Seow-En. 1994c. Colour variations of the 
stick insect Necroscia roseipennis Serville (Phasmida=Phasmatodea) in 
Singapore. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. 53: 71-73. 

Seow-Choen, F., P.D. Brock & I. Seow-En. 1994d. An introduction to the 
stick and leaf insects of Singapore. Malaysian Naturalist. 46: 7-11. 

Seow-Choen, F., I. Seow-En & S. Seow-An. 1996. Colour in stick and leaf 
insects. Nature Malaysiana. 21: 40-47. 

Seow-Choen, F., E.P. Tay, P.D. Brock & I. Seow-En. 1994e. Food plants 
of some stick insects (Phasmida=Phasmatodea) from Singapore. Malayan 
Nature Journal. 47: 393-396. 



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Tay, E.P. & F. Seow-Choen. 1996. Relationship of plant families and stick- 
insects in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. In : I.M. Turner, C.H. 
Diong, S.S.L. Lim & P.K.L. Ng (eds.). Biodiversity and the Dynamics of 
Ecosystems. DIWPA Series. 1: 181-190. 

Westwood, J.O. 1859. Catalogue of the orthopterous insects in the collection 
of the British Museum. Part 1. Phasmidae. London. 



Stick and leaf insect biodiversity 



307 




Plate 1. Some of the common and widely distributed species in the Nature Reserves, a. A 

mating pair of the common Datames oileus. These small insects feed on the Money plant 
(Epipremnum aureum, Araceae). b. A mating pair of the common Asceles larunda. All Asceles 
species are Macaranga feeders, c. A red specimen of Necroscia affinis. This species has several 
colour varieties. It may be seen along Upper Pierce Road feeding on wild cinnamon, d. A 
brown variety of Necroscia affinis. e. A mating pair of the green variety of Necroscia affinis. 



308 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




Plate 2. Some of the common and widely distributed species in the Nature Reserves, a. A 

green adult female Necroscia roseipennis. b. A brown adult male Necroscia roseipennis. c. A 
female Lonchodes brevipes resting among leaves. This common species is very easily reared 
in captivity as it feeds on a wide variety of garden-plants including guava, hibiscus, rose and 
bramble, d. A mating pair of Lonchodes geniculatus. It is common in all parts of the Nature 
Reserve but does not feed on any common garden-plants. 



Stick and leaf insect biodiversity 



309 




Plate 3. Species found in only isolated pockets within the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. 

a. A male Acacus sarawacus shows the white knees typical of the sex. This species is found 
only in a very small patch of forest along the MacRitchie to the Singapore Island Country 
Club trail, b. A female Acacus sarawacus lies very still in a state of thanatosis after being 
disturbed in the hope of escaping detection, c. A female Asceles singapura on Macaranga. 
This species was described recently from specimens found in Singapore. It is found along 
isolated pockets of forest in Upper Pierce and along the MacRitchie-Island Club trail, d. A 
nymphal Asceles singapura. e. Lopaphus iolas is common all over Peninsular Malaysia but is 
found only near the fresh water swamp forest in Singapore. This is a female adult. 



310 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




Plate 4. Species found in only isolated pockets within the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. 

a. Necroscia punctata is a very colourful species that is occasionally encountered. This is a 
green variety. b.This is a red Necroscia punctata, c. Another view of an adult Sosibia solida. d. 
Carausius nodosus is found only in isolated pockets along the MacRitchie trail to the old 
Shinto Shrine. The female bears a pair of tufts on the head. Both sexes have bright red mid 
femurs, e. Baculum nematodes is found only along Upper Pierce Road and the fresh water 
swamp forest area. 



Stick and leaf insect biodiversity 



311 




Plate 5. Some of the rare species encountered in the Nature Reserves, a. Phy Ilium siccifolium 
is another leaf insect that may be found in Singapore albeit very rarely, b. A male Diacanthoidea 
diacanthos is very rare. Only one specimen has ever been found in Singapore and that at 
Upper Pierce Road. c. Lopaphus brachypterus is a rare insect found only very occasionally. 
This is a male. d. A female Lopaphus brachypterus feeding on guava. 



312 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




Plate 6. Some of the rare species encountered in the Nature Reserves (a-b). Two of the 
extinct species (c-d). a. Baculofractum insignis is very rare in Singapore and may be found 
only around the fresh water swamp forest, b. An unidentified Necrosciinae which may represent 
a new genus, c. Calvisia sangarius, now extinct in Singapore, is a very specialized feeder and as 
far as is known feeds only on a very pungent forest tree. d. Phaenopharos struthioneus is 
extinct in Singapore and has not been seen for many decades now. 



Proceedings of the Xature Resenes Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 313-319. 



Semi-aquatic Bug (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) Fauna in 
the Nature Reserves of Singapore 

CM. YANG. H.K. LUA AND K.L. YEO 

Zoological Reference Collection 
Department of Biological Sciences 
National University of Singapore 
Kent Ridge. Singapore 119260 

Abstract 

A total of 37 species of semiaquatic bugs were recorded from the forest during the survey 
of the Nature Resenes. 78 % were found in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest that also has the 
highest percentage of the rare or threatened species on the island. Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve has the lowest diversity. Three forest-dependent species. Cylindrostethus malayensis. 
Ventidius hungerfordi and Esakia fernandoi previously recorded from Singapore were not 
found and hence are. presumed extinct. Eight species are new records for Singapore. 

Introduction 

Early studies on the Singapore's freshwater bugs were scattered in some 
reports (van Martens. 1876: Esaki. 1926. 1930). After 1960. substantial 
studies on Malaysian fauna were carried out by the University of Singapore. 
Researchers documented a total of 15 species of Gerridae and two species 
of Veliidae in Singapore (Cheng. 1965: Cheng & Fernando. 1969: Fernando 
& Cheng. 1974). Murphy (1990) reviewed the fauna and increased the 
species list to 19 Gerridae. eight Veliidae. two Hydrometridae and two 
Mesoveliidae from freshwater habitats. However, he also failed to record 
three species {Cylindrostethus malayensis. Ventidius hungerfordi and Esakia 
fernandoi) previously recorded by Cheng and Fernando. 

In view of changes in the forest habitats caused by development and 
other human activities in recent years, this study was conducted to provide 
a present-day checklist of the semiaquatic bugs (Gerromorpha) found in 
the forest. It is also to record the diversity and distribution of the fauna of 
the Bukit Timah Xature Reserve and Central Catchment Nature Reserve 
that are separated by the Bukit Timah Expressway. 

As the true aquatic bugs (Xepomorpha) are rarely found in the 
forest because of the poor vegetation growth in and along streams and the 
lack of natural standing waters, they are not discussed in this report. 



314 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




• Amemboa brevifasciata 



* Cryptobates rufus 



Hydrometra c arm at a, 

H. /ongicapitis, H. ok/nawana 

& H. papuana 



Tenagogonus octopunctatm 
& T. quinquemaculatus 



Figure L Distribution of some rare heteropteran bugs in the Nature Reserves. Inset shows 
the location of the Nature Reserves in Singapore. BTNR: Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. BKE: 
Bukit Timah Expressway, : Boundary of Nature Reserves. 



Semi-aquatic bug fauna 



315 



Materials and Methods 

The survey area (Figure 1) covered in this study included all the water 
drainages found in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve and the Bukit 
Timah Nature Reserve from 1992 to 1995. Specimens were collected by 
hand nets or by hand and then either preserved in 75% alcohol or pinned 
dry. They were deposited in the Zoological Reference Collection of the 
National University of Singapore. 

Results and Conclusions 

A total of 37 species of semiaquatic bugs were recorded from the reserves 
during this survey (Table 1 ). with 36 species found in the Central Catchment 
Nature Reserve and 17 species in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Of the 
24 forest species. 13 are considered rare in Singapore and they are mostly 
distributed in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Eight species: 
Tenagogomis octopiinctcitus. Ventidius modulates, Microvetia albolifieolara, 
Neoalardus typicus, Hydrometra carinata, H. longicapitis. H. okmawana 
and H. papuana were recorded from Singapore for the first time. Several 
other recently published records were also based on the materials collected 
in the Nature Reserves notably. Cryptobates rufiis, Rhagovetia singaporensis 
and R. rudischuhi (Polhemus & Polhemus. 1995a: Yang & Polhemus. 1994). 

Table L Distribution of Gerromorphan bugs in the Singapore Nature Reserves. 

S : Seletar: M : MacRitichie: N : Nee Soon: J : Jungle Fall Valley: P : Peripheral 
(F : forest species: R : rare, restricted distribution: C : common: U : uncommon: 
1 : moderate/fast flowing water: 2 : slow flowing water: 3 : swamp forest: 4 : pool 
and puddle: 5 : margin of water or bank: 
* : new record: + : present: - : absent.) 



Species 


Status 


Habitat 


Central Catchment 


Bukit Timah 


S 


M N 


J P 


Family GERRIDAE 












1. Amemboa brevifasciata Miyamoto. 


FR 


2.5 




- 




1967 












2. Amemboa riparia Polhemus & 


FU 


2.5 


+ 


+ + 


- 


Andersen. 1984 












3. Aquarius adelaides (Dohrn. 1860) 


U 


4 








4. Cryptobates rufus J & D Polhemus. 


FR 










1995 












5. Limnogonus fossarum (Fabricius. 1775) 


U 


4 








6. Metrocoris tenuicornis Esaki. 1926 


FC 











316 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


Status 


Habitat 


Central Catchment 


Bukit Timah 


S 


M 


N 


J 


P 


7. Neogerris parvulus Stal, 1860 


U 


4 


X 
T 




j_ 




T 


8. Ptilomera tigrina Uhler, 1860 


FC 


1,2 




_l_ 

i 


_L 
1 




T 


9. Rheumatogonus intermedins 


FC 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 






Hungerford, 1933 
















10. Rhagodotarsus kraepelini Breddin, 


U 


4 


+ 


+ 


+ 






1905 
















11. Tenagogonus (Limnometra) ciliatus 


U 


4 


1 


X 


T 






Mayr, 1865 
















12. Tenagogonus (L.) insularis Hungerford 


FC 


3 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


& Matsuda, 1958 
















13. ^Tenagogonus (L.) octopunctatus 


rR 


3,5 


_1_ 

T 


T 


A. 

T 






Hungerford, 1955 
















14. Tenagogonus quinquemaculatus 


FR 


3,5 


+ 


+ 


+ 






Miyamoto, 1967 
















15. Ventidius harrisoni Cheng, 1965 


FC 


2 


T 


T 


+ 






16. *Ventidius modulatus Lundblad, 1933 


FR 


2 




+ 








Family VELIIDAE 
















17. * Microvelia albolineolata Torre 


FU 


4 










+ 


Bueno, 1927 
















18. Microvelia diluta Distant, 1909 


U 


4 


i 

T 


i 

T 






T 


19. Microvelia douglasi Scott, 1874 


U 


4 


-j. 


A. 
I 






^_ 


20. Microvelia plumbea Lundblad, 1933 


FR 


3,4 


+ 


+ 








21. Microvelia genitalis Lundblad, 1933 


FR 


3,4 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


22. Microvelia sp. 1 


FU 


3,4 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


23. Microvelia sp. 2 


FU 


3,4 


+ 


+ 


+ 


- 


+ 


24. *Neoalaraus typicus (Distant, 19U3) 


R 


I 


+ 










25. Rhagovelia sumatrensis Lundblad, 1933 


FC 


1,2 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


26. Rhagovelia singaporensis Yang & D 


FC 


1,2 


+ 


+ 


+ 






Polhemus, 1994 
















27. Rhagovelia rudischuhi Zettel, 1993 


FC 


2 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


28. Strongylovelia sp. 


FC 


2,5 


X 
i 


T 


T 






Family HYDROMETRIDAE 
















29. '^Hydrometra carinata J & D Polhemus, 


FR 


3,5 






+ 






1995 
















30. Hydrometra insularis Hungerford & 


R 


3,5 




+ 


+ 


- 


+ 


Evans, 1934 
















31. * Hydrometra longicapitis Torre Bueno, 


FR 


3,5 






+ 






1927 
















32. Hydrometra maidli Hungerford & 


U 


3,5 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


Evans, 1934 
















33. '^Hydrometra okinawana Drake, 1951 


FR 


3,5 






+ 






34. * Hydrometra papuana Kirkaldy, 1901 


FR 


3,5 






+ 







Semi-aquatic bug fauna 



317 



Species 


Status 


Habitat 


Central Catchment 


Bukit Timah 








s 


M 


N 


J P 


ramih MLsUN LLllDAt 














35. Mesovelia horvathi Lundblad. 1933 


c 


4.5 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ + 


36. Mesovelia vittigera Horvath 1895 


u 


4.5 


+ 


+ 






Family HEBRIDAE 














37. Hebrus sp. 


u 


4.5 




+ 


+ 




Rare species (13) 






5 


8 


9 


1 2 


Forest species (24) 






16 


19 


20 


6 10 


Total species (37) 






27 


31 


29 


7 17 



The poor diversity of Gerromorphan bugs in the Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve was due to the small and relatively short streams with poorly 
grown aquatic vegetation and total absence of swamp. The middle and 
lower reaches of the streams were either at the edge of the forest or in the 
open country habitats. Inside the forest, parts of the streams dried up 
easily during the dry season as these were exposed due to a large number 
of fallen big trees in recent years. They probably also suffered from the 
drying effects of the numerous walking trails constructed in the reserve 
(Corlett. 1988). The isolated location and the small stream at a higher 
elevation in Jungle Fall Valley probably accounted for the lowest number 
of forest species of (6 out of 24) found in this primary forest. 

The Central Catchment Nature Reserve has many swampy forest 
streams under well-shaded forest and these provide different microhabitats 
that are not available in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Ten forested 
species found in the forest of the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. 
Amemboa brevifasciata. Cryptobates rufus, Rheumatogonus intermedins. 
Tenagogonus (L.) oetopnnctatns, T. quinquemaculatus, Yentidhis harrisoni, 
V. modnlatns Microvelia plnmbea, RJwgovelia singaporensis and 
Strongylovelia sp. were not found in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. With 
exception of R. intermedins (moderate to fast flowing water species), the 
other nine species were either found on swampy puddles or in slow flowing 
streams (Table 1). Four species of water measurers. Hydrometra carinata, 
H. longicapitis. H. okinawana and H. papnana. were collected from a weedy 
pool, in a semi-open country habitat, near the Nee Soon swamp forest. 
These were new records for Singapore and found only in this location. H. 
papnana is very rare in Peninsular Malaysia and was only recorded from 
lowland swamp forests (Polhemus & Polhemus. 1995b). 

The Nee Soon Forest has the highest species diversity recorded in 
this study. Twenty (83%) of the 24 forest species and 9 (69%) of the 13 



318 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



rare species were found in this location. This swamp forest was also the 
type locality for two recently described species, Rhagovelia singaporensis 
Yang & Polhemus (1994) and Cryptobates rufus Polhemus & Polhemus 
(1995a). The latter is rare (Figure 1) and distributed only in a few swampy 
streams, under well shaded forest, either near headwaters or in areas with 
iron hydroxide deposits (Murphy, 1990). 

Metrocoris tenuicornis, Rhagovelia sumatrensis and R. rudischuhi were 
very common and were widely distributed in all forest streams, along with 
the less common Tenagogonus insularis at the swampy or quiet edges of 
the streams in all forested areas. Ptilomera tigrina was also common in 
most flowing forest streams with the exception of the stream at the Jungle 
Fall Valley. 

Three gerrids, Cylindrostethus malayensis Polhemus, 1994 (= C. 
costalis Cheng & Fernando, 1969), Esakia fernandoi Cheng and Ventidius 
hungerfordi Cheng, previously collected from Sungei Seletar in 1965 (Cheng, 
1965; Cheng & Fernando, 1969) were not found in this study. Sungei Seletar 
was the biggest stream in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve before it 
was converted into a reservoir in the early 1970s. The interruption of the 
water system probably accounted for the possible extinction of these three 
species that inhabited larger flowing water bodies. The survival of the 
present-day swamp forest species, especially those rare and localized ones 
will, therefore, be threatened by the change, loss or pollution of the swamp 
forest. 

Entomovlia doversi, previously recorded from the MacRitchie forest 
(Murphy, 1990) was also not found in this study. It could have been carried 
over through the pipeline from the river in Johore (Malaysia) to the Upper 
Peirce Reservoir. Only a single specimen was collected after a heavy 
downpour that could have caused the water from the reservoir to flow into 
the forest stream. This species is common in pristine forest streams in 
Peninsular Malaysia. The single record of Ventidius modulatus was also 
from the same area. 

Acknowledgments 

We would like to thank Kelvin Lim and all student assistants (too many to 
name individually) for their hard work on the field and in the laboratory, 
and to S. Greasi and several colleagues for their help. Thanks are also 
extended to the Director and staff of the National Parks Board for their 
cooperation and assistance during the period of this study. We are indebted 
to Prof. D.H. Murphy for his advice on this survey and very useful comments 
during the preparation of this manuscript. This study has been partially 



Semi-aquatic bug fauna 



319 



supported by research grant RP 830064 from the National University of 
Singapore. 

References 

Cheng, L. 1965. Studies on the Taxonomy and Biology of the Malayan 
Gerridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) . M.Sc. thesis (Unpublished). 
University of Singapore. 

Cheng, L. & C.H. Fernando. 1969. A taxonomic study of the Malayan 
Gerridae (Hemiptera:Heteroptera) with notes on their biology and 
distribution. Oriental Insects. 3: 97-160. 

Corlett, R.T. 1988. Bukit Timah: the history and significance of a small 
rain-forest reserve. Environmental Conservation. 15: 37^44. 

Esaki, T. 1926. The water striders of the subfamily Halobatinaae in the 
Hungarian National Museum. Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 
23: 117-164. 

Esaki, T. 1930. New or little-known Gerridae from the Malay Peninsula. 
Journal of the Federated Malay Museums. 14: 13-24. 

Fernando, C.H. & L. Cheng. 1974. A preliminary study of the fauna and 
distribution of aquatic Hemiptera in Malaysia and Singapore. Journal of 
the Federated Malay Museums. 19: 21-44. 

Murphy, D.H. 1990. Walkers on water - an account of the pleuston of 
Singapore. In: L.M. Chou & P.K.L. Ng (eds.). Essays in Zoology. 
Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore, pp. 153-168. 

Polhemus, J.T. & D.A. Polhemus. 1995a. The Trepobatinae (Heteroptera: 
Gerridae) of New Guinea and surrounding regions, with a review of the 
world fauna. Pt 3. Tribe Trepobatini. Entomologia Scandinavica. 26: 97- 
117. 

Polhemus, J.T. & D.A. Polhemus. 1995b. Revision of the genus Hydrometra 
Latreille in Indochina and the Western Malay Archipelago (Heteroptera: 
Hydrometridae). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 43: 9-72. 

van Martens, E. 1876. Die Pruessische Expedition nach Ost-Asien. Verlag 
der koniglichen Geheimen Ober-hofbuchdruckerei. Berlin, pp. 228-243. 

Yang, CM. & D.A. Polhemus. 1994. Notes on Rhagovelia Mayr (Hemiptera: 
Veliidae) from Singapore, with description of a new species. Raffles 
Bulletin of Zoology. 42: 987-993. 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 321-331. 



Water Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) in the Nature 
Reserves of Singapore 

MICHAEL BALKE 1 , LARS HENDRICH 2 AND CM. YANG 3 

^nstitut fiir Zoologie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Konigin-Luise-Strasse 1-3, 
D-14195 Berlin, Germany 
2 Berlin-Forschung, Freie Universitat Berlin, Gartnerstrasse 3, 
D-12207 Berlin, Germany 
3 Zoological Reference Collection, Department of Biological Sciences, 
National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 119260 



Abstract 

Of the 36 species of aquatic beetles recognised here, 17 are rated threatened. Two rare 
species of Microdytes (Dytiscidae) were only found in a small springlet in the Bukit Timah 
Nature Reserve. Nee Soon Swamp Forest has the highest diversity as well as the highest 
number of locally threatened water beetle species in the Nature Reserves. 



Introduction 

Conservationists and systematists nowadays agree that most species can 
only be saved when habitats of adequate size can be protected (Polhemus, 
1993; Samways, 1994). However, conservation action with clear management 
strategies on a rather limited geographical scale is also frequently needed. 
This is especially true in areas that have already experienced considerable 
disturbance for a long period of time. To facilitate such action, 
biomonitoring groups are needed to determine the state of a given habitat. 
In wetland management, water beetles prove to be one such group, 
especially when microhabitats such as springs, low order streams or small 
waterholes require evaluation (Balke & Hendrich, 1991; Foster, 1991; 
Hendrich & Balke, 1993). The theoretical background characterising water 
beetle communities in terms of their conservation value, too, has been well 
worked out (e.g., Eyre & Rushton, 1989; Foster et ai, 1990; Richoux, 1994; 
Larson, 1997). 

Balke and Hendrich (Hendrich & Balke, 1995; Balke et aL, 1997a, 
1997b) have successfully utilised water beetles in the course of numerous 
environmental impact assessments in Germany, Malaysia and Indonesia. 
Several species of water beetle are to date not only included in regional 
red lists in Europe but also in the latest IUCN Red List of Threatened 
Animals (IUCN, 1996). Moreover, detailed conservation plans are in hand 
for two European species of diving beetles (Foster, 1996a, 1996b). These 



322 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



are target species by the law in the European Community (EC), where 
every suitable aquatic habitat within their respective ranges must be 
monitored for the two beetle species before the land can be used for 
purposes other than conservation. As adequate observations on the 
distribution and biology of Southeast Asian water beetles have now become 
available, we believe that several factors could make them a useful 
biomonitoring group here as well: 1) the group is species rich; 2) they are 
present in virtually every type of fresh and brackish water habitat; 3) the 
group has numerous species confined to particular microhabitats; 4) 
knowledge of the group's taxonomic status is improving rapidly; 5) there is 
a good general knowledge of most groups; and 6) the group is represented 
by some large or especially colourful or enigmatic species, which may 
attract public interest (Hendrich, 1995). 

The term 'water beetle' as used here, does not represent a 
phylogenetic unit, such as a family or superfamily. Rather, this is an arbitrary 
umbrella term for several beetle groups. For convenience, we refer to 
beetles spending most of their adult stage in the water as 'water beetles'. 
Of these, Dytiscidae (diving beetles) and Hydrophilidae (true water beetles) 
are the most species-rich groups in Singapore. 

As early as the 1870s, Singapore was the type locality for numerous 
water beetles, such as the highly threatened Copelatus minutissimus Balfour- 
Browne, 1939. The holotypes of Hydrovatus pisiformis Bistrom, 1996 and 
Hydrovatus stridulus Bistrom, 1996 are the Saunders's material collected 
from Singapore in 1920s (Bistrom, 1996). Among the collections made by 
H.N. Ridley at the beginning of the century, Lacconectus corayi Brancucci, 
1986, is a species no longer found in Singapore. 

Yang (1992) listed 28 species of aquatic beetles from the Lower 
Peirce forest but her list is incomplete. Our aim is to evaluate the water 
beetle fauna based on recent surveys of the nature reserves in Singapore 
and identify the species that appear to be most threatened in Singapore 
and to discuss possible conservation action. 

Methods 

The survey area of this study included all water drainages in the Central 
Catchment Nature Reserve and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (Figure 1) 
carried out during the period 1992 to 1997. Every type of water body was 
investigated. Those that appeared to be of particular interest according to 
our field experience were most intensively sampled. Interesting sites were 
revisited for observations on population dynamics and habitat succession. 



Water beetles 



323 




Figure 1. Map of Nature Reserves with an inset showing its location in Singapore. Central 
Catchment Nature Reserve (CCNR) and BukitTimah Nature Reserve (BTNR) are separated 
by the Bukit Timah Expressway (BKE). Dotted lines = bounderies of Nature Reserves. 



324 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Larger water bodies were sampled with an aquatic dip net and a set 
of kitchen sieves of different diameters. The substrate obtained by strongly 
sweeping the net through mats of submerged grasses, aquatic plants, or 
open water, was placed on a 1 m x 1 m nylon panel for drainage. The 
substrate was then examined for the presence of the insects that, in most 
cases, within a couple of minutes exhibited themselves by running. Less 
active species or individuals were traced by carefully sorting the substrate 
with a pair of forceps. Beetles from springs and small streams could 
frequently be directly sampled with an aspirator or a pair of forceps. 

Specimens collected were fixed in 70-90% alcohol, and brought to 
the Zoological Reference Collection (National University of Singapore) 
for further processing and setting. Species that could be identified on site 
were immediately released. 

Results 

A total of 36 species of water beetles from the survey are presented in 
Table 1. Several additional genera and species are currently under study 
and additional fieldwork is likely to provide additions to the list. A couple 
of species, most probably undescribed, are so far known only from 
Singapore. We have made some comments on ecological preferences of 
the species. Some species identified as 'target species' that deserve our 
special attention and conservation efforts have the following characteristics: 
1) they are presently rare due to threats caused by man, 2) they have clear 
taxonomic status. 3) they have known habitat preferences, and 4) they 
have low ecological tolerance. 

Of the 36 species surveyed in this study, 17 are threatened or identified 
as target species (Table 1). Fifteen species also occur outside the reserves 
('other areas') but of these, only three are threatened. Thirteen species are 
restricted to different types of forest habitats of which 12 are target species. 

Discussion 

Though rather isolated from potential source areas that might contribute 
to a re-colonisation of wetlands in Singapore, our results suggest that the 
Nature Reserves contain communities of water beetles typical of lowland 
sites in Southeast Asia. However, the sites in Singapore are either relict 
sites (Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Nee Soon Swamp Forest) or in many 
cases secondary (many parts of the Central Catchment Nature Reserve). 
Thus, their water beetle fauna deserve special attention. Two important 
areas are briefly discussed here: 



Water beetles 



325 



Table 1. Preliminary checklist of water beetles from nature reserves in Singapore, 
with data on their ecology and conservation status, (t - temporary habitats; p - 
permanent habitats; lo - lotic species; In - lentic species; R - restricted in distribution 
to forest sites; bold species names and numbers - target species.) 



Species 


DllKll 


Nee 


Mac 


utner 


Ecology 


Forest 




liman 


soon 


Ritchie 


areas 




Species 




Nature 


Swamp 












ivcscrvc 


r ores 1 










ramiiy inuulKIUAH, 














i\ tony 'tit ocopius uivuus ^iviuiaLiiuibKy, loj?) 






+ 


+ 


n/ In/ In 
p/ 111/ 1(J 




Neohydrocoptus distinctus (Wehncke, 1883) 




+ 






r\l In/ \r\ 

p/ in/ 10 




Neohydrocoptus frontalis (Regimbart, 1899) 




+ 






r\l In 

p/ in 




Hydrocanthus indicus Wehncke, 1876 






+ 




r\l In 

p/ in 


i\ 


ramiiy u \ iia^iu/viL 














nyurovuius rnuui disiiuiii, 1770 




1 

T 






n/ In 
p/ 111 




Hydrovatus pisiformis Bistrom, 1996 




+ 






r\l In 

p/ in 


K 


Hydrovatus pudicus (Clark, 1863) 




+ 






r\l In 

p/ in 




Hydrovatus rufoniger (Clark, 1863) 




+ 




+ 


p/ In 




Hydrovatus saundersi Bistrom, 1996 




+ 






p/ In 




Hydrovatus sinister Sharp, 1882 




+ 




+ 


pi In 




I— I \ j f\vr\ 1 j si ti 1 c vtvisiitliic V< 1 c t i*/\ty\ 1 (j\Jr\ 

nycirovaius sinauius rjisirom, 




+ 




+ 


r\l In 

p/ in 




Hydrovatus sumatrensis Sharp, 1882 


_ 


+ 






p/ In 


_ 


Microdytes elgae Hendrich, Balke & 


+ 


- 


- 


- 


p/ lo 


R 


Wewalka, ivyj 














Microdytes pasiricus (Csiki, 1937) 


+ 








p/ 10 


K 


Laccophilus pidicarius Sharp, 1882 




+ 




+ 


p/ in/ 10 




LaccophUus ritsemae Regimbart, 1880 




+ 




+ 


p/ 11 In 




Copelatus andamanicus Regimbart, 1899 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


il In 

t/ in 


K 


Copelatus tninutissimus Balfour-Browne, 




+ 






+/ i« 
t/ in 


K 
















Lacconectus krikkeni Brancucci, 1986 


+ 


+ 






p/ In/ lo 


R 


Hydaticus bipunctatus Regimbart, 1899 


+ 


+ 




+ 


p/ In 




Hydaticus sexguttatus Regimbart, 1899 






+ 




p/ In 


R 


Family HYDROPHILIDAE 














Allocotocerus muelleri (Kirsch, 1875) 






+ 


+ 


p/ In 




Amphiops mater (Sharp, 1873) 




+ 


+ 


+ 


p/ In/ lo 




Helochares lentus Sharp, 1890 




+ 




+ 


p/ In 




Enochrus esuriens (Walker, 1858) 


+ 




+ 


+ 


p/ In/ lo 




Enochrus gaggermeieri Hebauer, 1995 


+ 


+ 


+ 




p/ In/ lo 


R 


Paracymus evanescens Sharp, 1890 


+ 






+ 


p/ In 




Coelostoma subditum d'Orchymont, 1936 


+ 






+ 


P/ In 





326 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


Bukit 
Timah 
Nature 
Reserve 


Nee 
Soon 
Swamp 
Forest 


Mac 
Ritchie 


Other 
areas 


Ecologv 


Forest 
Species 


Family HYDRAENIDAE 
Hydraena sp. 1 
Hydraena sp. 2 
Hydraena sp. 3 

Familv GYRINID AE 

A (.111111 V V* M. I\H Hl-/il.AJ 

Dineutus spinosus (Fabricius, 1781) 
Orectochilus productus Regimbart, 1883 
Orectochilus oxygonus Regimbart, 1907 
Orectochilus andamanicus Regimbart, 1883 
Orectochilus corniger Zaitzev, 1910 


+ - - - p/lo R 
+ - - p/ In 

+ - - p/lo R 

- - + - p/lo 
+ + + p/ lo/ In 
+ + p/ lo/ In 
+ - p/lo R 
+ - p/lo R 


36/ 17 


11/8 25/ 11 11/4 15/3 13/12 



Bukit Timah Nature Reserve 

One of the most interesting sites we sampled is the small forest springlet in 
Taban Valley (Plate la) - a true relict site. It was found to contain viable 
populations of three target species, Microdytes elgae (Plate lb), Lacconectus 
krikkeni and Hydraena sp. 1, while a fourth target species is represented 
by a relict population only, i.e., Microdytes pasiricus. For three of these 
species, this is the only known locality in Singapore (Table 1). Microdytes 
species are rare and rather localised in distribution not only in Singapore 
but also elsewhere (Hendrich, 1995; Hendrich & Balke, 1995). Thus, for 
the water beetles, the Bukit Timah site has conservation implications at 
the global level (Balke et ah, 1997a). At the local level, the site should be 
considered a potential source from which other suitable Singapore sites 
could be re-colonised, assuming viable populations could be maintained at 
Bukit Timah over longer periods of time. 

Briffett (1990) listed the following threats to the Bukit Timah Nature 
Reserve: a) construction of the Bukit Timah Expressway has cut off the 
forest from the larger water catchment forest area, reducing the migratory 
interflow of flora and fauna (Fig. 1); b) the general drying-up of the forest 
threatens freshwater life that is now in danger of extinction; and c) heavy 
quarrying has resulted in many landslides over the years, causing several 
streams to be diverted or disrupted and endangering rare freshwater life. 



Water beetles 



327 



With regards to management of the area, strategies to prevent further 
draining of the sites must be found. In fact, the above-mentioned water 
beetles could be used as an umbrella group here, and their protection will 
save many other rare animals, too. Further draining will, inevitably, make 
them disappear from the local scene. 

Nee Soon Swamp Forest 

Of the expected streamfauna, only one species, Hydraena sp. 3, was 
detected. The primary swamp nearby with a rich vegetation structure (Plate 
lc) fully contained what should be there, i.e., a species-rich community of 
Hydrovatus species. Species of this genus are typical inhabitants of semi- 
exposed to exposed swampy sites and can thus be found in a wide variety 
of water bodies, such as Kent Ridge Park. However, a species-rich 
community, like Nee Soon Swamp Forest with at least six species, can only 
be found in primary environments for reasons not yet fully understood. 
Moreover, five of these Hydrovatus species have not been collected from 
localities other than Nee Soon Swamp Forest in Singapore (Table 1), and 
two of them are threatened fauna. It is notable that the populations of 
most species appear viable. However, a single specimen of the rare 
Copelatus minutissimus was collected here as well (Balke, 1994). This species 
is an inhabitant of small waterholes in forested areas and is among the 
rarest of the Southeast Asian water beetles (Balke, 1994). It probably 
faces extinction now, and we will include it in the next edition of the IUCN 
Red List of Threatened Animals. More sites deeper in the forest will have 
to be surveyed to attempt to detect a population of this species. 

The whirligig beetles, Orectochilus andamanicus and O. corniger, 
were both found in well-shaded streams in the Central Catchment Nature 
Reserve swamp forest, mainly located in the Nee Soon area. O. andamanicus 
is a very rare and threatened species in Singapore as only one to two 
specimens per site were collected from the bigger streams. Although 
distributed from India to Peninsular Malaysia, it appears to be a very rare 
species (Mazzoldi, pers. comm.). 

Without doubt Nee Soon Swamp Forest is the most important site 
for water beetles that warrants full conservation attention. Additional 
fieldwork will undoubtedly reveal many more species of interest. However, 
any lowering of the groundwater level would be disastrous to the swamp 
forest species. Management strategies should take into consideration the 
creation of small water holes in the forest that may serve as new breeding 
habitats for the rare Copelatus species and a range of other rare species 
not discussed here. 



328 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Conclusion 

Preliminary surveys show that Singapore is home to a relatively rich water 
beetle fauna. It still offers the opportunity to discover either new or rare 
and little known species. However, those species adapted to primary habitats 
can be extremely vulnerable, some even on the verge of (local) extinction. 
To maintain the diversity presently observed, more proactive conservation 
actions need to be taken. 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank H.K. Lua. K.L. Yeo. Kelvin Lim (ZRC) and 
student assistants for their hard work in the field and in the laboratory: 
Paolo Mazzoldi (Brescia. Italy) for his help in identification and comments 
on Gyrinidae. the Director of the National Parks Board and his staff 
members for their cooperation and assistance during the period of the 
survey, and for preparing Figure 1. This study was partially supported by 
research grant RP 830064 from the National University of Singapore. 
Michael Balke thanks the "'Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes'" and 
Lars Hendrich the "Berlin-Forschung" for financial support. 

References 

Balke. M. 1994. Regenwald in der Stadt. Okowerkmagazin. Berlin. 8: 
32-34. 

Balke. M. & L. Hendrich. 1991. Rote Liste der Wasserkafergruppen 
Hydradephaga und Hydrophiloidea von Berlin (West). In: A. Auhagen. 
R. Platen & H. Sukopp (eds). Rote Listen der gefdhrdeten Pflanzen und 
Tiere in Berlin. Landschaftsentwicklung und Umweltschutz S 6: 

359-372. 

Balke. M. L. Hendrich. & G. Foster. 1997a. Water beetle specialist group 
report: water beetles and EIAs: Southeast Asian projects/ Action plans 
for water beetles. Species. 29: 54. 

Balke. M, L. Hendrich & CM. Yang. 1997b. Updating the Southeast 
Asian Xeptosternns Sharp fauna (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Raffles Bulletin 
o f Zoology. 45: 369-374. 

Bistrom. O. 1996. Taxonomic revision of the genus Hydrovatus Motschulsky 
(Coleoptera. Dytiscidae). Entomologica Basiliensia. 19: 57-584. 



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329 



Briffett. C. (e<±). 1990. Master Plan for the Conservation of Nature in 
Singapore. Malayan Nature Society. Singapore Branch. 

Eyre, M.D. & S.P. Rushton. 1989. Quantification of conservation criteria 
using invertebrates. Journal of Applied Entomology. 26: 159-171. 

Foster, G.N. 1991. Conserving insects of aquatic and wetland habitats, with 
special reference to beetles. In: N.M. Collins & J. A. Thomas. The 
Conservation of Insects and Their Habitats. Academic Press, London, 
pp. 237-262. 

Foster, G.N. 1996a. Dytiscus latissimus Linnaeus, 1758. In: P.S. Helsdingen. 
L. van Willemse & M.C.D. Speight. Background information on 
invertebrates of the Habitats Directive and the Bern Convention, Part 1. 
European Invertebrate Survey, pp. 31-39. 

Foster, G.N. 1996b. Graphoderus bilineatus (DeGeer. 1774). In: P.S. 
Helsdingen. L. van Willemse & M.C.D. Speight. Background information 
on invertebrates of the Habitats Directive and the Bern Convention, Part 
1. European Invertebrate Survey, pp. 40-48. 

Foster. G.N.. A.P. Foster, M.D. Eyre & D.T. Bilton. 1990. Classification of 
water beetle assemblages in arable fenland and ranking of sites in relation 
to conservation value. Freshwater Biology. 22: 343-354. 

Hendrich., L. 1995. Malaysia's predaceous water beetles. Nature Malaxsiana. 
20: 46-49. 

Hendrich. L. & M. Balke. 1993. Bewertungschema zur Eignung einer 
Insektengruppe (/*Wasserkafer ,, ) als Bioindikator (Indikator, Zielgruppe) 
fur Landschaftsplanung und UVP in Deutschland. Insecta. 1: 147-154. 

Hendrich, L. & M. Balke. 1995. Die Schwimmkafer der Sundainsel Bali: 
Faunistik, Taxonomie, Okologie, Besiedlungsgeschichte und 
Beschreibung von vier neuen Arten (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). 
Faunistische Abhandlungen. 20: 29-56. 

Larson, D.J. 1997. Habitat and community patterns of tropical Australian 
hydradephagan water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, 
Noteridae). Australian Journal of Entomology. 36: 269-285. 

IUCN. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. IUCN. Gland, pp. 
368. 

Polhemus. D.A. 1993. Conservation of aquatic insects: Worldwide crisis or 
localized threats? American Zoologist. 33: 588-598. 



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Richoux, P. 1994. Theoretical habitat templets, species traits, and species 
richness: aquatic Coleoptera in the upper Rhone River and its floodplain. 
Freshwater biology. 31: 377-395. 

Samways, M.J. 1994. Insect conservation biology. Chapman & Hall, London, 
pp. 358. 

Yang, CM. 1992. Aquatic Beetles. In: Y.C. Wee (ed.). Proposed golf course 
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Water beetles 



331 




Plate 1. a. A small springlet in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, b. Microdytes elgae, a rare 
dytiscid from Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, c. A species rich habitat for Hydrovatus in Nee 
Soon Swamp Forest, d. Hydaticus bipunctatus, a forest pool species. 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 333-352. 



Odonata Biodiversity in the Nature Reserves of 

Singapore 

D. H. Murphy 

Department of Biological Sciences 
National University of Singapore 
Kent Ridge, Singapore 119260 

Abstract 

An account is given of Odonata collected during the survey of the Nature Reserves. Most 
of the species described from Singapore material in A.R. Wallace's collection in 1856 still 
occur. A total of 79 species have been recorded within the Nature Reserves, including an 
endemic damselfly, Drepanosticta quadrata. Eight species are known only from Nee Soon 
Swamp Forest. 

Introduction 

The Odonata are a relatively well studied group whose aquatic larvae are 
carnivorous and thus not limited by distribution of specific plants, but 
which are known, at least in some cases, to be affected by the nutrient 
status and ambient properties of the water they live in. 

The insect order Odonata (Plate 1) consisting of dragonflies and the 
smaller, more slender forms called damselflies, is represented in Southeast 
Asia by members of 14 families. Where known, all regional forms have 
aquatic larval stages so a biodiversity survey of the group must be related 
to the diversity of wetlands available in the area, even though many species 
range far from their breeding grounds as adults. However, there remain 
many species for which the larvae remain unknown and the existence of 
terrestrial larvae in other regions, such as in Megalagrion oahuensis in 
Hawaii (Williams, 1936), suggest some caution even in this assumption. 

The Central Catchment Nature Reserve (CCNR) together with the 
adjacent Bukit Timah Nature Reserve lies near the centre of Singapore, 
remote from the coast so that essentially maritime species can be at most 
only casual visitors. The function of the area as a water catchment implies 
that polluted waters are essentially excluded, though in fact some 
institutional land, golf courses, parkland and a closely monitored zoological 
garden do fall within its drainage area. 

The reserve area lies wholly within the central granitoid core of the 
island at the focus of the main headwaters of streams flowing north, south 
and east, now impounded to form four reservoirs supplying the potable 



334 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



water grid of the city, and whose input is supplemented by water imported 
from Johore. The high ground is largely 'tree country' in the sense of 
Johnson (1967), though of very varied forest quality, mostly a mosaic of 
secondary vegetation with a few pockets retaining primary character. 

The odonate fauna may be expected to reflect the extent to which 
the original forest stream, pool and swamp biota have survived the intense 
human exploitation over almost two centuries as described by Corlett (1992). 
It will also reflect the impact of large water bodies wholly foreign to the 
original hydrography of the island, the loss of major open streams to 
impoundment or canalisation, and, most recently, the conversion of a largely 
rural and agricultural terrain to one now wholly urban, industrial and 
recreational. This study of the CCNR can only address some of these 
aspects. An account of the odonate fauna of the island of Singapore as a 
whole is deferred to a later communication. 

History 

The first collection of Singapore dragonflies seemed to be that assembled 
by Alfred Russell Wallace during his six-month stay in 1854 prior to his 
travels through the Malay Archipelago. No list was ever published, but in 
a short paper entitled 'The entomology of Malacca', Wallace (1855) 
mentioned that in Malacca he '... nearly doubled my collection, which now 
amounts to 72 species of true dragonflies.' He must have taken over 36 
species in Singapore but even so only 26 species have been accounted for 
in literature available to me. None of the Wallace material could be 
unequivocally assigned to the existing CCNR since his material was simply 
labelled 'Singapore'. 

The next important contribution was by Laidlaw (1931) and this 
time, using material in the Raffles Museum, he gave actual location, date 
and collector, writing T have attempted to note all records for Singapore 
as it occurs to me that such records may be of particular interest in view of 
the many changes which have been in progress in the Island in the last 
hundred years or so.' Laidlaw himself seemed never to have collected in 
Singapore and the material came from collectors who were not specialists 
in Odonata capable of specific search. Most locations mentioned were not 
within the reserve. 

The next important contribution was a comprehensive catalogue for 
the Malesian region (Lieftinck, 1954) in which Singapore island is frequently 
cited specifically but without internal locations. Although many interesting 
new records were made, it was striking that very few of the forest species 
found by Wallace had been recollected. Far from indicating their extinction 



Odonata biodiversity 



335 



however, this appeared only to reflect limitations of the collecting habits 
of the workers concerned. After the Lieftinck catalogue, only a few small 
lists were on record that could be localised to the CCNR area (Paulson, 
undated; Iwasaki. 1981; Kiauta & Kiauta. 1982; Yokoi. 1996) besides 
occasional notes in special literature (e.g.. Murphy. 1994). 

Methods 

During the formation of the collection on which this paper is based, an 
attempt was made to reach all known stream-lines in the reserve, many of 
which were remote from normal access (Figure 1). A policy of mapping all 
penetrations of the area was adopted and in fact the geographical survey 
became a significant component of the work in its own right. The problem 
of locating and recording individual collecting sites in such remote terrain 
presented some difficulty. 




Figure L Locations of sampling sites. 



336 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Since the CCNR has most (three out of four) of its stream systems 
impounded to form reservoirs, this allowed us to code the sectors in the 
following manner. In each reservoir, the major inlets were lettered 
anticlockwise (A being the outlet) and streams entering each inlet received 
this code with appropriate subscripts to identify them and their various 
tributaries. A similar system was found workable in the unimpounded Nee 
Soon Swamp Forest. 

Adult dragonflies were collected by hand-net at selected points during 
the mapping operation, wherever local conditions permitted. Because many 
forest streamlines were choked with hooked rattans or pandans, this was 
inefficient and some records by sighting alone had to be made. In genera 
with closely similar species (e.g., Gynacantha and Vestalis) only a generic 
name could be applied and in such cases had to be discounted in mapping 
distribution. A limited amount of larval collection and rearing was also 
undertaken. Identification relied on available regional literature and an 
unpublished generic key of my own, and all have been checked by M. 
Hamalainen. Names conform to those in van Tol (1992). 

Results 

Table 1 lists the dragonfly and damselfly species collected from the reserve 
area during the survey period 1994 to 1998 and some previous confirmed 
records. A total of 79 Odonate species have been recorded from within 
reserve limits out of a total of more than 100 now known from the whole 
island. This total now excludes some species previously reported in error. 
The Singapore list now included 36 species not previously recorded from 
the State, most of these taken during the period of this survey although 
not all from within the reserve area. Some of these were common species, 
which were to be expected but some are rarities of some significance. For 
example, Aethriamanta aethra (Plate 2a) is the first record for Singapore 
and the Malay Peninsula and Orthetrum luzonicum is normally considered 
a montane species but found in Singapore. 

Probably the commonest dragonfly in Singapore is Neurothemis 
fluctuans whose brown-winged males are seen everywhere around marshy 
spots, grassy pools and open stream sides. It penetrated the CCNR along 
road-sides and open tracks and can be common quite deep in open 
secondary forest. Yet, this species was never associated with true forest 
streams. Its very abundance might have contributed to our failure to record 
the related Neurothemis disparilis, reliably recorded from Singapore 
(Laidlaw, 1931), which perhaps could be mistaken for a teneral or female 
of N. fluctuans. 



Odonata biodiversity 



337 



Table L Dragonflies and damselflies collected during the Nature Reserves survey. 

(1-New Record for Singapore. 2-Singapore is type locality) 



Species 


Status in Nature Reserves 


Singapore general 


Suborder ZYGOPTERA 
(Damselflies) 






Family Amphipterygidae 






Devadatta argyoides 1 


Local. Bukit Timah 










Family Calopterygidae 






Vestalis amethystina 


Frequent 




Vestalis amoena 


Local (Nee Soon) 










Family Chlorocyphidae 






Libellago aurantiaca- 


Local (Nee Soon system only) 




Libellago hyalina 1 


Rare (Nee Soon only) 




Libellago lineata 


Rare 










Family Euphaeidae 






Euphaea impar 1 


Local 










Family Lestidae 






Lestes praemorsus 1 


Locally common (MacRitchie only) 




Platylestes heterostylus 


?Bukit Timah 










Family Megapodagrionidae 






Podolestes orienralis 1 


Local 










Family Platycnemidae 






Coeliccia albicauda 1 


Rare. 1 Seletar U 




Coeliccia octogesima 1 


Locally common 




Copera marginipes 


Rare 


Common, widespread 








Family Platystictidae 






Drepanosricta quadrata 1 




Common 










Family Pseudagrionidae 







338 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (J 997) 



Species 


Status in Nature Reserves 


Singapore general 


Aciagrion hisopa 


Occasional 


Occasional 


Agriocnernis femina 


Local 


Common, widespread 


Agriocnernis nana 


Local 




Amphicneniis gracilis 1 


Swamp forest only 




Archibasis melanocyana 1 


?Rare, reservoir 




Archibasis viola 1 


Local 




Argiocnemis rubescens 


Local 




Ceriagrion cerinorubellum 


Local 


Common, widespread 


Ischnura senegalensis^ 1 


Local 


Common, widespread 


Onychargia atwcyana 2 


Occasional 


Old record (type) 


Pericnenfiis stictica 1 


Frequent 


? any bamboo area 


Pseudagrion australasiae 


Common, reservoirs 


Occasional 


Pseudagrion micro cephalum 


Common, open streams 


Common 


Pseudagrion pruinosum 1 


Rare 




Pseudagrion rubriceps 


Rare 




Teinobasis ruficollis 2 


Local U.Mac.conv. 










Family Protoneuridae 






Prodasineura collaris 


Local, widespread 


- 


Prodasineura interrupta 2 


Local, Nee Soon catchment 




Prodasineura notostigma 2 


Local, widespread 










MiDoraer AiNiMJr ilka 

(Dragonflies) 






Family Aeschnidae 






Anax guttatus 


1 (mist net) 


Common 


Gynacantha spp. 


Visual sightings 


Occasional 


Oligoaeschna amata 


Rare 


Old record 


Tetracanthagyna plagiata 


Rare, Nee Soon Swamp Forest 


Old record 








Family Corduliidae 






Epophthalmia vittigera 


?Common (reservoirs) 


Occasional 








Family Gomphidae 






Burmagomphus divaricatus 


Local, Nee Soon SF 




Heliogomphus kelantanensis x 


Local, Nee Soon SF 





Odonata biodiversity 



339 



Species 


Status in Nature Reserves 


Singapore general 


Ictinogomphus decoratus 


Common, reservoirs 


Common 


Macrogomphus quadratics 1 


Local but widespread 


- 


Microgomphus chelifer 1 


Local (Nee Soon SF) 


- 


Paragomphus capricornis 


Rare 


- 








Family Libellulidae 






Acisoma panorpoides 


Local 


Common, widespread 


Aethriamanta aethra 1 


V. rare, 1 @ Banir 


1 @ Lim Chu Kang 


Aethriamanta gracilis 


Local 


Common, widespread 


Agrionoptera sexlineata 2 


Local 


Local 


Brachydiplax chalybea 


Local 


Common, widespread 


Brachythemis contaminata 


Rare 


- 


Camacinia gigantea 1 


Rare 


Rare 


Chalybioth em is flu v ia tilis 


Local (MacRitchie) 


No other records 


Cratilla metallica 


Occasional 


- 


Crocothemis servilia 


Occasional 


Common 


Diplacodes nebulosa 


Local 


Common 


Diplacodes trivialis 


Local 


Common 


Lathrecista asiatica 


Occasional 


Frequent 


Lyriothemis cleis 1 


Occasional 


- 


Nannophya pygmaea 


Local but widespread 


Local 


Neurothemis fluctuans 


Very Common 


Very Common 


Orchithemis pulcherrima 


Common 


- 


Orthetrum chrysis 


Common, open areas 


Common 


Orthetrum glaucum 


Local 


Common 


Orthetrum luzonicum 1 


Local 


Rare 


Orthetrum sabina 


Common 


Common 


Orthetrum testaceum 


Common 


Common 


Pantala flavescens 


Common 


Common 


Potamarcha congener 


Occasional 


- 


Rhodothemis rufa 


Local 


Common 


Rhyothemis obsolescens 


Local 


Local 


Rhyothemis phyllis 


Common 


Common 


Rhyothemis triangularis 1 


Local 




Risiophlebia dohrni 1 


Rare, swamp forest 




Tholymis tillarga 


Common 


Common 



540 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 4912) (1997) 



Species 


Status in Nature Reserves 


Singapore general 


Trithemis aurora 


C ommon 


Common 


Trithemis festiva 1 


Local (open stream) 


Local 


Trith em is pal lid in en is 


Local 


Frequent 


Tyriobapta torrida 


Frequent 




L'rothemis signata 1 


Occasional 


: • . .. 



More locally, open ground with wet areas supports the tiny 
Nannophya pygmaea, Rhyothemis obsolescens and common damselflies 
such as Agriocnemis femina and Ceriagrion cennorubellum. The blue 
coloured Pseudagrion. P. microcephalum (Plate 2b) and P. australasiae. 
occur along open stream lines as well as around reservoirs. Large active 
libellulid dragonflies hover over and near open waters and include 
Orthetmm sabina, O. chrysis, O. testaceum, O. glaucum and O. luzonicum. 
Crocothemis senilia, Rhodothemis rufa, Trithemis aurora, T. festiva. and 
the smaller Aethriamanta gracilis, Brachydiplax chafybea and Diplacodes 
nebulosa. The large gomphid Ictinogomphus decorams is also very common. 

Open spaces far from water, especially high ground such as the 
helicopter landing site near Chestnut Avenue, also have large populations 
of Rhyothemis phyllis, Pantala flavescens and Trithemis aurora, and some 
rare records such as Camacinia gigantea. Road-sides with temporary pools 
may have local populations of Diplacodes trivialis. 

Although these common species are likely to be those usually seen 
by the public, very few of them penetrate into truly closed forest (an 
exception is Orthetmm chrysis). and it is the forested water bodies that 
were the principal object of the present surv ey. Of the nine species originally 
collected by Wallace in 1854 and said to be based on Singapore material, 
all but one (Libellago stigmatizans) still survive and are found in the reserve. 
Of the others. Libellago aurantiaca is now confined to the Nee Soon 
drainage (but would probably have been collected by Wallace in the upper 
reaches of the Pang Sua. which would have been swamp forest at that 
time). Of the others. Coeliccia octogesima (Plate 3a). Drepanosticta quadrata 
(Plate 3b), Onychargia atrocyana, Prodasineura intermpta (Plate 3d). P. 
notostigma and Agrionoptera sexlineata are still found scattered widely 
throughout the central catchment area near forested streams or swamps. 
Devadatta argyoides is now virtually confined to Bukit Timah and Teinobasis 
ruficollis to secondary forest pools at the stream convergence of the Upper 
MacRitchie basin. Interestingly, this latter point would have been accessible 
by cart track in Wallace's day. though it is more likely that the species 
were more widespread in his day 



Odonata biodiversity 



341 



Eight species now appear to be totally confined to the Nee Soon 
Swamp Forest, Burmagomphus divaricatus, Heliogomphus kelantanensis, 
Libellago aurantiaca, L. hyalina, Micro gomphus chelifer, Risiophlebia 
dohrni, Tetracanthagyna plagiata, and Vestalis amoena. Six others, 
Amphicnemis gracilis, Macrogomphus quadratus (Plate 2c), Orchithemis 
pulcherrima (Plate 2d), Prodasineura collaris, P. interrupta and P. 
notostigma, are also common there, but extend elsewhere in forested 
streamlines. 

Seven other species, Archibasis viola, Drepanosticta quadrata, 
Euphaea impar, Onychargia atrocyana, Podolestes orientalis (Plate 3c), 
Tyriobapta torrida, and Vestalis amethystina, occasionally appear in the 
fringes of the swamp forest but are more typical of feeder streams or 
swamps elsewhere in the catchment. Of these, Euphaea impar and Vestalis 
amethystina are believed to favour higher water speeds and often indicate 
erosion areas such as those in the Upper MacRitchie basin (Figure 2). The 
distinctive larva of Euphaea is found among trapped leaves in fast water. 




Figure 2. Sites of erosion processes currently or historically likely to have affected dragonfly 
distribution. 



342 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Secondary swamp forest variants also exist (Figure 3). At the head 
of inlets of the low-lying reservoirs (MacRitchie and Lower Peirce) where 
the stream profile is very shallow, long narrow 'ribbon swamps' with braided 
stream lines have developed since the impoundment. They have a very 
depauperate tree flora but offer conditions in which some of the swamp 
forest odonates, such as Amphicnemis and Macrogomphus, have become 
established. Higher up the water courses, uneroded streams often alternate 
between fast flowing reaches and level swampy reaches which I call 'step 
swamps'. Whether this is a general feature of granitic topography or perhaps 
a consequence of prior land use is uncertain, but some of the step swamps 
are particularly favoured by Drepanosticta, Coeliccia, Podolestes and 
Archibasis viola, though these species can certainly be found elsewhere. 




Figure 3. Distribution of various kinds of water body in and near the reserve area. 



Odonata biodiversity 



343 



As an example of species distribution. Figure 4 plots records of the 
three species of Prodasineura. None of these have been found outside the 
CCNR in Singapore and the genus is not known from Bukit Timah. Too 
few larvae have been seen to throw light on breeding conditions and only 
one of these was reared to adult so we do not know how to discriminate 
species from larvae. Nevertheless, adult distribution shows intriguing 
differences. Prodasineura collaris is widely scattered and appears associated 
with still waters choked with leaves. Prodasineura notostigma is common 
over deeply-shaded open streams. Prodasineura interrupta occurred together 
with P. notostigma in the lower part of the Nee Soon Swamp Forest and 
was widespread in the upper Nee Soon basin where it was the only species 
seen. It remains unexplained why this species is. on present evidence, 
confined to the Nee Soon catchment, since it is found in riparian galleries 
not obviously different from those in other drainage systems. The absence 
of P. notostigma from the Upper Nee Soon basin is also remarkable. 




* Prodasyneura notostigma 



Figure 4. Distribution of three species of Prodasineura. 



344 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



The convergence streams and pools of the Upper MacRitchie basin 
(Figure 5) support some species not. or rarely, seen elsewhere. The 
artificially straightened lower reaches of streams H and J caused berms to 
impound ponds to which several rare species are now confined, notably 
Argiocnemis rubescens and Teinobasis ruficollis. Some of these ponds are 
fairly open with scattered emergent small trees of Alstonia spatulata but 
have well shaded edges, while smaller ponds under full shade also exist. 
Other species breeding here include Tyriobapta and Lathrecista that are 
more widespread. Also restricted to this area, but along the open streams, 
is Agriocnemis nana. Why this location should have localised species is not 
entirely clear. However it is speculated that these forest pools may represent 
a habitat formerly more widespread in lowland Singapore in situations 
now lost to urbanisation or cultivation. The species may have succeeded in 
colonising this secondary habitat before their original and natural habitats 
were completely destroyed. However there are possibly other contributing 
factors. 

The recent appearance of Pseudagrion pruinosum and Copera 
marginipes in the nearby meter pond area may relate to seepage of enriched 
water from Upper Peirce. as may the presence of the calcareous alga Chora. 




Figure 5. Location of the convergence streams and pools of the Upper MacRitchie basin. 



Odonata biodiversity 



345 



Upper Peirce Reservoir is now principally a holding reservoir for water 
imported from Johore and has potassium levels ten times higher than that 
of purely local water. Similar levels occur in some headwater streams 
originating close to Upper Peirce but which feed into MacRitchie. Water 
quality may also be a factor in the presence of Devadatta in one location 
(MacRitchie stream J). This species is otherwise restricted to Bukit Timah 
whose streams also show higher potassium levels due to drainage from 
freshly decomposing granite. Throughout its wide range in South East 
Asia, Devadatta seems intolerant of the nutrient deficient waters typical of 
forest streams on deep mature regolith. In addition, meter pond stream H 
(Figure 5) until recently received water through the Kallang Tunnel also 
originating in Johore and the possibility of larvae having washed through 
cannot be discounted. 

Dragonflies are less often seen in dry-land forest remote from water 
but certainly do occur there. This is especially true of females that may 
tend to leave the breeding sites to forage before returning to mate and lay 
eggs. Females of Coeliccia octogesima, Vestalis amethystina and 
Amphicnemis have been taken so, but never their males. This may be why 
C. octogesima was described from a female, while the actually more 
commonly seen males were unknown until this present survey. However, 
Tholymis tillarga males are quite often seen flying in deep shade. This 
species is commonly attracted to lights and is widely considered to be 
nocturnal, but in the forest it is clearly active in daytime. Cratilla metallica 
and one or more of the three species of Gynacantha known from Singapore 
are also seen in deep forest. Pericnemis stictica and Lyriothemis cleis breed 
in 'phytotelms' (tree-holes and bamboos holding water) and are apparently 
widespread, though not often seen as adults. Their habits would not restrict 
them to stream-lines. 

The reservoirs themselves support some species not entering forest. 
The oldest reservoir, MacRitchie, has three species not found elsewhere, 
Archibasis melanocyana, Chalybiothemis fluviatilis, and Lestes praemorsus 
as well as common open-water species of Orthetrum, Rhyothemis, Trithemis, 
Ep ophthalmia and Ictinogomphus, which are found around all reservoirs 
and open streams throughout the island. The reservoirs have not been a 
major issue during this survey although, of course, some material has been 
assembled, including the three species confined to MacRitchie. Several 
species recorded only from other reservoirs are known to be associated 
with unstable or even maritime conditions (e.g., Trithemis pallidinervis and 
Ischnura senegalensis). 

Of species known to be present in Singapore but not recorded during 
this survey of the CCNR, several are high flying or nocturnal forms that 
are certainly there but were not collected by the methods used. Several 



346 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



very common forms associated with small open water bodies, maritime 
conditions or enriched or polluted waters are either absent or extremely 
local, as would be expected in a controlled water catchment where such 
habitats are excluded. Thus Brachythemis contaminata that is one of the 
commonest species around shallow grassy ponds such as exist in the nearby 
golf courses, is hardly ever seen even in immediately adjacent arms of the 
reservoirs. 

Discussion 

Of the recorded names accepted as valid, seven are considered suspect as 
records. N. tullia, P. laidlawii and Rhinocypha sp. were listed from Nee 
Soon in a publication in Japanese attributed to Iwasaki (1981) after his 
death. On translation this proved to be his edited field notes, originally 
using Japanese names of Japanese species with which he was familiar, but 
with scientific names added apparently by an editor. He appeared to have 
been unfamiliar with tropical species at the time of collection and used 
Japanese species names as a rough guide, the editor then attempted to 
match these with known regional species. His exact collecting sites were 
mapped and have been revisited but none of his species were found there. 
His N. tullia may be Tyriobapta torrida, and P. laidlawii may be 
Prodasineura collaris, the only species now found at that site. Several other 
names though valid are to some extent suspect. Thus, Vestalis amethystina 
is recorded from where we now find only Vestalis amoena, possibly because 
former records of V. amoena from Singapore have been revised as V. 
amethystina (Lieftinck, 1965) and we now know that both species occur. 
Agriocnemis pygmaea was reported with a note that its thorax was unusually 
thick compared with Japanese material. Today the site has only Agriocnemis 
femina. That there could have been faunistic changes is, of course, possible 
especially since oiling for mosquito control is carried out at the site specified. 

One record of N. intermedia by Yokoi (1996) from a site near the 
Zoological Gardens is unlikely since the species is Indian. Possibly this was 
Neurothemis disparilis, also a species we have failed to recognise. Material 
from Bukit Timah attributed to Indolestes by Murphy and given to D. 
Paulson in 1980 may be the origin of his informally circulated record of 
Platylestes heterostylus. 

The widely cited records of Urothemis abbotti appear to originate 
from the original author (Laidlaw, 1927) mentioning a damaged female 
Singapore specimen when describing U. abbotti from Thailand. All material 
of this genus examined since have proved to be Urothemis signata bisignata. 
A record of Orolestes wallacei by Laidlaw (1931) was based on a specimen 



Odonata biodiversity 



347 



"said to be in the British Museum and not seen by me...". It is a possible 
record but remains unconfirmed to this day. 

A total of 24 species collected during this survey are new records for 
Singapore (Table 1). Some of these are common and were to be expected. 
In total, 79 species have been recorded as documented specimens from 
within reserve limits with a further eight likely to be present but with 
habits precluding collection, such as being nocturnal or high flying. The 
species listed as now confined to Nee Soon Swamp Forest were probably 
more widespread in the past. Vestalis amoena was historically recorded 
(correctly) from Bukit Timah. Two species are distinctive of Bukit Timah - 
Indolestes and Devadatta argyoides. All other species so far known in Bukit 
Timah also occur in the CCNR. The hill does, however, need more intensive 
survey than it has received. 

An additional eight species recorded more or less reliably in the 
literature have not been seen (or at least recognised) but are not necessarily 
forms to be expected in the reserve area. Some may have habits (such as 
high perching) that preclude easy collection and only an extended rearing 
programme would be likely to reveal them. Only for three species, normally 
associated with habitats such as large rivers that have now been totally 
converted in Singapore, can extinction be strongly suspected. 

Five historically recorded species may have become extinct - 
Brachygonia oculata, Burmagomphus plagiatus, Dysphaea dimidiata, 
Libellago stigmatizans and Neurobasis chinensis. Burmagomphus plagiatus 
was a reliable larval record by Lieftinck (1964) from the lower reaches of 
Seletar River now converted to a concrete canal. In addition, Neurothemis 
disparilis, Agriocnemis pygmaea and Rhyothemis pygmaea have not been 
seen by me, although records of the latter two by Paulson in 1980 are 
recent. Even so, none of the extinctions can be taken as absolutely certain, 
although very probable. 

Among Odonata, only one species (Drepanosticta quadrata) is 
believed totally endemic to Singapore, but it is common in several areas 
and is not threatened. The genus is known for having many extremely 
localized species. 

Many species are more or less restricted to tree covered land and 
most of these found only in the CCNR and/or Bukit Timah. These include 
the eight species mentioned above as only known today from the Nee 
Soon Swamp Forest. 

The deteriorating conditions in the Upper MacRitchie Basin are 
reflected in the odonate fauna in several ways. An apparent extinction that 
occurred within the last three decades concerns Neurobasis chinensis (last 
taken in Singapore in 1970), extinct probably due to siltation of the stream 
marked Jc (Figure 5) where it occurred by construction of the Pan Island 



348 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2 ) (1997) 



Expressway in 1972. A stand of mature riparian swamp forest in the upper 
reach of that stream died out at that time. By 1990 good regrowth had 
developed but then the expressway was widened and the whole streamline 
again smothered by a new silt surge. Well-established local populations of 
Amphicnemis and Coehccia died out. together with the young secondary 
swamp forests in which they had become established between 1993 and 
1994. Possibly Onychargia. not seen there since 1989. was also lost. These 
species, which are still present elsewhere, will probably recolonise sites 
that revert to forest cover. In the low r er reach, a population of Agriocnemis 
nana was destroyed along with other species and only Trithemis aurora, a 
'weedy* species not formerly present, is found there today. 

Finally the question of seasonality has hardly been addressed. Most 
species are not significantly seasonal on a regular basis, but some migrants 
may be affected by the monsoons. Periods of drought may cause smaller 
water bodies to dry out entirely with possible long term consequences for 
species with poor dispersal. 

Acknowledgements 

My thanks to my student helpers, all engaged in collecting and who did 
most of the mapping work who are too numerous to name, but Tan Hoe 
Teck and Lim Koon were the longest serving and most expert: Mrs. Yang 
also fielded teams of collectors who took some material: Dr. Matti 
Hamalainen of Helsinki visited Singapore after the project was completed 
and who kindly corrected my misidentifications. detected a specimen of 
Coehccia albicauda among Mrs. Yang's material and provided some 
references I had overlooked: Dr. Tan Koh Siang made lengthy translation 
from Japanese text that clarified some important issues: and the staff of 
the National Parks Board who have been continually supportive as have 
my colleagues at the Department of Biology. National University of 
Singapore. 

References 

Corlett. R.T. 1992. The changing urban vegetation . In: A. Gupta & J. 
Pitts. Physical Adjustments in a Changing Landscape: The Singapore 
Story. Singapore University Press, pp. 190-214. 

Iwasaki. M. 1981. Field observation notes in Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 
Gracile. 28: 12-26. (in Japanese). 



Odonata biodiversity 



349 



Johnson, D.S. 1967. On the chemistry of freshwaters in southern Malaya 
and Singapore. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie. 63: 477-496. 

Kiauta, B. & M. Kiauta. 1982. The chromosome numbers of eleven 
dragonfly species from Singapore. Notulae Odonatologicae. 1: 164-165. 

Laidlaw, F.F. 1927. Description of a new dragonfly from lower Siam 
belonging to the genus Urothemis. Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum. 70: 1-3. 

Laidlaw, F.F. 1931. A list of the dragonflies (Odonata) of the Malay 
Peninsula with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Federated 
Malay States Museums, Singapore. 16: 175-233, figs. 1-7. 

Lieftinck, M.A. 1954. Handlist of Malaysian Odonata. A catalogue of the 
dragonflies of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, including 
the adjacent small islands. Treubia. Suppl. 22: i - xiii, 1-202. 

Lieftinck, M.A. 1964. Some Gomphidae and their larvae, chiefly from the 
Malay Peninsula (Odonata). Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden). 
69: 3-38. 

Lieftinck, M.A. 1965. The species group of Vestalis amoena Selys, 1853, in 
Sundaland (Odonata, Calopterygidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie. 
108: 325-364. 

Murphy, D.H. 1994. Risiophlebia dohrni. In: P.K.L. Ng & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 
The Singapore Red Data Book: Threatened Plants and Animals of 
Singapore. The Nature Society, Singapore, pp. 107. 

Paulson, D. (undated) Singapore Odonata collected 29 August 1980. 
Unpublished report. 

van Tol, J. 1992. An annotated index to names of Odonata used in 
publications by M. A. Lieftinck. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden). 
279: 1-263. 

Wallace, A.R. 1855. The entomology of Malacca. Zoologist. 13: 4636-4639. 

Williams, F.X. 1936. Biological studies in Hawaiian water-loving insects. 
Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 9: 235-345. 

Yokoi, N. 1996. A record of the Odonata from Mandai, Singapore. 
Malangpo (Newsletter of the Thai National Office of the International 
Odonatological Society) 13: 100. 



350 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



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Odonata biodiversity 



351 




Plate 2. a. Aethriamanta aethra, a first record for Singapore, b. Pseudagrion micro cephalum 
occurs along open waters such as grassy streams and edges of reservoirs, c. Macrogomphus 
quadratus. d. Orchithemis pulcherrima. 




Plate 3. Some damselflies widespread in forest stream-lines (a — c) and a species from the 
Family Protoneuridae (d). a. Male Coeliccia octogesima. b. Drepanosticta quadrata is believed 
to be endemic to Singapore, c. Podolestes orientalis. d. Prodasineura interrupta. 



Proceedings of the Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 49 (1997) 353-425. 

Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians in the Nature 
Reserves of Singapore - Diversity, Abundance and 

Distribution 

R.C.H. TEO AND S. RAJATHURAI 

Vertebrate Study Group 
Nature Society (Singapore) 
601, Sims Drive, #04-04/05 
Pan-I Complex, Singapore 387382 

Abstract 

The diversity of mammals, reptiles and amphibians is still high in the Nature Reserves with 
a total of 141 indigenous species recorded in the past decade, comprising 44 mammals, 72 
reptiles and 25 amphibians. During the four-year survey, there were 10 additions to 
Singapore's checklist of mammals, reptiles and amphibians, and 13 other species were 
rediscovered compared with four and ten, respectively, recorded during the six-year period 
prior to the survey. This is a clear indication that our Nature Reserves may still hold many 
species that are either not recorded for Singapore or are thought to be extinct. The Nature 
Reserves are probably the last refuge for 74 forest-dependent species and 80 species whose 
populations are of such low numbers that they are threatened with extirpation. Bukit 
Timah, Nee Soon and MacRitchie are the richest in biodiversity and, hence, are key areas 
for conservation. They should be set aside as core zones with the incorporation of Mandai 
and Lower Peirce. 

Introduction 

At the inception of the Nature Reserves survey, the Vertebrate Study 
Group of the Nature Society (Singapore) was requested to survey the 
mammals, reptiles and amphibians, the scope of which included: 

1. an inventory of species, 

2. information on the abundance of species, 

3. a study of the distribution patterns of species in relation to vegetation 
type, geophysical, historical and human factors, and 

4. information on the conservation status of endangered and rare species. 

Methodology 

The Nature Reserves were divided into six zones, namely Bukit Timah, 
MacRitchie, Upper Seletar, Lower Peirce, Nee Soon and Mandai. These 



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zones were further divided into 23 sectors. The number of sectors per zone 
was determined by taking into account the size, geography and accessibility 
of the zone (Figure 1). 




□ 



Bukit Tim ah Zone 

A - Taban & Lasia Valleys 
B - Tiup Tiup 

C - Jungle Fall & Seraya Valleys 
D - Fern Valley 
E - Main Road 

Lower Peirce Zone 

A - Lower Peirce East 
B - Lower Peirce West 



Mandai Zone 

A - Upper Peirce West 
B - Chestnut Track Forest 
C - Gangsa Forest 



M acRitchie Zone 

A - Sime Forest 

B - Rifle Range Forest 

C - MacRitchie North Forest 

D - Lornie Forest 

E - Thomson Ridge Forest 

Nee Soon Zone 

A - Nee Soon Range 
B - Nee Soon East 
C - Three-stone Hill 
D - Nee Soon South 



Upper Seletar Zone 

A - Upper Seletar West 
B - Ulu Sembawang Forest 
C - Upper Seletar North 
D - Range Forest 



Figure L The zones and sectors surveyed in the Nature Reserves. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



355 



Field surveys were conducted for about four years. Each sector 
received detailed nocturnal coverage over two separate weekends, a few 
months apart. Additional data collected on personal trips into the Nature 
Reserves by various individuals were also incorporated. The data were 
divided into two categories - records within the pre-survey period from 
1987 to May 1993 and records within the survey period of June 1993 to 
July 1997. The combined data provided a better picture of the diversity 
and distribution of the mammals, reptiles and amphibians. 

Nocturnal Surveys 

As most of the mammalian, reptilian and amphibian species are active at 
night, nocturnal surveys were an important component of the survey. The 
basic nocturnal survey stretched from 1700 hours to 0900 hours the next 
day. Each sector received nocturnal coverage over one weekend per month 
(usually Friday evening to Saturday morning, Saturday evening to Sunday 
morning). After every sector of a particular zone had been covered, field 
survey moved to another zone before returning for a second round of 
coverage in the same zone. Hence each sector within a zone was covered 
over two weekends or four nights. During the first year, a half-night session 
was also conducted as a reconnaissance before the weekend survey. 

Various methods were deployed during each night survey. These 
included mist-netting, trapping, transect surveys and bat-detecting. A 
minimum of six participants, including four experienced surveyors, were 
required at any given time for these methods to be used simultaneously. In 
practice, however, a team of eight to ten was optimal, especially on good 
capture nights, when more experienced hands were needed to extract and 
process the numerous animals caught. 

Bat-Detecting 

Important information on bats was gathered through the use of a bat- 
detector, which picks up the ultrasonic echo-locating calls of insectivorous 
bats. Shirley Pottie was the only researcher who could confidently handle 
the bat-detector, which was normally utilised during transect surveys. As 
she left Singapore before the completion of the survey, data on bats were 
highly biased towards zones that had been covered before her departure, 
namely MacRitchie and Upper Seletar. In addition, the bat-detector was 
damaged during the survey, and a less sophisticated alternative was later 
utilised. Unlike the first, this instrument was not able to record the echo- 
locating calls for further analysis. 



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Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Mist-netting 

Mist-nets were deployed to capture bats as their very fine mesh was not 
easily detected by them, and was gentle on captured animals. About five 
to nine nets, including at least two high nets, were erected at two pre- 
selected spots by dusk. The nets were about 2.5 metres high, with lengths 
of 18. 30 or 42 feet, and denier of 30 or 50. High nets were set up by taping 
two bamboo poles together to raise the nets to a height of about 6 metres. 
Pulleys were attached to the top of the poles so that the nets could be 
raised and lowered like a flag. The remaining nets were set at a low level, 
from the forest floor to a height of over 2.5 metres. On exceptional 
occasions, "triple-storey" nets were tried, where three poles were taped 
together to allow the nets to reach a height of about 8 metres. The nets 
were left open from about 1830 hours to 0730 hours the next day. They 
were checked regularly, especially during peak activity periods. 

A harp trap for bats was also used a few times but failed to capture 
anything. This type of trap has been used successfully to capture 
insectivorous bats worldwide. The lack of success could be due to 
insufficient traps. 

Trapping 

Small spring-door traps were utilised for small mammals like treeshrews. 
rats and squirrels. Apart from these target species, several terrapins, three 
palm civets and a monkey were also caught. About 50 traps were placed 
by NParks' staff along a pre-selected transect, at 20-metre intervals, a few 
days prior to each weekend survey. These were left open to allow animals 
to accept them as part of their habitat. 

Banana and papaya were the main baits used, although jackfruit. 
pineapple, apple, grape, durian seed, sweet potato, bread, dried cuttlefish, 
salted fish and soap were also tried. Banana proved to be the most effective 
bait, but jackfruit and bread provided good results as well. During the 
weekend surveys, traps were baited on Friday evenings, and were checked 
and re-baited on Saturday mornings. A second team would then check and 
re-bait the traps on Saturday evenings, and a final check was made on 
Sunday mornings. Captured animals were carefully processed before 
release. 

Larger traps for animals like palm civets, leopard cats and mousedeer 
were also utilised a couple of times but were generally non-productive. 
Pitfall traps for smaller species were used in association with drift fences. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



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Transect Surveys and Casual Sightings 

Many species could not be captured by the above-mentioned methods. For 
these, transect surveys were deployed. At each sector, two transects, of 1 
to 3 kilometres each, were covered on foot by one to four surveyors. A 
transect was usually covered after dusk and at around midnight. Rocks, 
buttresses and streams were thoroughly scanned with powerful spotlights 
for animals. Casual sightings by surveyors around the Base Camp also 
provided valuable data. Attention was given especially to streams and 
other water-bodies in the area. 



Road- kill surveys 

Motorable roads bordering or running through the Nature Reserves lend 
themselves well to road-kill surveys. Much information on reptiles, especially 
snakes, was gathered through this method. The roads were surveyed either 
on foot or bicycle. Road-kill surveys were carried out for the service roads 
to Bukit Kalang Service Reservoir, Upper Peirce Reservoir Park and Upper 
Seletar Reservoir Park, end of Sime Road. Rifle Range Road. Old Upper 
Thomson Road, Mandai Lake Road. Mandai Track 15. Old Mandai Road 
and Jalan Ulu Sembawang. It should be noted that data on snakes were 
biased towards sectors with heavily used roads like Old Upper Thomson 
Road. Obviously, sectors without any roads would have no data from 
road-kill surveys. 

Identification 

The main references used for identification of species were: 

Mammals - Medway (1983), Payne et al (1985). Corbet & Hill (1992) and 
Lekagul & McNeely (1988). 

Reptiles - Tweedie (1983). Lim & Lee (1989), Lim & Lim (1992). Inger & 
Tan (1996), and Manthey & Grossman (1997). 

Amphibians - Berry (1975). Lim & Lim (1992), Inger & Stuebing (1989) 
and Manthey & Grossman (1997). 

To aid identification and for record purposes, photographs of rarer 
species were taken, usually with slide film. Where necessary, descriptions 
and measurements were also recorded. 



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Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Results 

For the pre-survey period, 94 indigenous species were recorded - 17 
mammals, 57 reptiles and 20 amphibians. The survey period yielded a total 
of 131 indigenous species - 42 mammals, 66 reptiles and 23 amphibians. 
Combining both periods, i.e., between 1987 and July 1997, gave a total of 
141 indigenous species (44 mammals, 72 reptiles and 25 amphibians). 

A total of ten indigenous species from the pre-survey period were 
not recorded in the survey period - two mammals, six reptiles and two 
amphibians. In contrast, 54 species from the survey period were not recorded 
in the pre-survey period - 27 mammals, 21 reptiles, and six amphibians. 
This indicates the effectiveness of a deliberate survey in establishing an 
inventory of species over casual observations in the pre-survey period. 

Bukit Timah, Nee Soon and MacRitchie scored well in terms of 
overall diversity of indigenous species (Figure 2). Bukit Timah, especially, 
stood out from the other zones with 98 species compared to a mean of 80 
and mammal diversity was highest, 28 species compared to a mean of 23. 
Lower Peirce had only 18 species while the other zones ranged from 22 to 
24 species. The mean reptile diversity was 41 species. The most diverse 
zones for reptiles were Bukit Timah (51 species) and MacRitchie (50 
species), but Nee Soon and Lower Peirce were not far behind, with 46 
species each. Reptile diversity was markedly lower at Mandai (14 species). 
Amphibian diversity was highest at Nee Soon (21 species) and Bukit Timah 
(19 species) - the mean diversity was 16 species. 



120 



100 




BukitTimah Nee Soon Lower Peirce Mandai Upper Seletar MacRitchie 



^Mammals ED Reptiles Amphibians 



Figure 2. Species diversity according to zones in the Nature Reserves. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



359 



A total of 80 species have populations that are threatened (50 
endangered, 11 rare, 17 uncommon and two indeterminate). From Figure 
3, it is obvious that the key refuges for threatened species are Bukit Timah 
(50 species), Nee Soon (46 species) and MacRitchie (40 species). 




BukitTimah Nee Soon Lower Peirce Mandai Upper Seietar MacRitchie 

^Endangered QDRare E Uncommon ■ Indeterminate 



Figure 3. Number of threatened species according to zones in the Nature Reserves. 



The following terminology is used in this paper: 



• Endemic subspecies 

• Localized species 

• Discovery 

• Rediscovery 

• Recent Discovery 

• Recent Rediscovery 



Subspecies confined to Singapore, i.e., found 
nowhere else in the world 

Species that are presently found in a particular 
zone and nowhere else in Singapore 
Species recorded for the first time in Singapore 
within the survey period 

Species recorded within the survey period 
previously not seen in the past 30 years 
Species recorded for the first time in Singapore 
within the pre-survey period or a species recorded 
for the first time in Singapore during the survey 
period but from outside the Nature Reserves 
Species recorded within the pre-survey period 
that has not been seen in the past 30 years, or a 
species recorded in the survey period but from 
outside the Nature Reserves, which has not been 
seen in the past 30 years. 



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Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Between 1987 and 1997, there were 10 discoveries (four mammals, 
three reptiles and three amphibians), four recent discoveries (two reptiles 
and two amphibians), 13 rediscoveries (nine mammals, three reptiles and 
one amphibian) and 10 recent rediscoveries (four mammals, five reptiles 
and one amphibian). 

The following section deals with every indigenous mammal, reptile 
and amphibian species recorded from 1987 to 1998. A few exotic feral 
species (marked ) are also mentioned as they have significant established 
populations within the Nature Reserves. 



Mammals 

Nomenclature for mammals follows Corbet & Hill (1992). For most species, 
the following conventions and criteria are adopted in describing the 
abundance of mammals (numbers indicate known population size in 
Singapore): 

• Endangered : Occurring in very low numbers (< 30) 

• Rare : Occurring in low numbers (30-59) 

• Uncommon : Occurring in moderate numbers (60-99) 

• Fairly Common : Occurring in high numbers (100-199) 

• Common : Occurring in very high numbers (> 199) 

Only 17 indigenous mammals were recorded in the pre-survey period, 
while 42 were recorded in the survey period making a total of 44 indigenous 
species recorded from 1987 to 1997, of which 21 species are forest dwellers 
(48%) and 23 are not dependent on the forest. Twenty-one species (48%) 
are restricted to the Nature Reserves. 

Bukit Timah, Mandai, MacRitchie and Nee Soon are key sanctuaries 
for threatened mammal species (Figure 4). Twenty-six species (59%) are 
threatened with extinction - 19 endangered, five uncommon and two 
indeterminate. These include three endemic subspecies - Tragulus javanicus 
fulviventer, Ratufa affinis affinis and Rhinosciurus laticaudatus leo. The 
last species is in fact found only in Bukit Timah. In addition, seven other 
localized species also have threatened populations - Penthetor lucasi, 
Emballonura monticola, Nycteris tragata, Tylonycteris pachypus, 
Cheiromeles torquatus, Iomys horsfieldii and Hylopetes spadiceus. Each of 
these highly endangered species was recorded from only one zone. The 
distribution of endangered and rare mammals is mapped out in Figure 5. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



361 




Bukit Timah Nee Soon Lower Peirce Mandai Upper Seletar MacRitchie 



^ Endangered Uncommon ■ Indeterminate 
Figure 4. Number of threatened mammal species in the Nature Reserves. 



ORDER PHOLIDOTA 
Family Manidae 

1. Manis javanica Desmarest, 1835 

Sunda Pangolin, Malayan Pangolin, Scaly Anteater 

There were 16 records of M. javanica - five from the pre-survey period and 
11 from the survey period. It is fairly well distributed but MacRitchie is the 
most important area (8 records). This species has often been poached for 
its meat, and in recent years, its population outside the Nature Reserves 
has declined drastically. The future of M. javanica may depend on the 
survival of the population existing within the Nature Reserves. We are 
listing it as endangered. 

ORDER INSECTIVORA 
Family Soricidae 

2. Suncus murinus murinus (Linnaeus, 1766) 
House Shrew 

There were only three records of this shrew, all from Upper Seletar. This 



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Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




Tylonycteris pachypus 
Hy/opetes spad/ceus 
Rhinosciurus laticaudatus 
EmbaJ/onura monticola 
Arctogalidia trivirgata 



+ Crocidura cf. fuliginosa 

□ Rhinolophus trifoliatus 
Rhinolophus fuctus 

□ Cheiromeles torquatus 

□ Nycteris tragata 

x Presbytis femora/is 

□ Manis javanica 



Ratufa affinis b 

A lomys horsfieldii x 

A Maxomys rajah Z 

A Paguma larvata V 

o Tragulus javanicus 

o Nycticebus coucang 

+ Penthetor lucasi 



Figure 5. Distribution of endangered and rare mammals. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



363 



is not surprising as it is more commonly found in urban and suburban 
areas. 

3. Crocidura cf. fidiginosa malax ana Robinson & Kloss. 1911 
South-east Asian White-toothed Shrew. Common White-toothed Shrew 

Murphy (1973) first recorded C. fidiginosa at Bukit Timah - specimens 
were found in pitfall traps laid out for insects - but there had been no 
further records until the survey. Pitfall traps laid out by NParks resulted 
in 21 widely distributed records at Bukit Timah. and five each at Nee Soon 
and Mandai (at a proposed "faunal link"", just on the outskirts of CCNR). 
Medway (1983) stated that C. fidiginosa occurs "in all habitats from montane 
to lowland forest, scrub, grass and cultivated land, and including caves.'" It 
is postulated that the species will be found to be more widespread in 
Singapore, if pitfall trapping is carried out in areas away from the Nature 
Reserves. At present however, this species has to be treated as endangered 
and confined to the Nature Reserves and its vicinity. 

ORDER SCANDENTIA 
Family Tupaiidae 

4. Tupaia glis ferruginea Raffles, 1821 
Common Tree shrew 

This is the dominant diurnal mammal of the forest floor. The "02 records 
from the survey period alone indicate it is probably overly abundant within 
the Nature Reserves. Bukit Timah is definitely over-populated with T. glis. 
where it accounted for 70% (323 records) of all trappings. This species is 
also common in wooded areas outside the Nature Reserves. 

ORDER DERMOPTERA 
Family Cynocephalidae 

5. Cynocephahis vahegarus peninsulae (Thomas. 1908) 
Malayan Colugo. Malayan Flying Lemur 

Harrison (1966) and Medway (1983) reported that C. variegatus was 
common in Singapore, but Yang er aL (1990) listed it as uncommon, and 
Wee (1992) even considered it to be rare. Based on the current data, the 
authors consider this species as fairly common. There were 22 records 
from the pre-survey period and 95 records from the survey period. Although 



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widespread in distribution, the largest populations are apparently in Bukit 
Timah (where it is quite easily spotted) and MacRitchie. 

ORDER CHIROPTERA 
Family Pteropodidae 

6. Pteropus vampyrus malaccensis Andersen, 1908 
Large Flying Fox, Malayan Flying Fox 

This species is believed to be no longer resident in Singapore, as no 
permanent roosts are currently known to exist. Furthermore, numbers 
fluctuate through the year and at times, the species is absent. All recent 
records were probably of visitors from Malaysia. There were 159 records 
from the pre-survey period, and only 24 from the survey period. The largest 
bat in the world, P. vampyrus, has a wingspan of up to 1.5 metres (Medway, 
1983). It is threatened by habitat loss and poaching (especially during the 
durian flowering season). 

7. Cynopterus brachyotis brachyotis (Miiller, 1838) 

Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat, Common Fruit Bat, Malaysian Fruit Bat 

This is the dominant fruit bat in the Nature Reserves (670 records from 
the survey period). It is also the most common and widespread fruit bat in 
Singapore. 

8. Penthetor lucasi (Dobson, 1800) 
Dusky Fruit Bat 

Plate la 

The last record of Singapore's only true forest fruit bat was in 1925, until 
its rediscovery in 1995 in Bukit Timah where a colony of over 80 individuals 
was found roosting in a man-made tunnel complex along Cave Path, while 
a possibly separate population of at least 13 was located at the bottom of 
Fern Valley. There was a total of 123 records, including females with 
young. 

9. Eonycteris spelaea (Dobson, 1871) 

Cave Nectar Bat, Cave Fruit Bat, Dawn Bat 

Eonycteris spelaea was last recorded from Singapore in 1924, and Yang et 
al (1990) listed it as 'indeterminate'. The species was recently rediscovered 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



365 



in 1990 at Sungei Buloh Nature Park, where three were mist-netted. 
Throughout the survey, a total of seven bats were mist-netted for the first 
time in CCNR (MacRitchie, Lower Peirce and Mandai). Outside the Nature 
Reserves, a roost of over 50 was located at Pandan in 1997 while another 
of about 370 was found in the Bukit Timah area. Both roosting sites were 
under expressway flyovers and were quite well lit. Considering the 
abundance of flowering plants and the great number of flyovers in 
Singapore, this nectarivorous bat is probably surviving well. 

Family Emballonuridae 

10. Emballonura monticola monticola Temminck, 1838 
Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat 

Pottie (1996) recorded the rediscovery of E. monticola in Bukit Timah, 
where she recorded a maximum of six individuals. Emballonura monticola 
roosts are often rather exposed e.g. hollow logs and rock overhangs. There 
is no lack of such habitats, especially in Bukit Timah, and it is hoped that 
future surveys will produce more records of this highly endangered species. 

11. Taphozous saccolaimus crassus (Blyth, 1844) 
Pouched Tomb Bat, Pouch-bearing Bat 

Listed as indeterminate by Yang et al. (1990), this bat was recently 
rediscovered at Pulau Ubin in 1993. It is common and found throughout 
Singapore - 238 records were obtained during the survey period, including 
the first confirmed record of the species from the Nature Reserves. 

Family Nycteridae 

12. Nycteris tragata (Andersen, 1912) 
Hollow-faced Bat 

Plate lb 

The first and only record of this species was made in 1993, when a pair was 
found roosting in a culvert at Rifle Range Forest (MacRitchie). They were 
caught and taken to the National University of Singapore for processing. 
Unfortunately, the female died and was deposited as a voucher specimen 
at the Zoological Reference Collection. The male was released at the point 
of capture but has not been recorded again. 



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Family Rhinolophidae 

13. Rhinolophus trifoliatus trifoliatus Temminck, 1834 
Trefoil Horseshoe Bat 

Plate lc 

Last recorded from Singapore in the 1930s, and classified as indeterminate 
in status by Yang et al. (1990), R. trifoliatus was rediscovered in 1994 at 
MacRitchie, where four were recorded. A larger population of 14 was 
later located at Nee Soon and Mandai. 

14. Rhinolophus luctus morio Gray, 1842 

Great Woolly Horseshoe Bat, Great Eastern Horseshoe Bat 
Plate Id 

An identified rhinolophid bat was detected through its call at MacRitchie 
(three records) and Mandai (one record) during the survey period. These 
were probably the same records that Pottie (1996) attributed to R. luctus. 
Although a true forest bat, it was also recorded at Fairy Point Hill, Changi, 
a suburban area (Pottie, 1996). 

15. Rhinolophus lepidus Blyth, 1844 
Blyth's Horseshoe Bat 

In Peninsular Malaysia, this species was formerly known as R. refulgens, 
the Glossy Horseshoe Bat, a name which is now considered a synonym of 
R. lepidus. This species is a discovery for Singapore, the first official record 
being in 1994 at Upper Peirce West (Mandai). Pottie (1996) had, however, 
recorded it earlier at Bukit Timah in 1993 or 1994 (S.A. Pottie, pers. comm.). 
But since no details of the record were published, it was not officially 
accepted as the first record. Rhinolophus lepidus is widespread in the Nature 
Reserves, with a big population of at least 350 at Bukit Timah. Though 
new to Singapore, we consider the species to be fairly common, as there 
were a minimum of 555 records. 

Family Vespertilionidae 

16. Myotis muricola muricola (Gray, 1846) 
Whiskered Myotis, Whiskered Bat 

This bat is the most common species along roads and tracks within the 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



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forest. It is widespread and Pottie (1996) recorded it in all habitats except 
the city. 

17. Myotis adversus (Horsfield, 1824) 
Grey Large-footed Myotis 

Harrison (1966) implied that M. adversus was rare in Singapore (based 
only on an old record), and Medway (1983) regarded the species as rare in 
Peninsular Malaysia. This is amazing, as Pottie (1996) found it to be common 
in Singapore, being recorded island-wide over many fresh and brackish 
water-bodies. During the survey, the species was mostly found over 
reservoirs and adjacent channels (156 records). 

18. Scotophilus kuhlii castaneus Gray, 1838 
Lesser Asiatic Yellow House Bat 

This is the commonest insectivorous bat over the forest canopy. Pottie 
(1996) found many roosts on the rooftops of houses and Housing 
Development Board (HDB) apartment blocks all over Singapore, and 
reported it as the commonest microchiropteran in Singapore. 

19. Tylonycteris pachypus pachypus (Temminck, 1840) 
Lesser Bamboo Bat 

Pottie (1996) listed T. pachypus as extinct but a single bat was mist-netted 
in 1997, just below the Summit at Bukit Timah. This is the only record 
since Chasen (1925) and constituted the rediscovery of the species. 

20. Tylonycteris robustula robustula Thomas, 1915 
Greater Bamboo Bat, Greater Flat-headed Bat 

There were only 34 records of this species during the survey but it is fairly 
common and widespread in Singapore. At dusk, it is easily observed 
hawking for insects with Scotophilus kuhlii. Like T. pachypus, this species 
roosts in the internodes of bamboo. 

21. 1 Pipistrellus sp. 
Pipistrelle A 

An unidentified bat was observed foraging high over open areas (Bukit 
Timah, Mandai, Upper Seletar and MacRitchie). Pottie (1996) suggested it 
to be a vespertilionid, and possibly P. javanicus, the Javan Pipistrelle - all 



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other vespertilionids known to have occurred in Singapore were ruled out. 
This species is tentatively designated as Pipistrelle A, but it is possible that 
it is a previously unrecorded species for Singapore. This is an uncommon 
but widespread species. 

Family Molossidae 

22. Cheiromeles torquatus torquatus Horsfield. 1824 
Naked Bat. Hairless Bat 

Cheiromeles torquatus was last recorded in 1979 in a derelict house near 
Braddell Road (Anon. 1979). The only record since then was of a flock of 
five over Chestnut Track Forest (Mandai) in 1995. Although found foraging 
over the forest, this flock could have been roosting outside the Nature 
Reserves. At present, however, we consider the species as being confined 
to Mandai, and endangered in status. 

ORDER PRIMATES 
Family Loridae 

23. Nycticebus coucang coucang (Boddaert. 1785) 
Slow Loris 

Although recorded from Bukit Timah and MacRitchie during the pre- 
survey period, both records of N. coucang were possibly of escapees. The 
species has also been recorded in 1993 and 1995 at Pulau Tekong (Senin. 
pers. comm.) and is therefore considered extant in Singapore, though highly 
endangered. There has also been an unconfirmed record from Nee Soon in 
1997 (S. Chan. pers. comm.). 

Family Cercopithecidae 

24. Macaca fascicularis fascicularis (Raffles. 1821) 
Long-tailed Macaque. Crab-eating Macaque 

Perhaps the most well-known mammal of the Nature Reserves, it is 
abundant - 1.415 records in the survey period alone - but the records 
probably involved about 850 individuals, based on maximum counts of 
troops. It is estimated that about 34 separate troops were encountered 
during the survey. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



369 



25. Presbytis femoralis femoralis (Martin. 1838) 
Banded Leaf Monkey. Banded Langur 

This subspecies is highly endangered, as it is found only in Singapore and 
South Johor. Locally, with its recent extirpation in Bukit Timah in 1987 
(Yang & Lua. 1988). P. f femoralis is now confined to Nee Soon and 
Lower Peirce. There were a total of 257 records from 1987 to June 1997. 
but these involved a high degree of duplication. It is suspected that there 
are only two or three troops, with a total of 18 to 23 individuals. The 
largest troop, of at least 10 individuals, inhabits the main swamp forest at 
Nee Soon Range Forest. A second troop moves between Nee Soon East 
and Lower Peirce West, comprising at least seven individuals. A troop of 
at least five individuals was reported by NParks staff at Lower Peirce East 
- this might be a previously unknown troop as it was quite a distance from 
the other troops. A lone individual was also seen at Three-Stone Hill. 

ORDER CARNIVORA 
Family Canidae 

26. Canis familiaris Linnaeus. 1758 
Domestic Dog 

Feral dogs were probably more common in the past when villages abounded 
at the edge of the Nature Reserves. There were only six records during the 
survey but many other records were probably not reported. Although the 
population within the Nature Reserves is not substantial, the presence of 
even a few C. familiaris poses a threat to endangered species like Tragulus 
javanicus and Paguma larvata. All known populations of this unwelcome 
species should be removed from the Nature Reserves. 

Family Viverridae 

27. Paradoxurus hermaphroditus masanga (Raffles. 1821) 
Common Palm Civet. Toddy Cat 

There were five records from the survey period - all from the fringes of 
CCNR (Mandai. Upper Seletar and Lower Peirce). in the vicinity of 
remnant agricultural habitat. Yang et al. (1990) listed this species as 
common, but the authors are of the opinion that it is now uncommon in 
Singapore. 



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Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



28. Paguma larvata jourdainii (Gray, 1837) 
Masked Palm Civet 

Chasen (1924) doubted the record of Singapore specimens of P. larvata by 
Flower (1900). However, based on a record in 1993, at MacRitchie, and 
another in 1990, at Pulau Tekong (Vasantha, pers. comm.), we are listing 
this species as a possible resident, and the record at MacRitchie, a 
rediscovery. 

29. Arctogalidia trivirgata sumatrana Lyon, 1908 
Small-toothed Palm Civet, Three-striped Palm Civet 

Yang et al. (1990) listed this species as indeterminate as there were no 
recent records since Chasen (1924). Two examples were confirmed from 
Nee Soon in 1997, after the survey period (S.H. Yeo, pers. comm.). During 
the survey period, there were also two records of an arboreal civet, probably 
involving the same individual, during night surveys at Bukit Timah. This 
was believed to be A. trivirgata. It was also heard calling incessantly, 
sounding like Sundasciurus tenuis, but much louder and exaggerated. 

30. Viverra tangalunga tangalunga Gray 1832 
Malay Civet 

There was an unconfirmed record of this large civet in the early 1990s, at 
Upper Seletar (Vasantha, pers. comm.). If this species still exists, Mandai 
and Upper Seletar are the most likely zones for future records. Viverra 
tangalunga, has also been reported at Pulau Tekong (Lim, 1991a; Sivasothi, 
1994), but the authors believe that might have been a misidentified V. 
zibet ha. 

ORDER ARTIODACTYLA 
Family Tragulidae 

31. Tragulus javanicus fulviv enter Gray, 1836 
Lesser Mousedeer 

This subspecies is endemic to Singapore, and internationally endangered. 
There were five records from the pre-survey period - one from Bukit 
Timah and two each from Nee Soon and MacRitchie. During the survey 
period, five records were noted in Nee Soon, while only one each was 
obtained at Bukit Timah and MacRitchie. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



371 



Family Cervidae 

32. Cervus unicolor equinus Cuvier, 1823 
Sambar, Sambhur 

Natural populations of C. unicolor apparently died out decades ago, but a 
few have been reported from Upper Seletar since the 1970s, including 
three records from the survey period. These are believed to have been 
escapees from the nearby Singapore Zoological Gardens or Night Safari. 
A small feral herd of perhaps about 10 to 15 animals exists at Upper 
Seletar (Vasantha & T.M. Leong, pers. comm.) 

33. Muntiacus muntjak peninsulae Lydekker, 1915 
Common Barking Deer 

A single record of M. muntjak was obtained from Chestnut Track Forest 
(Mandai). This might have been one of two reported escapees from the 
Night Safari (Vasantha, pers. comm.), as the species is believed to be 
extinct (Yang et ah, 1990). However, the possible existence of a small 
remnant population at Mandai should not be ruled out. 

ORDER RODENTIA 
Family Sciuridae 

34. Ratufa affinis affinis (Raffles, 1821) 

Cream-coloured Giant Squirrel, Common Giant Squirrel, Pale Giant 
Squirrel 

Another endemic subspecies, R. a. affinis is highly endangered and 
threatened with extinction. Except for a single record from Bukit Timah in 
1990, it is confined to Nee Soon, where only four examples (one pair and 
two individuals) were confirmed in the survey period (all 22 CCNR records 
from 1987 to June 1997 are believed to involve the same animals). 

35. Callosciurus notatus singapurensis Robinson, 1916 
Plantain Squirrel, Common Red-bellied Squirrel 

Although common everywhere, C. n. singapurensis is actually endemic to 
Singapore. It is our only endemic subspecies that is currently not threatened. 
It is found in forested areas as well as suburban gardens, parks and even 
on wayside trees. A total of 425 individuals were recorded during the 
survey period. 



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Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



36. Sundasciurus tenuis tenuis (Horsfield, 1823) 
Slender Squirrel 

This is the most abundant rodent in the Nature Reserves - 763 were 
recorded in the survey period alone. The only known sustainable population 
outside the Nature Reserves is centred at the Botanic Gardens' Rain Forest 
and Tyersall Woods. 

37. Rhinosciurus laticaudatus leo Thomas & Wroughton, 1909 
Shrew-faced Ground Squirrel 

Confined to Bukit Timah, this endemic subspecies is threatened with 
extinction. The only recent record was in 1989 and none were confirmed 
during the survey period. This species could be a victim of competition 
from the abundant Tupaia glis. 

Family Pteromyidae 

38. lomys horsfieldii davisoni (Thomas, 1886) 
Horsfield's Flying Squirrel, 

Chasen (1925) recorded /. horsfieldii from Kranji and Bukit Timah. 
However, the two specimens from Kranji, deposited at the Zoological 
Reference Collection, are misidentified. This leaves the single specimen 
from Bukit Timah as the only previous record of the species. lomys 
horsfieldii was, however, rediscovered in 1995, when a pair was observed 
at Nee Soon East. This was the first record of the species from CCNR. 

39. Hylopetes spadiceus (Blyth, 1847) 
Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel 
Plate 2 

This species was only discovered in 1996 in Bukit Timah. The existence of 
H. spadiceus has perhaps been overlooked, due to its small size and a lack 
of nocturnal surveys in Singapore over the past few decades. Twenty-four 
records were obtained during the survey period and a small but apparently 
viable population exists within Bukit Timah. There was also a report in 
1990 of a small flying squirrel at Taban Valley, Bukit Timah (M.N. Jumaat, 
pers. comm.), which is now believed to have been H. spadiceus. During the 
survey period, a pair was clearly observed at its nest hole about 2 m above 
the ground. The local animals have white stockings, a characteristic not 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



373 



found in any Malaysian flying squirrel. This indicates a possible undescribed 
subspecies endemic to Singapore. This flying squirrel gives a short, high- 
pitched shriek as it moves around the forest. 

Family Muridae 

40. Rattus rattus diardii (Jentinck, 1880) 
House Rat, Roof Rat 

There were four records of this familiar rat - one from the Summit of 
Bukit Timah, and two in scrubland at Upper Seletar. Rattus rattus is more 
commonly found in urban and suburban areas, and the Bukit Timah 
example probably reached the Summit by way of the access road. A possible 
example was, however, trapped at Seraya Valley under primary forest, but 
it escaped during processing, and its identity could not be positively 
established. 

41. Rattus tiomanicus jalorensis (Bonhote, 1903) 
Malaysian Wood Rat, Malaysian Field Rat 

Only 19 examples were recorded (three in the pre-survey period and 16 in 
the survey period), but this species is believed to be more prevalent outside 
rain forest. Future surveys, especially in forest fringe, scrub and back 
mangrove, should produce more records for Singapore. At Bukit Timah, 
an example was known to have gnawed through a Chengal-timber door. 

42. Rattus exulans concolor (Blyth, 1859) 
Polynesian Rat 

Commonly found in urban and suburban areas, R. exulans was recorded 
only once from Upper Seletar in scrubland. 

43. Rattus annandalei bullatus (Lyon, 1908) 
Annandale's Rat, Singapore Rat 

Rattus annandalei is the most common nocturnal mammal of the forest 
floor (310 records in the survey period). Considering that Harrison (1966) 
and Medway (1983) were of the opinion that its natural habitat is secondary 
forest and scrub, the abundance of R. annandalei (even in primary 
vegetation) is cause for concern. The population at Bukit Timah (107 
records) is especially worrying with respect to competition with spiny rats. 



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Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



44. Maxomys rajah pellax (Miller, 1900) 
Brown Spiny Rat, Rajah Rat 

New to Singapore, M. rajah was first recorded in 1995 at Three-Stone Hill 
(Nee Soon), where two were trapped. Subsequently, a total of 19 were 
trapped from all sectors in Nee Soon, but mainly from Three-Stone Hill. 
There is probably a viable but nonetheless endangered population. This 
murid has not been confirmed outside Nee Soon though juveniles of a 
spiny rat were caught both at Lower Peirce and Mandai but these could 
not be identified to species, as juveniles of M. rajah and M. surifer look 
alike. The two records outside Nee Soon are tentatively placed under M. 
rajah, the only spiny rat confirmed for CCNR thus far. 

45. Maxomys surifer leonis (Robinson & Kloss, 1911) 
Red Spiny Rat 

The last records of this endemic subspecies were in 1968 from Bukit Timah 
(Murphy, 1973) but no specimens were kept and the identification is 
doubtful. A spiny rat was observed once in the field at Bukit Timah during 
the survey period, but could not be identified to species. With the discovery 
of M. rajah at Nee Soon, this spiny rat could, however, not be assumed to 
be M. surifer. 



Nomenclature for reptiles generally follows Lim & Lim (1992) and Denzer 
& Manthey (1991). For most species, the following convention and criteria 
are used to describe the abundance of reptiles (numbers indicate known 
population size in Singapore): 



As most reptiles are not easily detectable, it is difficult to designate a 
reptile as extinct, even if there have been no records for a long period of 
time. For this reason, not much data on extinct reptiles is available. From 
Lim & Lim (1992), it is, however, assumed that there are no recent records 
(at that time) for 33 terrestrial species (32%) not covered in its main text. 



Reptiles 



• Endangered 

• Rare 

• Uncommon 

• Fairly Common 

• Common 



Occurring in very low numbers (< 10) 
Occurring in low numbers (10-19) 
Occurring in moderate numbers (20-29) 
Occurring in high numbers (30-39) 
Occurring in very high numbers (> 39) 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



375 



During the pre-survey period, 57 indigenous species were recorded, 
while the survey period produced 65 species making a total of 72 for the 
period 1987 to July 1997, of which 35 are forest species (49%) and 37 are 
not true forest dwellers. Twenty-eight species (39%) are confined to the 
Nature Reserves. 

Bukit Timah, Nee Soon, MacRitchie and Lower Peirce are the four 
most important zones for threatened reptile species (Figure 6). Forty species 
(56%) are considered to be threatened, 24 endangered, seven rare and 
nine uncommon. These include nine localized species - Ahaetulla fasciolata, 
Ophites subcinctus, Psammodynastes pictus, Rhadophis subminiatus , 
Xenochrophis piscator, Xenochrophis trianguligerus, Zaocys fuscus, 
Lygosoma sp. and Cyrtodactylus cf. consobrinus. The distribution of 
endangered and rare reptiles is mapped in Figures 7 and 8. 




ORDER SQUAMATA 
Family Boidae 

1. Python reticulatus (Schneider, 1801) 
Reticulated Python 



The world's longest snake (up to 10 m) is both common and widespread in 



376 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




+ 


Mabuya rugifera 


□ 


Dogania subplana 


+ 


Aphaniotis fusca 


o 


Das/a o/ivacea 


□ 


Cosymbotes craspedotus 


+ 


Cyrtodacty/us cf. consobrinus 


□ 


Hemiphyllodactylus typus 


A 


Lipinia cf. vittigera 


□ 


Notochelys platynota 


A 


Dasia cf. grisea 


o 


Amyda cartilaginea 







Figure 7. Distribution of endangered and rare reptiles (excluding snakes). 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



377 




+ 


Ca/amaria lumbricoidea 


A 


Gonyosoma oxycepha/a 


o 


Psammodynastes p/ctus 


* 


Liopeltis baliodeirus 


A 


Oligodon s/gnatus 


X 


Zaocys fuscus 


+ 


Chrysopelea pelias 




Boiga cynodon 


X 


Ophites subcinctus 


□ 


Dryophiops rubescens 


B 


Ophiophagus hannah 


X 


Boiga Jaspidea 


★ 


Boiga dendrophila 


IS 


Tropidolaemus wag/eri 


+ 


Ahaetulla fasciolata 


□ 


Xenochrophis trianguligerus 


O 


Dryocalamus subannulatus 






A 


Xenochrophis maculatus 


O 


Rhadophis subminiatus 







Figure 8. Distribution of endangered and rare snakes. 



378 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2} (1997) 



Singapore. It was recorded from all zones in the Nature Reserves. This 
species has learnt to use our drainage and sewerage systems to its advantage. 
It is actually useful in helping to keep the rodent pest population in check. 

Family Xenopeltidae 

2. Xenopeltis unicolor Reinwardt, 1827 
Sunbeam Snake, Iridescent Earth Snake 

A medium-sized snake, X. unicolor is actually quite harmless. Although 
there were only nine records from the survey, it is believed to be fairly 
common, as it is an obscure burrower. 

Family Typhlopidae 

3. Ramphotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803) 
Common Blind Snake 

Another burrowing species, R. braminus is commonly found in gardens 
and parks and presumably in the Nature Reserves as well. Only one example 
was recorded in the survey. 

Family Colubridae 

4. Ahaetulla fasciolata (Fischer, 1885) 
Speckled-headed Whip Snake 

There was only a single confirmed record of this endangered snake from 
the Nature Reserves (Bukit Timah). A record of one donated to the zoo 
gave no details of its origin (Lim, 1990a). Due to its arboreal habit and 
brown colouration, it is easily overlooked. 

5. Ahaetulla prasina (Boie, 1827) 
Oriental Whip Snake 

One of the commonest snakes in Singapore, A. prasina is also found in 
gardens and parks. There were a total of 33 records, spread across all 
zones except Mandai. It is the most frequently recorded snake at Upper 
Seletar (14 records). This arboreal species is normally camouflaged and 
when disturbed it moves very swiftly, appearing to flow through the foliage. 
It preys on lizards and other small creatures. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



379 



6. Boiga cynodon (Boie, 1827) 
Dog-toothed Cat Snake 

This endangered species was found on eight occasions (four within the 
pre-survey period, and four during the survey). It is arboreal and grows up 
to 2.5 m in length. A forest dweller. B. cynodon, was recently recorded 
from Pulau Ubin. This was surprising as the forest there is very much 
degraded, in comparison to the Nature Reserves. 

7. Boiga dendrophila (Boie, 1827) 
Yellow-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake 

This is one of our most striking snakes. Though rare, B. dendrophila is not 
confined to the rain forest - it has also been found in mangroves. With a 
maximum length of about 2.5 m, this species should not be handled as it 
readily bites when provoked. There were a total of 13 records, mostly of 
live examples. 

8. Boiga jaspidea (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril. 1854) 
Jasper's Cat Snake. Mottled Cat Snake 

This endangered species was recorded in the pre-survey period only - once 
each from Upper Seletar and Lower Peirce. 

9. Calamaria lumbricoidea Boie, 1827 
Variable Reed Snake 

This rare species was recorded ten times in the survey. Because of its 
burrowing habit, it is not often seen. Like C. schlegeli below, it is totally 
harmless to humans. 

10. Calamaria schlegeli schlegeli Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril. 1854 
Pink-headed Reed Snake 

A total of 26 records were obtained for this species, mostly from Lower 
Peirce (11 records) and Bukit Timah (eight records). The first author has 
also recorded it in 1989 at Holland Woods, outside the Nature Reserves. 
This indicates that C. schlegeli may not be a true forest species. Further 
records are needed to confirm this. 



11. Chrysopelea paradisi (Boie. 1827) 
Paradise Tree Snake 



380 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



This beautiful species, like C. pelias below, has been observed to glide 
from tree to tree. Other than the Nature Reserves, it is also commonly 
found in gardens and parks. It is known to eat mice, birds and lizards (Lim 
& Lee. 1989) and the first author has even recorded one with a bat 
( Tylonycteris robustula) in its coils. 

12. Chrysopelea pelias (Linnaeus. 1758) 
Twin-barred Tree Snake 

There were 12 records of this attractive, arboreal species, with eight records 
coming from Lower Peirce. Sadly, except for one live example each at Nee 
Soon and Bukit Timah. all records were of road-kills. This rare forest 
species has surprisingly been recorded recently from Pulau Ubin. 

13. Dendrelaphis caudolineatus (Gray. 1824) 
Striped Bronzeback 

Although growing up to 2 m. this species is rather inoffensive. Like all 
bronzebacks. it is arboreal and very agile among the branches, where it 
hunts for small birds, lizards and frogs (Lim & Lee. 1989). There were a 
total of 15 records during the survey. 

14. Dendrelaphis formosus (Boie, 1827) 
Elegant Bronzeback 

This is possibly the commonest arboreal snake in the Nature Reserves (34 
records), and the dominant snake at Lower Peirce (18 records). It has the 
ability to puff up the anterior part of its body when threatened, thus 
appearing larger. 

15. Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin. 1788) 
Painted Bronzeback 

More commonly found in open or lightly wooded areas. D. pictus was 
recorded 12 times in the Nature Reserves. Its diet consists of frogs and 
lizards. 

16. Dryocalanuis siibannidatus (Dumeril. Bibron & Dumeril. 1854) 
Saddled Tree Snake. Malayan Bridal Snake 

Plate 3a 

Dryocalanuis siibannidatus was recently rediscovered in 1990 when a dead 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



381 



specimen was found on a road at Lower Peirce. Two live examples were 
subsequently recorded in 1996 at Nee Soon and Bukit Timah. This slender 
inoffensive snake can be easily handled. 

17. Dryophiops rubescens (Gray, 1835) 
Keel-bellied Whip Snake 

A road-kill of this highly endangered snake was found during the survey 
period at Lower Peirce. Supposedly a forest species, it has also been recently 
recorded from Pulau Ubin. 

18. Elaphe flavolineata (Schlegel, 1837) 
Common Racer, Common Malayan Racer 

There were only four records of this species, but it is more commonly 
found in agricultural and other open areas. A large species reaching 2 m, it 
is terrestrial and feeds on rodents and birds. 

19. Gonyosoma oxycephala (Boie, 1827) 
Red-tailed Racer 

This species starts life with a humble olive-brown colour, but is a beautiful 
green when mature. The tail is brown or red. There were a total of only 
four records at MacRitchie, Nee Soon and Bukit Timah. It is arboreal and 
not easily seen as its green coloration blends with the surrounding foliage. 

20. Homalopsis buccata (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Puff-faced Water Snake 

With 41 records, H. buccata is technically the commonest snake in the 
Nature Reserves. It is, however, restricted to aquatic habitats, with the 
largest population at Nee Soon (24 records), where it is the commonest 
snake. The juvenile has a reddish-orange body, handsomely marked with 
broad black bands. As it matures, the coloration changes to light brown or 
grey, with darker bands. Its diet consists of fish and probably frogs. 

21. Liopeltis baliodeirus (Boie, 1827) 
Orange-bellied Ringneck 

This rare, harmless species has a light orange underside. Only 11 were 
recorded, mainly from MacRitchie (five records) and Lower Peirce (four 
records). It is normally found on low vegetation or on the forest floor. 



382 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



22. Macropisthodon rhodomelas (Boie, 1827) 
Blue-necked Keelback 

There were 10 records of this frog-eating species. It is fairly common and 
also occurs in open country and wooded areas. 

23. Oligodon octolineatus (Schneider, 1801) 
Striped Kukri Snake 

An attractive and harmless species, this snake is common and widespread 
in the Nature Reserves (21 records). It is also found in rural areas and 
perhaps parks and gardens. Lim & Lim (1992) suspected that eggs form a 
major part of its diet, and during the survey, a pair was observed in a tree 
hole with large reptilian eggs. 

24. Oligodon signatus (Giinther, 1864) 
Barred Kukri Snake 

There are only four recent records of the endangered O. signatus - two at 
MacRitchie, and a single example each from Bukit Timah and Nee Soon. 
Except for the Nee Soon snake, all others were road-kills. 

25. Ophites aulicus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Common Wolf Snake, House Snake 

This is a common snake of suburban and cultivated areas. Its diet consists 
largely of geckoes. Hence, it is often encountered in or near buildings. 

26. Ophites subcinctus (Boie, 1827) 
Banded Wolf Snake 

A road-kill at Lower Peirce in 1988 remains the only recent record of this 
attractive snake. Inger & Tan (1996) stated that this species never grows 
beyond 40 cm in length, but the Singapore specimen measured over 49 cm 
(Lim, 1988). 

27. Psammodynastes pictus Giinther, 1858 
Painted Mock Viper 

Lim (1991b) noted that P. pictus feeds on fish and prawns. The only record 
in the past decade came from Nee Soon in 1991. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



383 



28. Pseudorhabdion longiceps (Cantor, 1847) 
Dwarf Reed Snake 

This tiny snake lives in the leaf litter, under logs and stones, and can even 
burrow. It is not restricted to forest. 

29. Ptyas carinatus (Giinther, 1858) 
Keeled Rat Snake 

Ptyas carinatus is almost as frequently encountered as Maticora bivirgata 
at Bukit Timah (13 records). There were a total of 21 records during the 
survey. A large species reaching 4 m, it feeds on frogs and terrestrial 
rodents. 

30. Ptyas korros (Schlegel, 1837) 
Indo-Chinese Rat Snake 

There were only five records of this species, but it is not confined to the 
Nature Reserves. It is perhaps commoner in cultivated and rural areas. 

31. Rhadophis subminiatus (Schlegel, 1837) 
Red-necked Keelback 

Tentatively a rediscovery, a single record of this handsome snake was 
obtained in 1994, at Mandai. Lim & Lee (1989) stated that R. subminiatus 
is "recorded mainly from the northern parts of Peninsular Malaysia, 
Thailand and south China". It is possible that this record was of an escapee 
from the Singapore Zoological Gardens. 

32. Sibynophis melanocephalus (Gray, 1834) 
Black-headed Collared Snake 

This terrestrial species is considered uncommon as it is not often 
encountered - there were only six records from the survey, including an 
example caught in a pitfall trap. It is, however, not confined to the forest. 

33. Xenelaphis hexagonotus (Cantor, 1847) 
Malayan Brown Snake 

This is a large but inoffensive snake, more commonly found in open country 
and cultivated areas, often near water. Lim & Lee (1989) reported a diet 
consisting of rodents, amphibians and fish. There are only two recent records 
from the Nature Reserves. 



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Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



34. Xenochrophis maculatus (Edeling, 1865) 
Spotted Keelback 

This species was recently rediscovered in 1989 at Bukit Timah. A second 
pre-survey record was obtained at MacRitchie in 1991. During the survey 
period, there were 12 more records with 11 from Lower Peirce and 1 from 
MacRitchie. Unfortunately, except for the latter, all other records were of 
road-kills. 

35. Xenochrophis piscator (Schneider, 1799) 
Chequered Keelback 

There were four records at Upper Seletar, but these were possibly of 
escapees (Lim & Lim, 1988; Lim & Lee, 1989). 

36. Xenochrophis trianguligerus (Boie, 1827) 
Triangle Keelback, Red-sided Water Snake 
Plate 3b 

This species was rediscovered in 1995 at Lower Peirce, but only a moult 
was found. 

37. Zaocys fuscus (Giinther, 1858) 
White-bellied Rat Snake, Brown Rat Snake 

A snake, possibly of this species, was observed beside a pool in 1997 at 
Nee Soon (S.H. Yeo, pers. comm.). If confirmed, the record constitutes a 
rediscovery of this highly endangered snake. 

Family Elapidae 

38. Maticora bivirgata (Boie, 1827) 
Blue Malayan Coral Snake 

This highly venomous species is the commonest snake at Bukit Timah (15 
records) and is also frequently encountered at MacRitchie (nine records). 
In addition, it is one of the commonest terrestrial snakes in the Nature 
Reserves (26 records). One of our most beautiful snakes, M. bivirgata 
often lies across a track to soak in the sun. As a result, visitors to the 
Nature Reserves often chance upon it. Fortunately, it is not aggressive and 
makes its escape rather than standing its ground. The first author has 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



385 



observed an example flattening itself against the ground and raising its 
bright red tail when cornered. Though not necessarily a forest dweller, M. 
bivirgata has not been recently recorded outside the Nature Reserves, and 
the authors consider it an uncommon species in Singapore. 

39. Maticora intestinalis (Laurenti, 1768) 
Banded Malayan Coral Snake 

A close cousin of the above, this species is rather widespread in the Nature 
Reserves, but is commoner at MacRitchie, where 11 were recorded. Unlike 
M. bivirgata, most of the records were of road-kills. The species is also 
found in areas fringing the Nature Reserves. 

40. Naja sumatrana Miiller, 1887 
Black Spitting Cobra 

This very dangerous species is more common than most people think. It 
can be found in gardens, parks and scrubland, as well as the Nature Reserves 
(11 records). Hiding in the day, it emerges at night to hunt for small 
animals. This species has the ability to spit venom accurately at the eyes, 
and should not be approached, as it is highly irritable. 

41. Ophiophagus Hannah (Cantor, 1836) 
King Cobra, Hamadryad 

The largest venomous snake in the world, O. Hannah was recorded only 
four times in the past decade - three at MacRitchie and one at Nee Soon. 
In the mid 1980s, the first author also recorded a juvenile at Pulau Tekong. 
The species can grow to about 6 m. It feeds on other snakes (ophiophagous), 
particularly rat snakes (Lim & Lee, 1989). 

Family Viperidae 

42. Tropidolaemus wagleri (Boie, 1827) 
Wagler's Pit Viper 

This beautiful snake is green when young, slowly developing black barrings 
and a bright yellow venter as it matures. It is usually seen on shrubs or low 
branches, and stays motionless to avoid detection. When disturbed it is 
sluggish and usually unaggressive. This snake has heat-sensing organs and 
presumably feeds on small mammals and birds. There were 12 records 



386 



Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



from the survey - six at Bukit Timah, five at MacRitchie and one at Mandai. 
It is also recorded from mangroves, and the first author has a record from 
a rubber plantation on Pulau Tekong. 

ORDER SAURIA 
Family Varanidae 

43. Varanus nebulosus (Gray, 1831) 
Clouded Monitor 

Lim & Lim (1992) listed V. nebulosus as a rare species, and prior to the 
survey, there was only a single record for Singapore. There were, however, 
32 records from the survey period. This species had probably been mistaken 
for the more familiar V. salvator in the past. The status of the species is 
now considered to be fairly common. MacRitchie is the stronghold for V. 
nebulosus (23 records), where it is often seen clinging onto tree trunks. 

44. Varanus salvator salvator (Laurenti, 1786) 

Malayan Water Monitor, Asian Water Monitor, Common Water 
Monitor 

This is the monitor commonly seen in mangroves, on offshore islands and 
even along canals in urban areas. Large specimens are common in and 
around Sungei Buloh Nature Park. As its name suggest, V. salvator swims 
readily, especially when threatened. Within the Nature Reserves, it is usually 
found on the fringes of the reservoirs. 

Family Scincidae 

45. Dasia cf. grisea (Gray, 1845) 
Brown Tree Skink 

This skink is a new record for Singapore and its presence was confirmed in 
1996 at Nee Soon (S.H. Yeo, pers. comm.). The second author recorded an 
example in 1994 at MacRitchie. It has a brown dorsum with black transverse 
barrings with white below the eye. The juvenile is yellow-brown with thicker, 
more defined barrings and a series of spots on the head. The underparts 
are yellowish in colour. 

46. Dasia olivacea Gray, 1839 
Olive Tree Skink 



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There were a total of nine records of this endangered species, including 
four juveniles at Nee Soon. The other records came from Bukit Timah. 
The adult is olive brown dorsally with indistinct black transverse barrings, 
whereas the juvenile has a yellowish head and tail, and a blackish body 
with thin yellowish barrings. The underparts are light green. An example 
from Bukit Timah had no barring on the dorsum. There is a possibility 
that the records involve more than a single species of Dasia. 

47. Lipinia cf. vittigera (Boulenger, 1894) 
Yellow-striped Skink 

There were four records of this newly discovered species at Bukit Timah. 
Another was seen after the survey period, at Upper Seletar, within the 
grounds of the Night Safari (T.M. Leong, pers. comm.). This striking skink 
is usually observed on tree trunks. A broad yellow band runs dorsally from 
the snout to the end of the tail. A broad black band is found on each side 
of the yellow band, but tapers off towards the tail. 

48. Lygosoma sp. 
Supple Skink A 

Two specimens of a skink species were collected in 1989 and 1990 near a 
stream at Nee Soon, but their identity is still not determined. 

49. Mabuya multifasciata (Kuhl, 1820) 
Common Sun Skink, Sun Lizard 

This handsome skink is very common in any wooded area, and is often 
seen sunning itself along trails and footpaths. There were 121 records from 
the survey, making it the second most numerous reptile, after Cuora 
amboinensis. Although highly approachable, it is extremely difficult to 
catch. The coloration varies from bronze to yellow-brown, and often the 
sides are a bright orange and the throat a deep yellow. 

50. Mabuya rugifera (Stoliczka, 1870) 
Striped Sun Skink 

There were only five records of this endangered species during the survey 
(Bukit Timah and Nee Soon). All were found in clearings in the forest. 
The second author eventually recorded another in 1998 at Thomson Ridge, 
MacRitchie. 



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51. Riopa bowringi (Glinther, 1864) 
Garden Supple Skink 

This tiny skink is more easily seen in urban areas, where it often crawls out 
of grass to sun itself. It is probably found all over Singapore. Within the 
Nature Reserves, only one record was obtained. However, the use of pitfall 
traps (with sealed bottoms) may perhaps produce more records. 

Family Agamidae 

52. Aphaniotis fusca (Peters, 1864) 
Earless Agamid 

The only known population of A. fusca in CCNR, prior to the survey 
period, was at the fringes of Upper Seletar Reservoir Park (Nee Soon), 
where two individuals were recorded. Two other populations have since 
been located during the survey, at MacRitchie North and Three-Stone Hill 
(Nee Soon), with four records at each location. At Bukit Timah, two were 
recorded during the pre-survey period and another four during the survey 
period. 

53. Bronchocela cristatella (Kuhl, 1820) 
Green Crested Lizard 

This beautiful agamid used to be very common in urban and suburban 
areas. It is now more frequently encountered in parks and wooded areas. 
It is suspected that its populations have dwindled due to competition from 
Calotes versicolor. The species is, however, surviving well on the fringes of 
the Nature Reserves. Extensive culling of C. versicolor may allow this 
species to make a comeback in its lost niches. 

54. Calotes versicolor (Daudin, 1802) 
Changeable Lizard 

A feral species, C. versicolor was supposedly introduced in the 1980s, and 
has since spread to every urban, suburban and rural area. It has, however, 
not penetrated the Nature Reserves, except at the fringes. 

55. Draco melanopogon Boulenger, 1887 
Black-bearded Flying Dragon 

Due to its arboreal habits, this species has probably been overlooked by 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



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many. Confined to the Nature Reserves, it is uncommon (36 records) but 
rather widespread. Males have a red and black gular flag. To the untrained 
eye, it is similar to D. volans, but its colour is greener, and it is larger and 
proportionately more slender. 

56. Draco volans sumatrana Schegel, 1844 
Common Flying Dragon 

This species can be found in any area with trees, and it may surprise many 
that it can often be seen in housing estates. It is equally at home in the 
Nature Reserves, where 23 were recorded. Unlike D. melanopogon, it has 
a yellow gular flag, tinged with blue. 

Family Gekkonidae 

57. Cnemaspis kendalli (Gray, 1845) 
Kendall's Rock Gecko 

Bukit Timah is the key sanctuary (50 records) for this forest species, 
although Nee Soon probably has a sizeable population as well (five records). 
There was one record each from MacRitchie, Mandai and Upper Seletar. 
Rajathurai (1996a) reported an example found in a culvert, at Pulau Tekong 
Besar, the only known record outside the Nature Reserves. This record 
needs verification, however, as C. kendalli can easily be confused with 
Gekko monarchus. Cnemaspis kendalli is usually seen on tree trunks and 
rocks, and often raises its tail over its back when alarmed. Strangely, 
regenerated tails are yellow. 

58. Cosymbotes craspedotus (Mocquard, 1890) 
Frilly Gecko 

Plate 3c 

Lim (1991c) recorded the recent discovery of this species at Nee Soon. A 
second example of this highly endangered species was subsequently found 
during the survey period at the same locality. The first record for Bukit 
Timah was by the second author in 1998, after the survey period when an 
example was seen on a tree along Tiup Tiup Path. It has bright yellow 
underparts and is mottled brown dorsally with a series of dark brown 
blotches down the length of the body. A fringe of loose skin is found on 
the sides of the head, body, tail and feet. This cryptic morphology allows it 
to blend into the surface of tree trunks or rocks. 



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59. Cosymbotes platyurus (Schneider, 1792) 
Flat-tailed Gecko 

This familiar species resembles C craspedotus, but is not as cryptic. It also 
has a fringe of skin on the sides of the head, body, tail and feet, although 
this is much less pronounced. Furthermore, its undersides are also yellow 
and under dim light, its beige-brown coloration changes to reveal a similar 
series of dark brown blotches down the body. Within the Nature Reserves, 
it is usually found on buildings and concrete structures, especially where 
there is a light source. 

60. Cyrtodactylus cf. consobrinus (Peters, 1871) 

Banded Bent-toed Gecko, Giant Bent-toed Gecko, Peter's Bent-toed 

Gecko 

Plate 3d 

The opening of the man-made tunnels at Bukit Timah led to the discovery 
of C. consobrinus in 1993. Prior to this, it had apparently been observed at 
least once at Jungle Fall Valley, but could not be identified. To date, there 
are 23 records from Bukit Timah but none from elsewhere. This primary 
forest species grows to at least 30 cm, and is often found together with 
Cnemaspis kendalli, which it possibly preys on. The coloration varies from 
light to dark purplish-brown, with transverse light yellowish bands on the 
body, tail and limbs. There is an elaborate, but more or less distinctive, 
network of pale yellow on the head and neck. 

61. Cyrtodactylus quadrivirgatus Taylor, 1962 
Marbled Bent-toed Gecko, Marbled Forest Gecko 

A total of eight records of C quadrivirgatus were obtained during the pre- 
survey period and 20 from the survey period. Most records came from 
Nee Soon and Upper Seletar. There was only a single record from Bukit 
Timah, where an example was released after having ^hitch-hiked" all the 
way from South Johor. It is most unusual that no natural populations of C 
quadrivirgatus were located at Bukit Timah, as it seems to have the same 
niche as Cnemaspis kendalli. 

62. Gehyra mutilata (Wiegmann, 1835) 
Four-clawed Gecko 

Another gecko associated with human dwellings, G. mutilata is perhaps 
more adaptable to the forest environment. Juveniles have pink or gold 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



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spots on the body (Lim & Lim, 1992) and white spots on the face, which 
slowly fade with maturity. This species has only four-clawed digits, and a 
head that is more rounded and blunt than the other gecko species. The call 
is a series of low and monotonous squeaks. Gehyra mutilata is quite easily 
seen along the pipeline at Nee Soon. 

63. Gekko monarchus Dumeril & Bibron, 1836 
Spotted House Gecko 

This species is rarely seen in housing estates, but is usually found in houses 
and structures near wooded areas, including culverts and covered drains. 
Most survey records came from Bukit Timah and Nee Soon. Juveniles 
have a banded tail and a row of paired spots from head to tail - markings 
that become indistinct with age. The skin of the adult is covered with 
prominent, sharp tubercles. Eggs are laid in large clusters cemented 
together, and attached to hard surfaces. Like Gehyra mutilata, it has only 
four-clawed digits. 

64. Gekko smithi Gray, 1842 

Large Forest Gecko, Stentor's Gecko 

Largest of our geckoes, G. smithi is more commonly heard than seen. 
Adults grow to over 35 cm and can give a nasty bite. They are most 
commonly found on dead or dying trees. This species has distinctive green 
eyes and an Y-shaped marking on the head. The dorsum and tail has 
transverse, dark brown bands. In addition, the bands on the body are 
bordered with large white spots. These beautiful markings are more 
pronounced in very young juveniles. Bukit Timah is the main refuge for 
this forest gecko (17 records), although it also occurs at Nee Soon (five 
records) and Lower Peirce (two records). 

65. Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril & Bibron, 1836 
Common House Gecko 

Very familiar by sight and sound to all Singaporeans, H. frenatus (together 
with Cosymbotes platyurus) is presumably found in every housing block in 
Singapore. Within the Nature Reserves, it is usually found on buildings 
with light sources. 

66. Hemiphyllodactylus typus typus Bleeker, 1860 
Dwarf Gecko 

This diminutive gecko was found on bushes in MacRitchie (five records). 



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A specimen was also collected at Upper Peirce East, from a resam patch 
that was being cleared. The only recent record outside the Nature Reserves 
was at the Mandai mangroves (Lim et aL, 1993b). 

ORDER CROCODILIA 
Family Crocodylidae 

67. Crocodylus porosus Schneider, 1801 
Estuarine Crocodile, Saltwater Crocodile 

All recent records of this species within the Nature Reserves are probably 
of escapees. It has been seen at Upper Seletar Reservoir and MacRitchie 
Reservoir. 

ORDER TESTUDINATA 
Family Emydidae 

68. Cuora amboinensis (Daudin, 1802) 
Malayan Box Terrapin 

Cuora amboinensis is the commonest reptile in the survey (133 records). It 
is primarily herbivorous and is found in large numbers in the reservoirs 
and adjoining streams. Though amphibious, juveniles are apparently entirely 
aquatic (Ernst & Barbour, 1989). Existing populations consist of both 
indigenous and feral animals, as Buddhist devotees often release the species 
on Vesak Day. 

69. Heosemys spinosa (Gray, 1831) 
Spiny Terrapin, Spiny Hill Terrapin 

Our only true forest terrapin, this uncommon species (29 records) was 
recorded from all zones. This is the most terrestrial of our turtles. It is 
often encountered walking on the forest floor, sometimes not far from 
water. A juvenile with a serrated carapace was recorded at Bukit Timah. 
indicating a breeding population there. A few examples were caught in 
spring-door traps laid out for small mammals. 

70. Notochelys platynota (Gray, 1834) 
Malayan Flat-shelled Terrapin 

This species is easily identified as it has six to seven vertebral scutes. There 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



393 



were six records from the survey. It is found in shallow waters, where it 
feeds on aquatic plants (Ernst & Barbour, 1989). 

71. Siebenrockiella crassicollis (Gray, 1831) 
Black Marsh Terrapin, Black Pond Terrapin 

This nocturnal species is abundant in the reservoirs and their inlets. It is 
largely carnivorous, feeding on snails, worms, shrimps and other 
invertebrates. This species is another favourite with Buddhist devotees on 
Vesak Day, and released feral animals probably form a substantial part of 
the population. 

* 

72. Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied, 1839) 
Red-eared Terrapin, Common Slider 

This feral species is well established in reservoirs and lakes. It is especially 
numerous at the Botanic Gardens, where the first author observed one 
laying eggs. There were 87 records from the survey, but fortunately, the 
species has not established itself in forest streams. This amphibious terrapin 
is more at home in the water, but loves to sun itself on floating logs or at 
the water's edge. 

Family Trionychidae 

73. Amyda cartilaginea (Boddaert, 1770) 
Asiatic Soft-shelled Turtle 

A large species, A. cartilaginea was mostly recorded from the reservoirs 
and adjoining streams (eight records). Adults have carapaces of up to 70 
cm in length. This species and Pelodiscus sinensis are often slaughtered to 
make turtle soup. 

74. Dogania subplana (Geoffroy, 1809) 

Forest Soft-shelled Turtle, Malayan Soft-shelled Turtle 
Plate 3e 

Recently rediscovered in 1989 at Nee Soon, D. subplana is restricted to 
clean forest streams. A second record was obtained in 1991 at Rifle Range 
Forest (MacRitchie). This attractive turtle has a diagnostic vertebral stripe 
and two to three pairs of ocelli on the carapace. Juveniles have a reddish 
patch at the sides of the head, which disappear with maturity. 



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75. Pelodiscus sinensis (Wiegmann, 1835) 
Chinese Soft-shelled Turtle 

There were 10 records of this feral species that has established itself in 
reservoirs, lakes and canals. 

Amphibians 

Nomenclature for amphibians generally follows Lim & Lim (1992) and 
Berry (1975). For most species, the convention and criteria used in 
describing the abundance of amphibians are as follows (numbers indicate 
known population size in Singapore): 

• Endangered : Occurring in very low numbers (< 30) 

• Rare : Occurring in low numbers (30-59) 

• Uncommon : Occurring in moderate numbers (60-119) 

• Fairly Common : Occurring in high numbers (120-179) 

• Common : Occurring in very high numbers (> 179) 

During the pre-survey period. 20 indigenous species were recorded. 
The survey Period produced 24 species making a total of 25 indigenous 
species recorded from 1987 to July 1997 of which 18 are forest species 
(72%) and seven others not restricted to forest. The Nature Reserves are 
the only refuge for 16 species (64%). 

Bukit Timah and Nee Soon are strongholds for threatened amphibians 
(Figure 9). Of the 25 indigenous species. 14 (56%) are considered threatened 
- seven endangered, four rare and three uncommon. These include the 
four localized species, Pelophryne brevipes. Microhyla borneensis. 
Thelodenna horridum and Rhacophorus bimaculatus. The distribution of 
endangered and rare amphibians is mapped out in Figure 10. 

ORDER GYMNOPHIONA 
Family Ichthyophiidae 

1. Ichthyophis cf. paucisulcus (Taylor. 1960) 
Yellow-banded Caecilian 

The only record for CCNR was in 1989 (Lim. 1990a) at Nee Soon. There 
are only two other recent records, both from Bukit Timah (Ng et aL. 1988: 
Ng, 1989). This species is perhaps overlooked, as it lives under soil in the 
vicinity of streams. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



395 




ORDER ANURA 
Family Pelobatidae 

2. Megophrys nasuta (Schlegel, 1858) 
Malayan Horned Frog, Malayan Horned Toad 

There were 16 records of this cryptic frog from the pre-survey period and 
36 from the survey period. Although Lim (1994) considered this species to 
be uncommon, we are listing it as rare, based on the relatively low number 
of records. Furthermore, the main populations are confined to Bukit Timah 
(40 records) and Nee Soon (10), with only a single record each from Upper 
Seletar and Mandai. 

3. Leptobrachium nigrops Berry & Hendrickson, 1963 
Black-eyed Litter Frog 

This species is common in the Nature Reserves usually near streams or 
larger water bodies, it is more often heard than seen,. There were 158 
records from the survey period. It has never been recorded far from the 
Nature Reserves. 



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Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




A Megophrys nasuta 

□ Bufo quadriporcatus 

□ Rana glandulosa 
Limnonectes paramacrodon 

O Rana plicate/la 

Rhacophorus bimaculatus 



a Ichthyophis cf. paucisulcus 

+ Nyctixalus pictus 

El Microhyla borneensis 

A Theloderma horridum 

x Pelophryne brevipes 



Figure 10. Distribution of endangered and rare amphibians. 



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397 



Family Bufonidae 

4. Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799 
Asian Toad, Asiatic Toad 

This ubiquitous species is found all over Singapore. It has even managed 
to penetrate primary forest in the Nature Reserves, and is especially 
common at Bukit Timah (60 records). 

5. Bufo quadriporcatus Boulenger, 1887 
Four-ridged Toad 

A recent discovery from MacRitchie (Lim, 1989a), B. quadriporcatus is 
found near swampy areas. A total of eight were recorded in the pre-survey 
period, four each at MacRitchie and Nee Soon. During the survey, there 
were three more records - two at MacRitchie and one at Nee Soon. 
Although Lim (1994) stated that this species is "commonly heard" in Nee 
Soon, the authors are of the opinion that it is endangered. 

6. Pelophryne brevipes (Peters, 1867) 
Saint Andrew's Cross Toadlet 

A primary forest species, P. brevipes, was rediscovered in 1989 at Bukit 
Timah, where only two were recorded (Lim, 1990b). There were only two 
other records from the past, making this a highly endangered amphibian. 



Family Ranidae 

7. Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920) 
Malayan Giant Frog, BlytrTs Frog 

Our largest indigenous frog, L. blythii can grow to over 20 cm. It is 
widespread, but confined to the Nature Reserves. Its habits are very similar 
to Limnonectes malesiana. 

8. Limnonectes malesiana Kiew, 1984 
Malesian Frog 

Though uncommon, L. malesiana is widespread and occurs in all zones. 
This large species is often encountered sitting in shallow streams or by the 
edge of reservoirs within the Nature Reserves. 



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9. Limnonectes paramacrodon (Inger, 1966) 
Masked Swamp Frog 

Plate 4a 

This rare species was officially recorded for Singapore in 1988 at Nee 
Soon, although a specimen was collected in 1974 at the same locality (Lim, 
1989b). There were 26 records in the pre-survey period, all from Nee 
Soon. In the survey period, nine records were obtained - eight at Nee Soon 
and one from a new locality at Chestnut Track Forest (Mandai). 
Limnonectes paramacrodon is dependent on swamp forest habitat. 

10. Occidozyga laevis (Giinther, 1859) 

Smooth Puddle Frog, Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog 

A tiny frog, O. laevis is found in puddles and waterlogged areas. Distinct 
morphological variation in different areas was observed, as all frogs from 
Upper Seletar North were plain brown with a patch of orange on the 
snout. 

11. Rana baramica Boettger, 1901 
Masked Rough-sided Frog 

This species is usually found in marshy areas, but the first author has 
recorded one on leaf litter far from water at Bukit Timah. It is widely 
distributed in the Nature Reserves, but has not been encountered outside 
the Nature Reserves. 

12. Rana cancrivora Gravenhorst, 1829 
Crab-eating Frog, Mangrove Frog 

This frog can tolerate brackish water, and is more commonly found near 
the coast, in mangroves, prawn ponds and cultivated land. The young frogs 
sold as fish feed in aquarium shops are of this species. 

13. Rana chalconota (Schlegel, 1837) 
Copper-cheeked Frog, White-lipped Frog 

This is without doubt the commonest frog in the Nature Reserves - a total 
of 526 records were obtained in the survey. It is easily detected through its 
call and is often found on low vegetation. 



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14. Rana erythraea (Schlegel, 1837) 
Common Greenback, Green Paddy Frog 

More aquatic than most other frogs in Singapore, R. erythraea is usually 
found near open water bodies, never in true forest. It is widespread in the 
Nature Reserves. 

15. Rana glandulosa Boulenger, 1882 
Rough-sided Frog 

Plate 4b 

This species was first recorded for Singapore in 1993 from MacRitchie 
North. Four examples were recorded then, and the area was subsequently 
found to have the largest population (42 records). Ten more individuals 
were found in three other zones, making a total of 52 records for the 
survey. It is not surprising that previous researchers have missed the species 
- most of our records were based on its call, which was learned only during 
the survey. Although rather widespread, R. glandulosa is currently recorded 
only from CCNR and is considered rare. 

16. Rana limnocharis Boie, in Wiegmann, 1835 
Field Frog, Grass Frog 

This very common frog is found in most habitats in Singapore. In urban 
areas, it can be encountered in fields, especially after rain. Rana limnocharis 
is widespread in the Nature Reserves where it is usually recorded in 
disturbed areas like reservoir edges and ditches. 

17. Rana plicatella Stoliczka, 1873 
Rhinoceros Frog 

The main population of R. plicatella occurs at Bukit Timah, where its call, 
a slowly rising, quivering warble, is often heard. The species is, however, 
still considered rare, as there were only three records outside Bukit Timah 
(at Nee Soon). There were a total of seven records from the pre-survey 
period and 50 records from the survey period. Rana plicatella is found in 
shallow streams and often hides under nearby leaf litter. When disturbed, 
it makes quick short hops for cover, and has even been observed to hop 
sideways. 



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Family Rhacophoridae 

18. Rhacophorus bimaculatus (Peters, 1867) 
Blue-legged Tree Frog 

Rhacophorus bimaculatus was first discovered over 30 years ago from the 
Nee Soon (Lim & Yang, 1991), but was not recorded again until 1994. The 
first author chanced upon the single example at Nee Soon, at the edge of a 
forest stream (Lim, 1994a). It was not as brightly coloured as examples 
from Malaysia. 

19. Nyctixalus pictus (Peters, 1871) 
Spotted Tree Frog, Painted Tree Frog 

A healthy population of N. pictus holds out in Bukit Timah - a total of 67 
records were obtained during the survey period. We only learned to 
recognize its calls during the survey at Bukit Timah, and it is suspected 
that the species will be found to be more widespread at CCNR. where 6 
tadpoles were recorded in 1996 at Nee Soon (T.M. Leong, pers. comm.). 

20. Polypedates leucomystax (Boie, in Gravenhorst. 1829) 
Common Tree Frog, Four-lined Tree Frog 

Polypedates leucomystax is a common species, even in gardens and parks 
around Singapore. It can sometimes be found clinging onto walls of houses. 
It is most commonly found on low vegetation, and is easily located by its 
call. At night. P. leucomystax is brown in color, usually with stripes or 
spots on the back, but in the daytime, it sometimes turns pale beige. 

21. Theloderma horridum (Boulenger, 1903) 
Thorny Tree Frog 

Plate 4c 

Leong et al. (1996) recorded the discovery of this very cryptic rhacophorid. 
Five other records were obtained from Taban Valley at Bukit Timah. This 
species was found clinging onto tree trunks, 1-2 m from the forest floor. It 
is superbly camouflaged against lichen-covered bark. In the day, the frog 
probably hides in the canopy, but descends down the trunk at night to look 
for food. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



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Family Microhylidae 

22. Kaloula pulchra Gray, 1831 
Banded Bullfrog, Painted Bullfrog 

In urban areas, the bellowing call of this feral species is characteristic after 
a downpour. It is beginning to penetrate the Nature Reserves - a total of 
13 were recorded during the survey. This frog hides in crevices or burrows 
into the sides of ditches during the day. It has also been found hiding 1-2 
m above ground, usually in the fork of a tree. 

23. Kalophrynus pleurostigma Tschudi. 1838 
Black-spotted Sticky Frog 

Previously known only from Bukit Timah (Lim & Yang, 1991: Lim & Lim. 
1992), K. pleurostigma was first recorded from CCNR in 1993. at MacRitchie 
North, where one was found. By the end of the survey, a total of four had 
been recorded (two at MacRitchie. one at Nee Soon, and one at Lower 
Peirce). Although these are the only records from CCNR, the population 
at Bukit Timah was found to be large (70 records). The status of this 
primary forest species is hence updated to uncommon. This leaf-litter 
species is not dependent on streams and is usually found on the forest 
floor. It probably breeds in puddles and any water-filled hole or receptacle, 
including the ground cups of pitcher plants (Lim & Lim, 1992). Inger & 
Stuebing (1997) reported that K. pleurostigma (in Borneo) feeds mainly on 
ants and termites. 

24. Microhyla borneensis Parker, 1926 

Bornean Narrow-mouthed Frog. Bornean Chorus Frog 
Plate 4d 

Leong & Chou (1997) reported the first record of this primary forest frog 
in Singapore. It is known only from Rifle Range Forest (MacRitchie) 
where five were recorded in 1996 (one specimen collected and four others 
heard). Tadpoles were also found in the same location. More intensive 
work on leaf-litter fauna, will probably produce more records of this species, 
and perhaps lead to the discovery of other microhylids. 

25. Microhyla butleri Boulenger. 1900 

Painted Narrow-mouthed Frog. Painted Chorus Frog 

Seldom seen, but actually very common, this species is usually detected 



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through its call. Males gather in large calling groups near small pools of 
water or ditches. 

26. Microhyla heymonsi Vogt, 1911 

Dark-sided Narrow-mouthed Frog, Dark-sided Chorus Frog 

This species is similar in behaviour to M. butleri, and can often be found 
together with it. Likewise, it is very common all around Singapore. 

Discussion 

The Nature Reserves are the only protected refuges for the incredible 
diversity of flora and fauna that survives in rain forest. Yet, in this century, 
very few studies of our rain forest fauna have been carried out. The few 
projects that have been conducted at BTNR were usually short-term, 
sporadic and narrow in scope. In recent years, there has been a notable 
increase in observer effort to document sightings of fauna, especially 
mammals, reptiles and amphibians. However, no long-term research projects 
had been initiated until this survey. It is therefore not surprising that so 
many species have been "missing 1 ' in recent decades. 

Comparing data from the pre-survey period to that from the survey 
period indicates that casual observation alone is insufficient to have a good 
picture of the diversity, abundance and distribution of mammal, reptile 
and amphibian species. One reason is that many species are not easily 
observed, let alone identified, in the field (e.g., bats and murids). For 
instance, because proper studies on bats had not been conducted for about 
70 years, 20 out of the 25 species in Yang et al (1990) were listed as 
indeterminate. Yet, Pottie (1996) reported the rediscoveries of nine 
microchiropterans, as well as the addition of two new species to Singapore's 
checklist! In addition, three megachiropterans were also rediscovered in 
the same project. 

Another reason is that most species are also nocturnal, making 
detection even more difficult, and species with small, localized populations 
are easily overlooked. Only sufficient time in the field, using proper survey 
techniques, would help us better understand the present situation regarding 
our mammals, reptiles and amphibians. 

The survey has certainly been successful in updating our knowledge 
on the mammals, reptiles and amphibians. Data collected on forest species, 
especially mammals, are the most thorough in a few decades. Coupled 
with data from the pre-survey period, the survey has given us a good 
baseline assessment of the current diversity, abundance and distribution of 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



403 



species in the Nature Reserves. Of the 141 indigenous species recorded, 74 
are forest species (52%) that are highly dependent on forest habitats for 
their survival. About 85% of these species are locally threatened with 
extinction and their future survival will depend greatly on the sound 
management and protection of Nature Reserves. Their abundance and 
distribution are good indicators of the condition of our forests and indeed 
the health of our Nature Reserves. 

Diversity and distribution 

The Nature Reserves still have a very high diversity of indigenous mammals, 
reptiles and amphibians (141 species), representing about 86% of all species 
that are known to still exist in Singapore. Of the six zones, Bukit Timah, 
Nee Soon and MacRitchie are the best known and have received good 
coverage by researchers and casual observers throughout the past decade. 
They are the most diverse in terms of species occurring, and support the 
most number of threatened species. This is not surprising as these zones 
hold the bulk of primary habitats left in the Nature Reserves. 

1. Bukit Timah 

Bukit Timah is probably the best-known nature site in Singapore and has 
received fairly good coverage by researchers and casual observers, both in 
the past and in recent times. Research has, however, been largely confined 
to specific studies such as that on Macaca fascicularis (Corlett & Lucas, 
1995). 

About half of Bukit Timah supports original Coastal Hill Dipterocarp 
Forest, the only forest of this kind in Singapore. This habitat, together with 
the adjacent secondary habitats, is most important as a major refuge for a 
large diversity of indigenous species including a high number that are 
threatened. With 50 threatened species recorded, Bukit Timah is the most 
vital zone for mammal, reptile and amphibian species. It is home to ten 
localized species and the main populations of seven other species. This is 
astounding as Bukit Timah is one of the smallest zones. 

2. Nee Soon Zone 

Nee Soon includes the only primary freshwater swamp forest left in 
Singapore, as well as good tracts of primary lowland dipterocarp forest at 
Three-Stone Hill and Nee Soon East. It is the second most important area 
for indigenous mammals, reptiles and amphibians (89 species), as well as 



404 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



threatened species (46 species). Nee Soon also has the second highest 
number of localized species with six species that are currently not known 
to occur outside this zone. In addition, Nee Soon holds the main populations 
for three species that were only discovered within the last decade. The 
whole zone is therefore vital as a core area for the northern half of CCNR. 

3. MacRitchie Zone 

The most substantial stands of primary lowland dipterocarp forest (over 
250 ha) are to be found within this zone, at MacRitchie North and Thomson 
Ridge. There is also a 160-ha freshwater swamp forest, which is distinct 
from that at Nee Soon. Together, they form the core area for the southern 
half of CCNR. However, the other sectors in MacRitchie are also important, 
as they consist mainly of mature secondary forest. Given time, these areas 
will be comparable to the primary vegetation. 

MacRitchie has the third highest diversity of indigenous species (88 
species) and threatened species (40 species). With two discoveries and 
three localized species, MacRitchie is unquestionably a key area for 
mammals, reptiles and amphibians. 

4. Lower Peirce Zone 

The diversity of indigenous species at Lower Peirce is surprisingly impressive 
(77 species), when we consider that it is a relatively small area, consisting 
mainly of secondary forest. One obvious reason for this is that Lower 
Peirce is basically continuous with Nee Soon. For example, Presbytis 
femoralis has "colonized" Lower Peirce from Nee Soon with perhaps two 
troops in the zone. For many other threatened species at Nee Soon, Lower 
Peirce represents a natural extension to their range, and offers opportunities 
for expansion of their populations. 

The large number of road-kill records at Old Upper Thomson Road 
is unfortunate but interesting - it indicates that animals, especially snakes, 
are regularly crossing to and from the adjacent unprotected woodland. 

5. Upper Seletar Zone 

Prior to the survey, there were very few mammal, reptile and amphibian 
records from Upper Seletar. Furthermore, most of the pre-survey records 
came from the Singapore Zoological Gardens and its vicinity. 

Upper Seletar is highly fragmented, and except for a few patches, 
the forest is mainly secondary in nature. Even so, its mammal and amphibian 
diversities are comparable to MacRitchie. This is largely due to the fact 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



405 



that the zone also contains substantial areas of abandoned agricultural 
land where a good number of non-forest species were recorded. Still, Upper 
Seletar has a good number of threatened species, including four localized 
species. 

6. Mandai Zone 

As Mandai is rather inaccessible, records for this zone were practically 
non-existent prior to the survey (one indigenous species). During the survey, 
even though fieldwork was confined to a few trails, Mandai produced the 
greatest increase in diversity (52 indigenous species). In fact, Mandai has 
the highest mammal diversity (24 species) in CCNR. Reptile diversity was, 
however, very low - this was probably due to the lack of motorable roads 
and hence road-kill records. As much of the zone is still unexplored, many 
more species will definitely be recorded with continued surveys and casual 
visits. 

For survey purposes, Mandai was designated as a separate zone, but 
in actuality, it is totally continuous with Nee Soon. Together with Lower 
Peirce, they comprise the largest contiguous rain forest in Singapore and 
one of the core areas for mammal, reptile and amphibian conservation. 
The importance of this cannot be over-emphasized - the combined species 
diversity accounts for over 80% of CCNR's total checklist. 

Abundance 

A remarkable 80 species (57%) are considered threatened. These include 
four subspecies unique to Singapore, and 24 localized species. In addition, 
about 35 species (25%) had only five or less records within the past decade 
for the whole of Singapore! This highlights the urgent need to increase 
conservation efforts to turn the tide. Measures to set aside core areas for 
the sole purpose of conservation and enhancing existing populations should 
be seriously looked into. 

A few species are, however, deemed to be overly abundant within 
the Nature Reserves. These include Tupaia glis, Cynopterus brachyotis, 
Macaca fascicular is , Sundasciurus tenuis and Rattus annandalei. In 
Peninsular Malaysia, densities for these species within the forest are 
generally much lower. The exceptionally successful trappings of T. glis, 
and R. annandalei indicate a dominance of these species on the forest 
floor. The pressing question is whether the populations of these species 
are detrimental to rarer species like Presbytis femoralis, Rhinosciurus 
laticaudatus, Maxomys surifer and M. rajah. 



406 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Conclusions 

Mammal, reptile and amphibian diversity in the Nature Reserves is still 
very high in relation to other nature areas in Singapore. The key areas for 
conservation are Bukit Timah, Nee Soon and MacRitchie, based on their 
high species diversity and the significantly greater number of threatened 
species. They should be set aside as core zones, with the incorporation of 
Mandai and Lower Peirce, which are contiguous with Nee Soon. This 
extended area has a higher carrying capacity than the key areas alone, and 
will allow mammal, reptile and amphibian populations within to thrive and 
flourish. Furthermore, Lower Peirce is especially important for snakes, 
and Mandai though insufficiently surveyed, has already shown its 
importance for mammal conservation. 

Acknowledgements 

The contribution of committee members of the Vertebrate Study Group 
(Yeo Suay Hwee, Lee King Li, Ng Bee Choo, Kieu Kim Sen, Kelvin Lim, 
Timothy Pwee, and Cheryl Chia) was invaluable to the planning and 
execution of this massive survey. We appreciate NParks for giving us the 
opportunity to participate in the Nature Reserves survey. Special thanks 
to Sharon Chan, Lena Chan, Cheryl Chia, Saifuddin Suran, and Chew 
Ping Ting for their patience and assistance in working with us throughout 
the survey. GIS maps were painstakingly produced by Cheryl Chia and 
Chew Ping Ting. Richard Corlett, as NParks' Coordinating Consultant, 
gave important advice and suggestions. This project would have been 
impossible without the help of the daily-rated employees at Bukit Timah - 
they did a tremendous job in setting up and collecting traps in the field. 
Kelvin Lim was instrumental in the identification of species through 
photographs and specimens. We are indebted to Yang Chang Man and the 
rest of her staff at Zoological Reference Collection for allowing us to 
access specimens. Field surveys would not have been possible without the 
time and effort put in by many volunteers who joined us in our nocturnal 
sessions. The more regular participants were Lee King Li, Yeo Suay 
Hwee, Andrew Tay, Timothy Pwee, Kieu Kim Sen, Wang Luan Keng, 
Cheryl Chia, Saifuddin Suran, Benjamin Lee, Goh Yue Yun, Margie Hall, 
Lim Lea Cheen, Ng Bee Choo, Leong Tzi Ming, Chew Ping Ting, Richard 
Frazier, Goh Si Guim, Tan Tze Siong, Tan Hang Chong, Debra Yeo, Billy 
Kon and Lyndon Gan. We would also like to extend our thanks to all 
others who helped in the field in one way or another. And finally, thanks 
to all contributors to the Vertebrate Study Group's newsletter, Pangolin, 
which provided additional data accumulated over the past decade. 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



407 



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Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 413 



Appendix L Records of Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians (1987- 
1998). 



Species 


BT 


\s 


LP 


MD 


us 


MR 


Total 


Mammals 
















IPipistrellus sp. 


5 






3 


2 


19 


29 


Arctogalidia trivirgata 




2 










4 


Callosciurus notatus 


76 


74 


32 


33 


78 


141 


434 


Cervus unicolor 










-> 




3 


Cheiromeles torquatus 








5 


Crocidura cf. fuliginosa 


21 5 


5 






31 


Cynocephalus variegarus 


49 


12 


14 


2 


8 


32 


117 


Cynopterus brachyotis 


75 


54 


137 


109 


209 


96 


680 


Emballonura monricola 


6 












6 


Eonycteris spelaea 






1 


1 


2 




7 


Hylopetes spadiceus 


25 












25 


Iomys horsfieldii 




2 










2 


Macaco fascicular is 


335 


272 


81 


55 


111 


604 


1458 


Man is javanica 


1 


2 


1 




2 


8 


16 


Maxomys rajah 




19 


1 


1 






21 


Maxomys sp. 


1 












1 


Muntiacus muntjak 




1 






1 


Myoris adversus 


1 20 


40 


89 


156 


Myotis muricola 


6 


38 




5 3^ 


100 


182 


Xycteris tragara 










2 


2 


Xycticebus coucang 


1 








1 


2 


Paguma larvata 












1 


1 


Paradoxurus hermaphrodints 






1 


1 






5 


Penthetor lucasi 


123 












123 


Presbytis femoralis 


245 ; i: 






257 


Pteropus vampyrus 




" 




■j 
j 


6 


162 


183 


Ramis annandalei 


107 


52 


55 


22 


20 


66 


322 


Rarrus exidans 










1 




1 


Ramis rarrus 














4 


Rarrus riomanicus 


10 




1 


2 


1 




19 


Rarufa affinis 


1 


22 










23 


Rhinolophus lepidus 


490 


21 


1 


11 


2 


30 


555 



414 



Card. Hull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


BT 


NS 


LP 


MD 


US 


MR 


Total 


Mammals 
















Rhinolophus luctus 








1 




3 


4 


Rhinolophus trifoliatus 




10 




4 




4 


18 


Rhinosciurus laticaudatus 


1 












1 


Scotophilia kuhlii 


50 


57 


23 


61 


77 


109 


377 


Suncus murinus 










3 




3 


Sundasciunis tenuis 


111 


135 


79 


42 


188 


228 


783 


Taphozous saccolaimus 


15 


59 


8 


55 


49 


71 


257 


Tragulus javanicus 


2 


7 








3 


12 


Tupaia glis 


323 


98 


32 


90 


63 


117 


723 


Tylonycteris pachypus 


1 












1 


Tylonycteris robustula 


9 


4 


4 


3 




14 


34 


Viverra tangalunga 










1 




1 


















Reptiles 
















Ahaetulla fasciolata 


1 












1 


Ahaetidla prasina 


8 


2 


3 




14 


6 


33 


Amy da cartilaginea 




3 


1 




1 


3 


8 


Aphaniotis fusca 


6 


6 








4 


16 


Boiga cynodon 


2 




2 




1 


3 


8 


Boiga dendrophila 


2 


1 


5 


1 




4 


13 


Boiga jaspidea 






1 




1 




2 


Bronchocela cristatella 


5 


1 


3 




8 


4 


21 


Calamaria lumbricoidea 


3 




4 




2 


1 


10 


Calamaria schlegeli 


8 


3 


11 




1 


3 


26 


Chrysopelea paradisi 


4 


2 


7 




2 


7 


22 


Chrysopelea pelias 


1 


2 


8 






1 


12 


Cnemaspis kendalli 


50 


5 




1 


1 


1 


58 


Cosymbotes craspedotus 


1 


2 










3 


Cosymbotes platyurus 


30 


1 


1 




11 




43 


Crocodylus porosus 










3 




3 


Cuora amboinensis 




25 


5 




32 


71 


133 


Cyrtodactylus cf. consobrinus 


23 












23 


Cyrtodactylus quadrivirgatus 


1 


15 


2 


2 


6 


3 


29 


Dasia cf. grisea 




1 








1 


2 


Dasia olivacea 


4 


5 










9 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



415 



JUvvlvj 


BT 


NS 


LP 


MD 


US 


MR 


Total 


R entiles 
















Dpfidvplnnhis cnudnlinpntu^ 


4 




7 




2 


1 


15 


Dendrelaphis fornwsus 


4 




18 




3 


> 


34 


DpnHrplflnhis nictus 


1 




4 




2 


5 


12 


Dogania subplono 












1 


2 


Draco melanopogon 


11 




9 


1 


2 


12 


36 


Draco volans 


7 




1 




5 


10 


23 


Dryocalamus subanmtlaius 


1 




1 








3 


Dryophiops rubescens 






1 








1 


Elaphe flavolineata | 1 




1 






1 


4 


Gehyra mutilata \ 1 1 9 1 2 


1 


13 


(tpIsIssi inn iiniTn 11 c 

WC/\./\l/ IllUmiltilllS 


25 


12 






2 


7 


52 


CrpL'kn srnifhi 

WCA.A.I/ mi mm 


17 




7 








24 


fr/iff ifsiv/itti/i /lYvrpnh nl n 

KJt/H \ UStfll III tl.\ \ tt y III! 1 11 












2 


4 


f-It>tiii/~lnrt\ , ]t/s: Trpiintus 
1 1 t 1 1 limit i \ tits 1 1 1 limits 


7 




1 2 

1 z. 




i 

i 


14 


32 


// 1 it up it \ i ii> a ul i \ ins i \ pus 




^ 








5 


6 


r-f C/^177 A' C Cr77l7/lC/7 

n cast iii \ s spuiusa 


5 




1 

1 






11 


29 


nuiiiiiiupsis uiittiuti 






^ 




10 




41 


J 1/1 7~\Oltl 1" M/7 /7/l/7/>7 l'7 7 C 

LMjpCUI& Ullllt'llt 11 lis 


i 
i 




A 
1 


1 
1 




5 


11 


I inmm r\ \'iltiopm 
L^lyimil Ll. rMWJfC/U 


4 












4 


Lygosoma sp. 




: 










2 


Mabuya multifasciata 


33 


8 


18 


21 


8 


33 


121 


Mabuya rugifera 


3 


2 








1 


6 


Macropisthodon rhodomelas 


4 




2 




1 


3 


10 


Maticora bivirgara 


15 


1 


1 






9 


26 


Maticora intestinalis 


4 


1 


6 


1 




11 


23 


Naja sumatrana 


4 




7 


2 




3 


11 


Notochelys platynota 




1 


1 




1 


"> 




Oligodon octotineatus 


7 


1 


7 


1 


4 


6 


21 


Oligodon signatus 


1 


1 








2 


4 


Ophiophagus Hannah 




1 








i 


4 


Ophites milieus 


1 




1 




1 


7 


10 


Ophites subcinctus 






1 








1 


Ps amnio dyi i astes p ictus 




1 










1 


P sen do r) uibdion longiceps 


1 


1 


2 




1 


6 


11 


Ptyas carinatus 


13 


1 






7 


5 


21 



416 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Species 


HI 


IMS 


Lr 


Mu 


¥ TC 

US 


MR 


Iotal 


Reptiles 
















Ptyas korros 


1 








1 

1 


3 


5 


Python reticulatus 


3 


r 

J 





1 
1 


3 


2 


1A 

20 


Ramphotyphlops braminus 






1 








1 


Rhadophis subminiatus 










1 




1 


Riopa bowringi 


1 












1 


Sibynophis melanocephalus 


2 




1 






3 


6 


Siebenrockiella crassicollis 




/I 

4 


6 




1 1 

21 


43 


T/l 

74 


Iropidolaemus wagleri 









1 




5 


1 1 
12 


Varanus nebidosus 


2 


7 


4 




1 


23 


IT 

37 


Varanus salvator 


1 




1 




1 "7 

1 / 


1 r 
15 


34 


Xenelaphis hexagonotus 


1 








1 
1 




2 


Xenochrophis maculatus 


1 

1 




11 






2 


14 


Xenochrophis piscator 










4 




4 


Xenochrophis triangidigerus 






1 
1 








1 


Xenopeltis unicolor 




1 


3 






5 


n 

9 


Zaocys fuscus 




1 










1 


















Amphibians 
















Bujo melanostictus 


60 


1 /i 
24 


1 


3 


39 


33 


166 


Bujo quadnporcatus 




5 








6 


11 


Ichtnyophis ct. pauasulcus 


1 


1 










2 


Kalophrynus pleurostigma 


70 


1 


1 






2 


T/l 

74 


Leptobrachium nigrops 


21 


79 


45 


26 


5 


25 


iai 
201 


Limnonectes blythu 


36 


1 "7 

17 


9 


2 


1 1 
13 


77 


1 C A 

154 


Limnonectes malesiana 


20 


15 


5 


4 


11 


20 


TC 

75 


Limnonectes paramacrodon 




34 




1 






1C 

35 


Megophrys nasuta 


40 


10 




1 


1 




52 


Microhyla borneensis 












5 


5 


Microhyla butleri 




55 




1 


13 




69 


Microhyla heymonsi 


18 


20 


8 


1 


80 


27 


154 


Nyctixalus pictus 


0/ 













T1 

/3 


Occidozyga laevis 


2 


81 




4 


13 


20 


120 


Pelophryne brevipes 


2 












2 


Polypedates leucomystax 


42 


80 


26 


17 


79 


34 


278 


Rana baramica 


3 


19 


18 


5 


17 


34 


96 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



All 



Species 


BT 


NS 


LP 


MD 


US 


MR 


Total 


Amphibians 
















Rana cancrivora 


6 




2 




1 




9 


Rana chalconota 


79 


135 


79 


30 


119 


84 


526 


Rana erythraea 


4 


28 


2 


12 


89 


59 


194 


Rana glandulosa 




1 


3 




7 


42 


53 


Rana limnocharis 


13 


54 


29 


8 


101 


52 


257 


Rana plicatella 


54 


3 










57 


Rhacophorus bimaculatus 




1 










1 


Theloderma horridum 


5 












5 



418 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 



Appendix 2. Checklist of Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians of 
the Nature Reserves. 



Key to Symbols 

Conservation Status (CS) Species Status (SS) Sighting Record (SR) 



En - Endangered 


R - Resident 


D- 


Discovery 




Ra - Rare 


FR - Feral (Reintroduced) 


ReD - Recent Discovery 


Un - Uncommon 


FE - Feral (Exotic) 


R- 


Rediscovery 




Fc - Fairly Common 


V - Visitor 


ReR - Recent Rediscovery 


Co - Common 


FS - Forest Specialist 








In - Indeterminate 


ES - Endemic Subspecies 










LS - Localized Species 








A. Mammals 










No. Species 


Common Name 


CS 


SS 


SR 


1. Arctogalidia trivirgata 


Small-toothed Palm Civet 


En 


R 


R 


2. Callosciurus notatus 


Plantain Squirrel 


Co 


R. ES 




3. Canis familiaris 


Feral Dog 


Co 


FE 




4. Cervus unicolor 


Sambar 




FR. FS. LS 




5. Cheiromeles torquatus 


Naked Bat 


En 


R. LS 




6. Crocidura cf. fuliginosa 


South-east Asian White-toothed Shrew 


En 


R 


7. Cynocephalus variegatus 


Malayan Colugo 


Fc 


R. FS 




8. Cynopterus brachyotis 


Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat 


Co 


R 




9. Emballonura monticola 


Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat 


En 


R. FS.LS 


R 


10. Eonycteris spelaea 


Cave Nectar Bat 


Un 


R 


ReR 


11. Hylopetes spadiceus 


Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel 


En 


R, FS. LS 


D 


12. Iomys horsfieldii 


Horsfield's Flying Squirrel 


En 


R. FS. LS 


R 


13. Macaca fascicidaris 


Long-tailed Macaque 


Co 


R 




14. Manis javanica 


Sunda Pangolin 


En 


R 




15. Maxomys rajah 


Brown Spiny Rat 


En 


R. FS 


D 


16. Maxomys surifer 


Red Spiny Rat 


In 


R. FS. ES. LS 




17. Muntiacus muntjak 


Common Barking Deer 




FR. FS. LS 




18. My otis adversus 


Grey Large-footed Myotis 


Co 


R 


ReR 


19. My otis muricola 


Whiskered Myotis 


Co 


R 




20. Nycteris tragata 


Hollow-faced Bat 


En 


R. FS. LS 


D 


21. Nycticebus coucang 


Slow Loris 


En 


R. FS 




22. Paguma larvata 


Masked Palm Civet 


En 


R. FS 


R 


23. Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Common Palm Civet 


Un 


R 




24. Penthetor lucasi 


Dusky Fruit Bat 


En 


R, FS. LS 


R 


25. IPipistrellus sp. 


Pipistrelle A 


Un 


R 


?R 


26. Presbytis femoralis 


Banded Leaf Monkey 


En 


R. FS 




27. Pteropus vampyrus 


Large Flying Fox 


Un 


V 




28. Rattus annandalei 


Annandale's Rat 


Co 


R 




29. Rattus exulans 


Polynesian Rat 


Co 


R 




30. Rattus rattus 


House Rat 


Co 


R 




31. Rattus tiomanicus 


Malaysian Wood Rat 


Un 


R 




32. Ratufa affinis 


Cream-coloured Giant Squirrel 


En 


R, FS. ES 





Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



419 



A. Mammals 



No. Species 


Common Name 


CS 


SS 


SR 


33. Rhinolophus lepidus 


Blyth's Horseshoe Bat 


Fc 


R. FS 


D 


34. Rhinolophus Indus 


Great Woolly Horseshoe Bat 


En 


R. FS 


R 


35. Rhinolophus trifoliatus 


Trefoil Horseshoe Bat 


En 


R, FS 


R 


36. Rhinosciurus laticaudatus 


Shrew-faced Ground Squirrel 


En 


R. FS. ES. LS 


ReR 


37. Scotophilia kuhlii 


Lesser Asiatic Yellow House Bat 


Co 


R 




38. Suncus murinus 


House Shrew 


Co 


R 




39. Sundasciurus tenuis 


Slender Squirrel 


Co 


R. FS 




40. Taphozous saccolaimus 


Pouched Tomb Bat 


Co 


R 


ReR 


41. Tragulus javanicus 


Lesser Mousedeer 


En 


R. FS. ES 




42. Tupaia glis 


Common Treeshrew 


Co 


R 




43. Tylonycteris pachypus 


Lesser Bamboo Bat 


En 


R. LS 


R 


44. Tylonycteris robustula 


Greater Bamboo Bat 


Fc 


R 




45. Viverra tangalunga 


Malay Civet 


In 


FS. R 





B. Reptiles 
No. Species 

1. Ahaetulla fasciolata 

2. Ahaetulla prasina 

3. Amyda cartilaginea 

4. Aphaniotis fusca 

5. Boiga cynodon 

6. Boiga dendrophila 

7. Boiga jaspidea 

8. Bronchocela cristatella 

9. Calamaria lumbricoidea 

10. Calamaria schlegeli 

11. Calotes versicolor 

12. Chrysopelea paradisi 

13. Chrysopelea pelias 

14. Cnemaspis kendalli 

15. Cosymbotes craspedotus 

16. Cosymbotes platyurus 

17. Crocodylus porosus 

18. C«ora amboinensis 

19. Cyrtodactylus cf. consobrinus 

20. Cyrtodactylus quadrivirgatus 

21. Dfls/fl cf. gnscfl 

22. Dfls/Y? olivacea 

23. Dendrelaphis caudolineatus 

24. Dendrelaphis formosus 

25. Dendrelaphis pictus 

26. Dogania subplana 

27. Draco melanopogon 

28. Draco vo/ahs 



Common Name 

Speckle-headed Whip Snake 
Oriental Whip Snake 
Malayan Soft-shelled Turtle 
Earless Agamid 
Dog-toothed Cat Snake 
Yellow-ringed Cat Snake 
Jasper's Cat Snake 
Green Crested Lizard 
Variable Reed Snake 
Pink-headed Reed Snake 
Changeable Lizard 
Paradise Tree Snake 
Twin-barred Tree Snake 
Kendall's Rock Gecko 
Frilly Gecko 
Flat-tailed Gecko 
Estuarine Crocodile 
Malayan Box Terrapin 
Banded Bent-toed Gecko 
Marbled Bent-toed Gecko 
Brown Tree Skink 
Olive Tree Skink 
Striped Bronzeback 
Elegant Bronzeback 
Painted Bronzeback 
Forest Soft-shelled Turtle 
Black-bearded Flying Dragon 
Common Flying Dragon 



CS SS SR 

En R. FS. LS 

Co R 

En R 

Ra R. FS 

En R, FS 

Ra R. FS 

En R. FS 

Fc R 

Ra R. FS 

Un R. FS 
FE 

Co R 

Ra R. FS 

Un R. FS 

En R. FS ReD 

Co R 

FR 

Co R 

En R, FS. LS ReD 

Un R. FS 

En R. FS D 

En R. FS 

Fc R 

Co R 

Co R 

En R. FS ReR 

Fc R. FS 

Co R 



420 Gard. Bull. Singapore 49(2 ) (J 997) 



B. Reptiles 



No. Species 


Common Name 


CS 


SS 


SR 


29. Dryocalamus subannulatus 


Saddled Tree Snake 


En 


R. FS 


ReR 


30. Dryophiops rubescens 


Keel-bellied Whip Snake 


En 


R. FS 




31. Elaphe flavolineata 


Common Racer 


Fc 


R 




32. Gehyra mutilata 


Four-clawed Gecko 


Co 


R 




33. Gekko monarchus 


Spotted House Gecko 


Fc 


R 




34. Gekko smithi 


Large Forest Gecko 


Un 


R. FS 




35. Gonyosoma oxycephala 


Red-tailed Racer 


En 


R. FS 




36. Hemidactylus frenatus 


Common House Gecko 


Co 


R 




37. Hemiphyllodactylus typus 


Dwarf Gecko 


En 


R. FS 




38. Heosemys spinosa 


Spiny Terrapin 


Un 


R. FS 




39. Homalopsis buccata 


Puff-faced Water Snake 


Fc 


R 




40. Liopeltis baliodeints 


Orange-bellied Ringneck 


Ra 


R. FS 




41. Lipinia cf. vittigera 


Yellow-striped Skink 


En 


R. FS 


D 


42. Lygosoma sp. 


Supple Skink A 


°En 


R. ?LS 


?D 


43. Mabuya multifasciata 


Common Sun Skink 


Co 


R 




44. Mabuya rugifera 


Striped Sun Skink 


En 


R. FS 




45. Macropisthodon rhodomelas 


Blue-necked Keelback 


Fc 


R 




46. Maticora bivirgata 


Blue Malayan Coral Snake 


Un 


R 




47. Maticora intestinalis 


Banded Malayan Coral Snake 


Un 


R 




48. iVtf/tf sumatrana 


Black Spitting Cobra 


Co 


R 




49. Notochelys platynota 


Malayan Flat-shelled Terrapin 


En 


?R 




50. Oligodon octolineatus 


Striped Kukri Snake 


Fc 


R 




51. Oligodon signatus 


Barred Kukri Snake 


En 


R. FS 




52. Ophiophagus hannah 


King Cobra 


En 


R 




53. Ophites aulicus 


Common Wolf Snake 


Co 


R 




54. Ophites subcinctus 


Banded Wolf Snake 


En 


R. FS. LS 


ReR 


55. Pelodiscus sinensis 


Chinese Soft-shelled Turtle 




FE 




56. Psammodynastes pictus 


Painted Mock Viper 


En 


R, FS. LS 


ReR 


57. Pseudorhabdion longiceps 


Dwarf Reed Snake 


Fc 


R 




58. Pryfls carinatus 


Keeled Rat Snake 


Co 


R 




59. Pryfls fcorras 


Indo-Chinese Rat Snake 


Fc 


R 




60. Python reticulatus 


Reticulated Python 


Co 


R 




61. Ramphotyphlops braminus 


Common Blind Snake 


Co 


R 




62. Rhadophis subminiatus 


Red-necked Keelback 


En 


R. FS. LS 


R 


63. ifropfl bowringi 


Garden Supple Skink 


Co 


R 




64. Sibynophis melanocephahts 


Black-headed Collared Snake 


Un 


R 




65. Siebenrockiella crassicollis 


Black Marsh Terrapin 


Co 


R 




66. Trachemys scripta 


Red-eared Terrapin 




FE 




67. Tropidolaemus wagleri 


Wagler's Pit Viper 


Ra 


R. FS 




68. Varanus nebidosus 


Clouded Monitor 


Fc 


R. FS 




69. Varanus salvator 


Malayan Water Monitor 


Co 


R 




70. Xenelaphis hexagonotus 


Malayan Brown Snake 


Un 


R 




71. Xenochrophis maculatus 


Spotted Keelback 


Ra 


R. FS 


ReR 


72. Xenochrophis piscator 


Chequered Keelback 




FE. FS. LS 




73. Xenochrophis trianguligerus 


Triangle Keelback 


En 


R. FS. LS 


R 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



421 



B. Reptiles 



No. Species 


Common Name 


CS 


SS 


SR 


74. Xenopeltis unicolor 


Sunbeam Snake 


Fc 


R 




75. Zaocys fuscus 


White-bellied Rat Snake 


En 


R, FS, LS 


R 


C. Amphibians 










No. Species 


Common Name 


CS 


SS 


SR 


1. Bufo melanostictus 


Asian Toad 


Co 


R 




2. Bufo quadriporcatus 


Four-ridged Toad 


En 


R, FS 


ReD 


3. Ichthyophis cf. paucisidcus 


Yellow-banded Caecilian 


En 


R, FS 




4. Kalophrymis pleurostigma 


Black-spotted Sticky Frog 


Un 


R, FS 




5. Kaloula pulchra 


Banded Bullfrog 


Co 


FE 




6. Leptobrachium nigrops 


Black-eyed Litter Frog 


Fc 


R, FS 




7. Limnonectes blythii 


Malayan Giant Frog 


Fc 


R, FS 




8. Limnonectes malesiana 


Malesian Frog 


Un 


R, FS 




9. Limnonectes paramacrodon 


Masked Swamp Frog 


Ra 


R, FS 


ReD 


10. Megophrys nasuta 


Malayan Horned Frog 


En 


R, FS 




11. Microhyla borneensis 


Bornean Narrow-mouthed Frog 


En 


R, FS, LS 


D 


12. Microhyla butleri 


Painted Narrow-mouthed Frog 


Co 


R 




13. Microhyla heymonsi 


Dark-sided Narrow-mouthed Frog 


Co 


R 




14. Nyctixalus pictus 


Spotted Tree Frog 


Ra 


R, FS 




15. Occidozyga laevis 


Smooth Puddle Frog 


Fc 


R, FS 




16. Pelophryne brevipes 


Saint Andrew's Cross Toadlet 


En 


R, FS, LS 


ReR 


17. Polypedates leucomystax 


Common Tree Frog 


Co 


R 




18. fitf/w baramica 


Masked Rough-sided Frog 


Un 


R, FS 




19. cancrivora 


Crab-eating Frog 


Co 


R 




20. fiwifl chalconota 


Copper-cheeked Frog 


Co 


R, FS 




21. /tona erythraea 


Common Greenback 


Co 


R 




22. /totftf glandidosa 


Rough-sided Frog 


Ra 


R, FS 


D 


23. /taflfl limnocharis 


Field Frog 


Co 


R 




24. ./fanfl plicatella 


Rhinoceros Frog 


Ra 


R, FS 




25. Rhacophorus bimaculatus 


Blue-legged Tree Frog 


En 


R, FS, LS 


R 


26. Theloderma horridum 


Thorny Bush Frog 


En 


R, FS, LS 


D 



422 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




Plate 1. Some of the endangered mammals found in the Nature Reserves, a. Penthetor lucasi 
(Dusky Fruit Bat), b. Nycteris tragata (Hollow-faced Bat), c. Rhinolophus trifoliatus (Trefoil 
Horseshoe Bat), d. Rhinolophus luctus (Great Woolly Horseshoe Bat). 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



423 




Plate 2. A new discovery at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, a. Hylopetes spadiceus 

(Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel). 



424 



Card. Bull. Singapore 49(2) (1997) 




Plate 3. Some of the endangered reptiles found in the Nature Reserves, a. Dryocalamus 
subannulatus (Saddled Tree Snake), b. Xenochrophis trianguligerus (Triangle Keelback). c 
Cosxmbotes craspedotus (Frilly Gecko), d. Cyrtodactylus cf. consobrinus (Banded Bent-toed 
Gecko), e. Dogania subplana (Forest Soft-shelled Turtle). 



Mammals, reptiles and amphibians 



425 




Plate 4. Rare (a-b) and endangered (c-d) amphibians found in the Nature Reserves, a. 

Limnonectes paramacrodon (Masked Swamp Frog), b. Rana glandulosa (Rough-sided Frog), 
c. Theloderma horridum (Thorny Tree Frog), d. Microhyla borneensis (Bornean Narrow- 
mouthed Frog). 



4 



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name(s) and affiliation(s) of author(s) must be given below the title. Lengthy papers and those 
of a complex nature must have the contents listed at the beginning of the paper. 

Scientific names: The complete scientific name - genus, species, authority, and cultivar where 
appropriate - must be cited for every organism at time of first mention. The generic name may 
be abbreviated to the initial thereafter except where intervening references to other genera 
with the same initial could cause confusion. 

Tables: All tables should be numbered and carry headings describing their content. These 
should be comprehensive without reference to the text. 

Abbreviations: Standard chemical symbols may be used in text (e.g. IAA, IB A, ATP), but the 
full term should be given on the first mention. Dates should be cited as: 3 May 1976. Units of 
measurement should be spelled out except when preceded by a numeral where they should be 
abbreviated in standard form: g. mg. ml. etc. and not followed by stops. 

Literature citations: Citations in the text should take the form: King and Chan (1964). If several 
papers by the same author in the same year are cited, they should be lettered in sequence 
(1964a). (1964b). etc. When papers are by three or more authors they should be cited as e.g., 
Geesink etal. (1981). All references must be placed in alphabetic order according to the surname 
of the (first) author and the journal title be given in full, as in the following example: 

Stone. B.C. 1994. Additional notes on the genus Glycosmis Correa (Rutaceae). Gardens' 
Bulletin Singapore. 46: 113-119. 

References to books and monographs should be cited according to the following form: 

Ridley. H.N. 1930. The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World. L.Reeve, Ashford. 
Kent. 

For literature citations in taxonomic papers the following style is required: 

Medinilla altemifolia Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1:2 (1849) 19. 
Sterculia acwninatissima Merr.. Philip. J. Sci. 21 (1922) 524. 

Illustrations: Drawings should be done in indian ink. Authors should indicate where individual 
illustrations receive first mention in the text. 

Offprints: Authors will be given 50 offprints gratis. Additional copies must be ordered and 
paid for, prior to publication. 

Manuscripts should be sent to: THE EDITOR. GARDENS* BULLETIN SINGAPORE. 
SINGAPORE BOTANIC GARDENS, CLUNY ROAD. SINGAPORE 259569 



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